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Current problems of the penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle probleme des Strafrechs und der Kriminologie - ebook/pdf
Current problems of the penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle probleme des Strafrechs und der Kriminologie - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: C. H. Beck Język publikacji: polski
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Jest to kontynuacja unikalnej w skali światowej monografii pt. 'Current problems or the penal law and criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie' edited by/ Herausgegeben von Emil W. Pływaczewski, w której gromadzone są aktualne rozważania  naukowe w zakresie prawa karnego i kryminologii. Autorami poszczególnych rozdziałów są światowej sławy karniści i kryminolodzy z następujących państw:  Australia, Austria, Białoruś, Chiny (Macau), Czechy, Grecja, Japonia, Kanada, Litwa, Polska, Portugalia, RFN, Rosja, RPA, Słowacja, Szwajcaria, Szwecja, Turcja, USA, Węgry, Wielka Brytania, Włochy.

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Edited by / Herausgegeben von Emil W. Pływaczewski / Ewa M. Guzik-Makaruk Current problems of the penal law and Criminology aktuelle probleme des strafreChts und der kriminologie Wydawnictwo C. H.Beck CURRENT PROBLEMS OF THE PENAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY AKTUELLE PROBLEME DES STRAFRECHTS UND DER KRIMINOLOGIE W serii Aplikacje Prawnicze polecamy: J. Rychlik KODEKS POSTĘPOWANIA ADMINISTRACYJNEGO M. Utrata KODEKS POSTĘPOWANIA CYWILNEGO M. Rogoyska KODEKS KARNY, KODEKS POSTĘPOWANIA KARNEGO M. Utrata KODEKS CYWILNY Z. Kapiński APELACJE W PROCESIE KARNYM. ZAGADNIENIA PRAKTYCZNE I KAZUSY Z. Kapiński APELACJE KARNE. ZASKARŻANIE NA KORZYŚĆ I NIEKORZYŚĆ S. Jaworski APELACJE CYWILNE I KARNE. 69 WZORÓW PISM, wyd. 3 www.ksiegarnia.beck.pl Edited by / Herausgegeben von Emil W. Pływaczewski / Ewa M. Guzik-Makaruk CURRENT PROBLEMS OF THE PENAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY AKTUELLE PROBLEME DES STRAFRECHTS UND DER KRIMINOLOGIE Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck Warszawa 2017 Reviewers/die Gutachter: Prof. Dr. habil. Dr. h.c. mult., Dipl.-Psych. Helmut Kury, Max-Planck-Institut Freiburg im Breisgau David Weisburd, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, George Mason University Publisher: Joanna Ablewicz Financial support of The University of Białystok © Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck 2017 University of Białystok Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck Sp. z o.o. ul. Bonifraterska 17, 00-203 Warszawa Skład i łamanie: Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck Druk i oprawa: Elpil, Siedlce ISBN 978-83-255-9000-0 ISBN e-book 978-83-255-9001-7 Contents/Inhaltsverzeichnis Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins and present status at Criminology School in Białystok ................................... Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie – ihre Herausbildung und ihr derzeitiger Zustand in der Kriminologischen Schule in Białystok ....................................................................................... XXXI XI PENAL LAW/STRAFRECHT .............................................................. Vanessa McAllister, Kurt Schmoller Abgekürzte Strafverfahren in Österreich: Diversion und Mandatsverfahren ........................................................................................ Gülsün-Ayhan Aygörmez-Uğurlubay Umweltdelikte im türkischen Strafgesetzbuch .......................................... Olga Dubovik, Alla Roehricht Russian medical legislation and the life quality ........................................ Gunnar Duttge Die zweite Katastrophe im Zuge des Germanwings-Absturzes: Der Umgang mit der ärztlichen Schweigepflicht ....................................... Maria Elisabete Ferreira Portuguese criminal law on domestic violence and the requirements of the Istanbul Convention .............................................................................. Martin Heger Strafbarkeit des Leugnens des Holocausts ................................................. Jan C. Joerden On the problem of dolus alternativus ........................................................... Věra Kalvodová Current trends of sanctioning in the Czech Republic .............................. Rimma Nickolayevna Klyuchko Criminal legal description of signs of inaction of officials (Art. 425 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus) .......................................... Maciej Małolepszy Vernachlässigt der polnische Strafgesetzgeber die Generalprävention? .. 