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Consumer behavior on international market - ebook/pdf
Consumer behavior on international market - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 274
Wydawca: Placet Język publikacji: angielski
ISBN: 978-83-7488-044-2 Rok wydania:
Lektor:
Kategoria: ebooki (j. angielski) >> Nonfiction
Porównaj ceny (książka, ebook, audiobook).

Overall, author’s intention is to combine the latest theoretical concepts with up-to-date examples of consumer behavior from different markets and cultures. To create the book useful for students studding at International Business, Psychological Economy, as well Marketing and Management courses were added tasks for individual and group solved in activity table.
The book does not cover all the important problems and issues of consumption and consumer behavior on the international market. It allows, however, prepare them as full identification, presenting the importance and role that consumers on contemporary global market.

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Ksią(cid:258)ka w wersji ebook WYDAWNICTWA PLACET Wydajemy ksią(cid:258)ki o tematyce : finanse(cid:481) • organizacja i zarządzanie(cid:481) • zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi(cid:481) • • rachunkowość(cid:481) • marketing(cid:481) • Unia Europejska informatyka w zarządzaniu(cid:481) • rynki kapitałowe(cid:481) • • sprzeda(cid:258) i dystrybucja(cid:481) • bankowość(cid:481) • nauczanie języków obcych(cid:481) Od powołania wydawnictwa ta specjalizacja się nie zmienia(cid:484) Wszystkie ksią(cid:258)ki prezentują dzie(cid:486) dzinę szeroko pojętego zarządzania przedsiębiorstwami i ekonomii(cid:484) Wydajemy wyłącznie pra(cid:486) ce(cid:481) które mogłyby być zarówno podręcznikami dla studiującej młodzie(cid:258)y(cid:481) jak i podręcznikami(cid:486) poradnikami słu(cid:258)ącymi dokształcaniu kadr kierowniczych przedsiębiorstw dostosowujących swoje struktury i metody zarządzania do zmieniających się warunków rynkowych(cid:484) Misja dobra – jak ka(cid:258)da inna(cid:484) Jak więc atrakcyjnie ją zrealizować(cid:491) Jak przeło(cid:258)yć ją na konkretny produkt(cid:491) Co on ma zawierać i czym się ró(cid:258)nić(cid:491) Podstawą są oczywiście autorzy(cid:484) Publikują u nas przedstawiciele kadry uczelni krajowych oraz zagranicznych(cid:481) prezentujący nowoczesną wiedzę z najbardziej potrzebnych kierunków(cid:484) Staramy się prezentować tę wiedzę w sposób prosty i zrozumiały dla ka(cid:258)dego wykształconego czytelnika(cid:484) Wiemy(cid:481) (cid:258)e przekazujemy rzeczy trudne więc tym bardziej dokładamy starań(cid:481) aby był to język zrozumiały(cid:484) Życzymy przyjemnej lektury i wielu sukcesów Zespół Wydawnictwa PLACET Recenzja: prof(cid:484) dr hab(cid:484) Henryk Mruk Projekt okładki (cid:483) Aleksandra Olszewska Rysunki rozpoczynające rozdziały i na okładce © Fabian Pietrzyk Praca dofinansowana ze środków na działalność statutową Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach (cid:825) Copyright by Wydawnictwo Placet (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:883)(cid:884) WYDANIE ebook Wszelkie prawa zastrze(cid:258)one(cid:484) Publikacja ani jej części nie mogą być w (cid:258)adnej formie i za pomocą jakichkolwiek środków technicznych reprodukowane bez zgody właściciela copyright(cid:484) Wydawca Wydawnictwo PLACET 01(cid:486)(cid:887)(cid:883)(cid:889) Warszawa ul(cid:484) Mickiewicza (cid:883)(cid:890)a(cid:512)(cid:883) tel(cid:484) (cid:523)(cid:884)(cid:884)(cid:524) (cid:890)(cid:885)(cid:891)(cid:885)(cid:888)(cid:884)(cid:888) fax(cid:484) (cid:523)(cid:884)(cid:884)(cid:524) (cid:890)(cid:885)(cid:891)(cid:888)(cid:889)(cid:888)(cid:883) księgarnia internetowa(cid:483) http(cid:483)(cid:512)(cid:512) www(cid:484)placet(cid:484)pl e(cid:486)mail(cid:483) redakcja(cid:823)placet(cid:484)pl ISBN (cid:891)(cid:889)(cid:890)(cid:486)(cid:890)(cid:885)(cid:486)(cid:889)(cid:886)(cid:890)(cid:890)(cid:486)044(cid:486)(cid:884) Warszawa (cid:884)(cid:882)1(cid:884) Skład i łamanie(cid:483) Wydawnictwo PLACET Druk i oprawa(cid:483) ebook Table of contents PART I(cid:484) Consumer and international market PART II(cid:484) Consumer behavior research on international market Introduction (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) 5 Chapter 1(cid:484) Consumer and decisions(cid:486)making process on market (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:891) (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:885)(cid:884) (cid:484) Consumer segmentations on international market process and criteria Chapter (cid:884) Chapter (cid:885)(cid:484) Consumer on international market (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:887)(cid:885) Chapter 4(cid:484) Process of consumer behavior research (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:889)(cid:888) Chapter 5(cid:484) Secondary dates about consumer and their behaviors (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:890)(cid:890) Chapter (cid:888)(cid:484) Primary data – methods of research and sampling (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) 101 Chapter 7(cid:484) Economic determinants (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:883)(cid:885)(cid:890) Chapter (cid:890)(cid:484) Cultural influences on consumer behavior (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:883)(cid:887)(cid:884) Chapter (cid:891)(cid:484) Social and demographic determinants (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:883)(cid:888)(cid:888) Chapter 10(cid:484) Psychological determinants (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:883)(cid:889)(cid:891) Chapter (cid:883)(cid:883)(cid:484) Consumer loyalty and dissonance (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:889) Chapter (cid:883)(cid:884)(cid:484) Consumer protection on international market (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:884)(cid:884)(cid:888) Chapter (cid:883)(cid:885)(cid:484) Future consumer – changes and forecasting (cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484)(cid:484) (cid:884)(cid:886)(cid:884) References 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(cid:884)(cid:889)(cid:889) Index of Figures 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(cid:884)(cid:890)7 PART III(cid:484) Determinant of consumer behavior on international market PART IV(cid:484) Consumer behavior application in international market Introduction Issues of consumer behavior not only present an interesting theoretical subject(cid:481) but also constitute a very important element of practical considera(cid:486) tions of the international marketing(cid:484) In the economy undergoing processes of globalization(cid:481) it is getting increasingly important to recognize the decision(cid:486) making processes(cid:481) to define roles of different household members and to learn about conditions underlying these processes(cid:484) Finding the answer to questions about consumer need hierarchy and consumer selection criteria on the market will allow for formulation of conclusions about consumer future behavior(cid:481) even in times of great economic turmoil(cid:484) Consumer behavior(cid:481) especially analyzed from an international and a global perspective(cid:481) appears to be a very complex and varied category(cid:484) The research into consumer behavior constitutes a multi(cid:486)faceted and multi(cid:486)dimensional process(cid:481) which makes it impossible for researchers to describe all consumer behavior issues in one single research event(cid:484) This(cid:481) however(cid:481) should not pre(cid:486) vent scientists from making attempts at a detailed description of selected is(cid:486) sues(cid:484) The collection of such research results will contribute to better knowledge about the consumer and to adaptation of market offers to consum(cid:486) er needs and expectations in the international market(cid:484) Globalization processes provide the basis for developing consumer behav(cid:486) ior knowledge to inform decisions made by companies operating in the inter(cid:486) national market(cid:484) One can venture a thesis that international consumer behav(cid:486) ior studies are gaining more importance as international and global consumer behavior concepts develop(cid:484) The expansion of business operations beyond the domestic market entails making decisions that carry a greater risk compared to routine decisions in the home market(cid:484) The decision(cid:486)making environment of international business can be extremely different from the one in the domestic market(cid:484) Hence(cid:481) international decisions need to be supported with much more information about the differences of consumer needs(cid:481) decisions and behaviors on international market(cid:484) This book aims to present influence of globalization and internationaliza(cid:486) tion of companies activities on consumers behavior(cid:484) It shows benefits as well as threats for consumers of contemporary global market(cid:484) The asset of this book is to show a large diversity of consumers based on their culture and other environmental conditions(cid:484) The entire publication is divided into four parts(cid:481) which include several chapters(cid:484) Part one provides an introduction to the topic and definition of con(cid:486) sumer behavior on international market(cid:484) First chapter presents stages in con(cid:486) sumer decision(cid:486)making process(cid:481) roles of a consumer in this process and finally different types of consumer market decisions(cid:484) In