1 3 23 44 53 62 74 87 98 110 118 V Contents/Inhaltsverzeichnis Klaus Marxen Der Beitrag des Strafrechts zur Überwindung von Systemunrecht – deutsche Erfahrungen .................................................................................. Joanna Melz, Alice Anna Bielecki, Claudia Zielińska „Verbotene“ Lieder? Ein Überblick über strafrechtlich kontroverse Musik in Deutschland .................................................................................. Angelika Pitsela, Theofili Chatzispyrou Alternative measures and sanctions in the Greek criminal justice system .......................................................................................................... Emil W. Pływaczewski, Ewa M. Guzik-Makaruk, Szczęsny Szymański, Tomasz Kałużny, Anna Jacyniewicz New solutions in Poland in the interrogation of child victims of sexual crimes ............................................................................................................ Uwe Scheffler Balthus, der Maler der „Gitarrenstunde“, und das neue deutsche Kinderpornographiestrafrecht .................................................................... Keiichi Yamanaka Kontext- und Paradigmenwechsel bei Rechtsrezeption und -fortbildung mit Beispielen der japanischen Strafrechtswissenschaft ........................... Yuri Yamanaka Transplantation von Organen lebender Spender in Japan ........................ 133 145 174 197 211 252 273 CRIMINOLOGY/KRIMINOLOGIE ................................................. 283 James F. Albrecht The “realism” of contemporary policing: analyzing the potential for applying the “left realism” theory of justice to modern law enforcement practices ........................................................................................................ Kate Angulski, Jurg Gerber Human rights and drug policy: a comparative study using freedom indexes .......................................................................................................... Hasan T. Arslan, Kailey Adametz Intelligence for the homeland security: the Skilled Worker Expedited Review Program (SWERP) ........................................................................... Liqun Cao Crime control, ideology, recent laws in Canada ........................................ 285 302 319 335 VI Contents/Inhaltsverzeichnis Mesut Hakkı Caşın The massive Syrian refugees crisis: how to respond humanitarian law and impact on European security ............................................................... Diana Dajnowicz-Piesiecka Legal and criminological aspects of parental abduction from the standpoint of Polish criminal judicial decisions ....................................... Obi N.I. Ebbe Crimes of the privileged class ..................................................................... Wojciech Filipkowski The use of data mining technology for fighting cyber crimes – selected forensic aspects ............................................................................................ Marek Fryšták, David Čep An influence of legal framework in the Czech Republic on development of economic criminality after 1989 ............................................................ Jarrod Gilbert, Benjamin Elley, Greg Newbold Desistance among higher-risk youthful offenders ..................................... Yakov Gilinskiy Crime and social control in the postmodern society ............................... Jack R. Greene, Ineke Haen-Marshall, Heike P. Gramckow Improving local police services in the developing world .......................... Edita Gruodytė Drug policy for illegal possesion of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances: challenges and trends in international and national level .... Anna Gurinskaya, Yakov Gilinskiy Social exclusion, crime and victimization: the Russian experience ......... C. Ronald Huff, Michael Naughton Wrongful conviction reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom: taking stock ................................................................................ Magdalena Ickiewicz-Sawicka Exclusion and discrimination against Serb minority in the Republic of Kosovo in the lights of international human rights protection ................ Emilia Jurgielewicz-Delegacz Traffic accidents in Poland in the light of results of statistical research . Karl-Ludwig Kunz Kriminalität, Strafe und Gesellschaft ........................................................ 