chapter two segmentation of consumer on international market was described(cid:481) including criteria and methods(cid:484) Third chapter shows the difference in consumer behavior which result in the culture origin and level of country(cid:495)s living development(cid:484) Part two is dedicated to an international research on consumer behavior(cid:484) Chapter four provides an insights into relevant methods of consumer behavior research and present stages in process of international consumer behavior research(cid:484) In chapter five secondary sources of information about consumers and their con(cid:486) sumption were presented(cid:484) Problems of equivalent were also strongly dis(cid:486) cussed in this chapter(cid:484) Last chapter in this part introduces methods and tools used in primary research of consumer behavior on international market(cid:484) The third part of this book is focused on determinants of consumer behavior(cid:484) Par(cid:486) ticularly(cid:481) chapter seven analyzes internal and external economic factors influ(cid:486) encing consumer decisions on market(cid:484) Chapter eight and nine are focusing on cultural(cid:481) social and demographic determinants(cid:484) Finally(cid:481) in chapter ten different psychological influences were discussed(cid:484) Part four(cid:481) which concludes the book(cid:481) is dedicated to practical issues concerning consumer behavior in international environment(cid:484) Chapter eleven presents effects of consumer deci(cid:486) sions on the market(cid:481) i(cid:484)e(cid:484) consumer loyalty and dissonance(cid:484) Chapter twelve provides an insight into a problem of protection consumers rights on market and different models adopted on world(cid:484) In the last chapter an attempt has been made to indicate new trends in consumer behavior on international market(cid:484) Overall(cid:481) author(cid:495)s intention is to combine the latest theoretical concepts with up(cid:486)to(cid:486)date examples of consumer behavior from different markets and cultures(cid:484) To create the book useful for students studying at International Business(cid:481) Psychological Economy(cid:481) as well as Marketing and Management courses(cid:481) tasks were added for individuals and groups solved in activity table(cid:484) The book does not cover all the important problems and issues of consump(cid:486) tion and consumer behavior on the international market(cid:484) It allows(cid:481) however(cid:481) prepares them as full identification(cid:481) presenting the importance and role that consumers on contemporary global market(cid:484) Consumer and international market Part I Chapter (cid:883) Consumer and decisions-making process on market Chapter describes(cid:483) You will be able to(cid:483)  Notion of consumer and consumer behavior  Models of consumer behavior  Stages in consumer decision(cid:486)making process  Factors determining consumer decision(cid:486)making process  Define consumer need and used it in marketing activity of companies  Assess risk perceived by consumer on market  Identify sources of information used by consumer on market  Determine role of consumers in decision(cid:486)making process  Characterize types of consumer decisions 10 Consumer behavior Consumer behavior refers mainly to a real dimension of activities under(cid:486) taken by consumers within this behavior(cid:484) The activities focus on means satis(cid:486) fying consumer needs(cid:481) and needs themselves are defined as indispensable motivators of behavior(cid:484) Accordingly(cid:481) following J(cid:484) Szczepański consumer behav(cid:486) ior is referred to as a whole of individual(cid:821)s activities(cid:481) actions and manners of conduct intended to obtain means of need satisfaction (cid:523)Kie(cid:258)el(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:524)(cid:484) This behavior also comprises all possible ways of handling these means(cid:484) M(cid:484) Pohorille (cid:523)(cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:890)(cid:882)(cid:524) defines consumer behavior as a way of consumer need prior(cid:486) itization(cid:481) a way of selecting goods and services to satisfy the needs and a way of consumption of possessed goods(cid:484) According to E(cid:484) Kie(cid:258)el (cid:523)(cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:883)(cid:882)(cid:524) consumer behavior is a coherent whole of activities(cid:481) actions and manners of conduct connected with choices made in the process of consumer need satisfaction in certain cultural(cid:481) social and economic conditions(cid:484) Thus(cid:481) the behavior comprises a set of activities which are meant to obtain consumption means(cid:481) and to use them for need satisfaction together with assessment of decision rightness(cid:484) Next to basic components of behavior represented by consumption needs(cid:481) means of need satisfaction and real consumer activities(cid:481) literature concen(cid:486) trates on a psychical aspect of behavior during the processes(cid:484) Although mental processes related to motivation(cid:481) perception and decision(cid:486)making cannot be observed directly(cid:481) they constitute an indispensable element of behavior com(cid:486) plementing the real actions of an individual(cid:484) Following this approach(cid:481) F(cid:484) Han(cid:486) sen defines consumer behavior as a set of consumer actions and perceptions responsible for preparing a decision of product selection(cid:481) for selection itself and for consumption(cid:484) J(cid:484) P(cid:484) Peter and J(cid:484) C(cid:484) Olson (cid:523)(cid:884)000(cid:524) maintain that consumer behavior is concerned with thoughts(cid:481) feelings and actions people take in the consumption process(cid:481) as well as with environmental factors affecting them(cid:484) The most complex definition has been proposed by G(cid:484) Antonides and W(cid:484) F(cid:484) van Raaij (cid:523)(cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:885)(cid:524) who concluded that consumer behavior consists of(cid:483)  psychical and physical activities (cid:523)behavior(cid:524)(cid:481)  together with motives and reasons behind them(cid:481)  followed by individuals and (cid:523)small(cid:524) groups(cid:481)  and concerning orientation(cid:481) purchasing(cid:481) using(cid:481) maintaining and disposing of a product (cid:523)consumption cycle(cid:524)(cid:481) 11  as well as household production (cid:523)DIY(cid:524)(cid:481)  enabling the consumer to function(cid:481) to reach goals and pursue values(cid:481)  and thus(cid:481) gain satisfaction and welfare(cid:481)  with respect to short(cid:486) and long(cid:486)term effects(cid:481)  as well as individual and social consequences(cid:484) To cut it short(cid:481) consumer behavior comprises everything that occurs be(cid:486) fore(cid:481) during and after the act of purchasing (cid:523)acquiring(cid:524) some goods and ser(cid:486) vices (cid:523)Falkowski (cid:428) Tyszka(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:883)(cid:524)(cid:484) N O I T I N I F E D CONSUMER BEHAVIOR is a coherent whole of activities(cid:481) actions and manners of conduct connected with choices made in the process of consumer need satisfaction in certain cultural(cid:481) social and economic conditions(cid:484) It comprises everything that occurs before(cid:481) during and after the act of purchasing (cid:523)acquiring(cid:524) some goods and services(cid:484) On the basis of the presented definitions(cid:481) it can be concluded that consum(cid:486) er behavior should be perceived as a process characterized by change of dynamics and by occurrence of interactions as well as exchange within the process itself (cid:523)Peter (cid:428) Olson(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:524)(cid:484) Consumer behavior is dynamic on account of changes in consumer thoughts(cid:481) feelings and real actions(cid:484) These changes concern both individual people and consumer groups(cid:481) as well as the whole society(cid:484) The primary cause of changes should be sought in immanent features of consumer needs themselves – in their capability of revival and in permanent development of new needs(cid:484) Consumer thoughts(cid:481) feelings and real actions(cid:481) being elements of consumer behavior(cid:481) remain in constant interactions with the environment(cid:484) This takes place in the process of market exchange(cid:481) within which consumers spend their resources (cid:523)money(cid:481) time(cid:481) knowledge(cid:481) skills(cid:481) work(cid:524) in return for means of satisfying their needs(cid:484) On a microsocial scale(cid:481) consumer behavior is part of the communication process (cid:523)Smyczek(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:889)(cid:524)(cid:484) Consumer behavior regarded as a process or – to emphasize its circular (cid:523)closed(cid:524) character – as a cycle (cid:523)Antonides (cid:428) van Raaij(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:885)(cid:524)(cid:481) can be divided (cid:883)(cid:884) into several stages(cid:481) including(cid:483) product purchasing(cid:481) product consuming and product disposing (cid:523)Mowen(cid:481) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:890)(cid:889)(cid:524)(cid:484) At the purchasing stage the consumer searches for all available information (cid:523)Antonides (cid:428) van Raaij(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:885)(cid:482) Światowy(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:888)(cid:524)(cid:481) compares it(cid:481) and finally makes a choice and buys a product(cid:484) The stage of consuming a product (cid:523)possessing(cid:524) refers to the process of using products and to consumer feelings accompanying this process(cid:484) The final stage(cid:481) called disposing(cid:481) relates to activities and mental processes following the consump(cid:486) tion(cid:481) which is particularly connected with consumer satisfaction(cid:481) as well as decisions about disposing of packaging and product leftovers(cid:484) Consumer behavior occurs on two institutional plains(cid:483) the market and the household(cid:484) (cid:523)Rudnicki(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:524)(cid:484) According to this division(cid:481) one can talk about market (cid:523)buying(cid:524) behavior and about individual consumer behavior at the stage of consumption of an obtained (cid:523)purchased(cid:524) product(cid:484) Close relations be(cid:486) tween these two sub(cid:486)levels of consumer behavior result in their constant and mutual interactions(cid:484) Although it is impossible to draw a clear(cid:486)cut border be(cid:486) tween the purchasing and consuming behavior at the consumption stage(cid:481) they can be distinguished by means of certain generalizations(cid:484) Consumer behavior comprises actions and activities which relate to choices of buying goods and services(cid:484) These are actions and mental processes before and during a pur(cid:486) chase(cid:484) The behavior at the consumption level mainly consists of activities re(cid:486) lated to using means (cid:523)factors(cid:524) of consumption (cid:523)Zalega(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:882)(cid:889)(cid:524)(cid:484) Thus(cid:481) the behav(cid:486) ior concerns actions and mental processes which appear right after the act of purchasing(cid:484) Figure (cid:883)(cid:484)(cid:883)(cid:484) below presents the aforementioned relations in a schematic way(cid:484) Figure (cid:883)(cid:484)(cid:883)(cid:484) Stages of consumer behavior (cid:883)(cid:885) Consumer(cid:481) customer and (cid:485) In considerations over market behavior(cid:481) special attention should be di(cid:486) rected towards the differences between the consumer(cid:481) being the subject of the behavior(cid:481) the buyer(cid:481) as well as the user(cid:484) The consumer is represented by a person who has a consumption need(cid:481) who buys a product (cid:523)or (cid:498)acquires(cid:499)(cid:481) obtains a product(cid:524) and satisfies the need (cid:523)consumes and uses the product(cid:524)(cid:484) Thus(cid:481) this person participates in all three stages of the process (cid:523)cycle(cid:524) of con(cid:486) sumption (cid:523)pre(cid:486)purchase(cid:481) purchase(cid:481) post(cid:486)purchase(cid:524) (cid:523)Solomon(cid:481) Bamossy (cid:428) Askegaard(cid:481) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:891)(cid:891)(cid:524)(cid:484) It happens(cid:481) though(cid:481) that a product buyer is not always a product user(cid:481) or else the only product consumer(cid:484) (cid:498)The user(cid:499)(cid:481) then(cid:481) is a per(cid:486) son who satisfies his or her consumer needs (cid:523)uses a product(cid:524)(cid:481) no matter who has made a choice or a purchase(cid:484) Consequently(cid:481) (cid:498)the consumer(cid:499) category is not identical with (cid:498)the buyer(cid:499)(cid:481) and has a broader meaning than (cid:498)the user(cid:499)(cid:484) (cid:498)The consumer(cid:499)(cid:481) apart from (cid:498)the user(cid:499)(cid:481) also performs other tasks(cid:483) makes decisions(cid:481) buys goods and utilizes the used ones(cid:481) etc(cid:484) Not every (cid:498)buyer(cid:499) is(cid:481) in turn(cid:481) the consumer(cid:483) e(cid:484)g(cid:484) a social nurse buying food for her patients is a buyer who(cid:481) by this purchase(cid:481) does not satisfy her needs(cid:484) The term customer refers to the purchaser of a good or service(cid:484) They may or may not be the customer(cid:484) The term consumer re- fers to the final user of a good or service(cid:484) They may or may not be the customer(cid:484) N O I T I N I F E D Individual and collective consumer Notion of the consumer appears exclusively with regard to the so(cid:486)called in(cid:486) dividual consumer represented by every subject purchasing goods and services for his(cid:512)her own use(cid:481) for use of others or for their own household (cid:523)Schiffman (cid:428) Kanuk(cid:481) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:891)(cid:887)(cid:524)(cid:484) In this sense(cid:481) the consumer is the ultimate product user(cid:481) and(cid:481) as a subject of behavior(cid:481) may act both individually (cid:523)the two first situations(cid:524) and collectively (cid:523)representing household(cid:482) the third situation(cid:524) (cid:523)Kędzior(cid:481) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:891)(cid:890)(cid:524)(cid:484) 14 Y T I V I T C A There is also distinction between individual and the so(cid:486)called institutional consumers represented by companies(cid:481) non(cid:486)profit organizations(cid:481) governmental agencies and institutions (cid:523)schools(cid:481) hospitals(cid:481) etc(cid:484)(cid:524) for whom purchase and con(cid:486) sumption of products is a prerequisite of their proper functioning (cid:523)Schiffman (cid:428) Kanuk(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:883)(cid:882)(cid:524)(cid:484) Here(cid:481) the point is made about products which are (cid:498)consumed(cid:499) by subjects(cid:481) but not used with the intention of bringing a direct production effect(cid:484) This can be illustrated by the use of stationery in schools and offices(cid:484) Such understanding of institutional and individual consumers should not be identified with the notion of the customer(cid:481) where the customer is an economic subject (cid:523)person(cid:481) company or institution(cid:524) who is potentially interested in buy(cid:486) ing a given product (cid:523)Kie(cid:258)el(cid:481) (cid:884)(cid:882)(cid:883)(cid:882)(cid:524)(cid:484) (cid:884)(cid:484) In what ways can the term collective and institutional consumer (cid:887)(cid:484) What do the terms customer and consumer mean(cid:491) be applied(cid:491) Give examples(cid:484) Decision making unit (cid:523)DMU(cid:524) The DMU ensures that the marketer makes a distinction between the people who are actually buying the good(cid:512)service from the people who are using it(cid:486) the users(cid:486) and does not confuse the two (cid:523)although in some cases the user(cid:481) decider and buyer are the same person(cid:524)(cid:484) Therefore(cid:481) consumer buying decisions are of increasingly mutual character(cid:481) with participation of other people (cid:523)for example(cid:483) other household members(cid:524) who have different roles and different influence over the decision(cid:486)making(cid:484) These roles are not assigned for the whole lifetime and are not contradictory with each other (cid:523)Lachman (cid:428) Lanasa(cid:481) (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:891)(cid:885)(cid:524)(cid:484) The most popular roles are(cid:483)  Initiator – person who is a process initiator(cid:481) recognizes the need of buying a product(cid:481) collects information about a product and monitors provision of the information to the household(cid:484)  Influencer – person who provides information about a product(cid:481) whereby affects a product choice(cid:484) They can be inside the household(cid:481) or could be out(cid:486) side the household (cid:523)for example friends(cid:524)(cid:484) 15  Gatekeeper – is often person who control access of information to con(cid:486) sumer(cid:484) The gatekeeper can very often be a specialist who feeds relevant in(cid:486) formation into the rest of the DMU(cid:481) so there is an overlap with other roles(cid:484)  Decider – actually makes a final decision whether to buy something or not(cid:481) what to buy(cid:481) how much to buy(cid:481) when and where to buy and have the power to decide on what is required and who will provide it(cid:484)  Buyer – does not necessarily make the decision to buy(cid:481) however(cid:481) makes the purchase(cid:484)  User – person who uses(cid:512)consumes a product(cid:484) He(cid:512)she may or may not be the decider or the buyer(cid:484)  Financier – is person who determines and controls the budget of a house(cid:486) hold(cid:484)  Maintainer – person who provides maintenance and repairs a product to ensure its constant efficiency and readiness to use(cid:484)  Disposer – person who defines when to stop using a product and how to dispose of it(cid:484) Example(cid:483) individual purchase – perfume User(cid:483) woman Decider(cid:483) woman Buyer(cid:483) woman Influencer(cid:483) friend Example(cid:483) child(cid:495)s purchase – toy User(cid:483) child Influencer(cid:483) child(cid:495)s friend Decider(cid:483) parents Buyer(cid:483) one or both parents Example(cid:483) photocopier Initiator(cid:483) typist User(cid:483) typist(cid:481) general office staff Influencer(cid:483) department head Decider(cid:483) purchasing committee Buyer(cid:483) buying department Gatekeeper(cid:483) receptionist Financier(cid:483) finance department Consumer(cid:495)s roles in decision-making process Organizational purchase Autonomous purchase Family purchase E L P M A X E
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Consumer behavior on international market
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