348 362 377 386 396 408 423 433 452 469 482 505 517 535 VII Contents/Inhaltsverzeichnis Katarzyna Laskowska Organizational structure of organized criminal groups involving foreigners that are active in Poland in the light of the results of studies of criminal case files .................................................................................... Mark Lauchs Bikies in Europe ........................................................................................... Jianhong Liu Institutional analyses and criminology: fundamental conceptual and methodological issues .................................................................................. Jolanta Łopusiewicz-Redo Pro publico bono legal assistance for the materially impoverished clients, as a contribution to the United Nations sustainable development goals 2016–2030: A Eurasian view .............................................................. Anthony Minnaar Malware and data breach cyberattacks and the (more) organised cybercriminals: how “organised” are they? ............................................... Antonello Miranda The limits of the law and the future of compliance .................................. Magdaléna Ondicová, Dagmar Kralovičová Juvenile delinquency in the context of the Slovak Republic and its prevention with emphasis on tertiary prevention ..................................... Witold Pawlak The approach of the court (A) in relation to the artificial nutrition and hydration of terminally ill patients and (B) in relation to the sterilisation of women who lack capacity .................................................. Magdalena Perkowska Border criminality in Poland – myths and reality .................................... Michael Platzer International aspects of social exclusion of migrants ............................... Szilveszter Póczik Muslim radicals from the Balkans and Hungary in the Syrian war. A comparative study with focus on social history and security policy ... Sławomir Redo New instruments and approaches for countering social exclusion: A criminological contribution to the United Nations post-2015 educational agenda ...................................................................................... 542 557 573 593 601 630 642 662 683 698 708 723 VIII Contents/Inhaltsverzeichnis Jerzy Sarnecki Crime and measures to combat crime in socio-economically deprived areas. A criminological analysis ................................................................. Rick Sarre The criminological quest today: what should we be focusing our research on? .................................................................................................. Charles B. A. Ubah, Osy E. Nwebo, S. Ezeanyika Transnational crime and international organization: the challenge of internal and international security ............................................................ S. George Vincentnathan, Lynn Vincentnathan Exclusion, dalit type-script, and deviance under the caste system in Tamil Nadu .............................................................................................. Minoru Yokoyama Exclusion and inclusion of offenders in Japan with low tolerance .......... Jinwu Zhang, Jianhong Liu Strain, illegitimate opportunity and delinquency: consolidating social structure in China ........................................................................................ Malgorzata J. Zuber, Edward W. Greenberg Cross-cultural dispositions to crime: an investigation of macro-environmental influences on neutralization .................................. About the editors/Über die Herausgeber .................................................... About the reviewers/Über die Gutachter ................................................... 738 768 781 803 829 853 865 883 891 IX Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins and present status at Criminology School in Białystok This volume of “Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie” is a continuation of the series started by the book edited by Professor Piotr Hofmański over twenty years ago1. Back then, the Faculty of Law in Białystok, which was still within the struc- tures of the University of Warsaw, comprised three criminal law institutes: the Institute of Criminal Law, the Institute of Criminal Procedure and the Insti- tute of Criminology and Organized Crime Issues (headed by Professor Emil W. Pływaczewski). The aforementioned volume allowed the staff of those institutes to present their achievements and current directions of their research. Their pa- pers focused mainly on the criminal law reform that was being prepared, due to the ongoing discussion on the published drafts of criminal law bills. The as- sumption was that the first volume would start a new series which should also include papers by authors from other universities, to encompass foreign ones. That idea was implemented in the next volume which had a new formu- la and whose title, for obvious reasons, was complemented2. This time, the 26-person team of contributing authors included, in addition to leading Polish representatives of the sciences of criminal law and criminology, also profes- sors considered to be leading international authorities in these fields. The for- eign authors represented such countries as Australia, Austria, China, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The United Nations (Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch, United Nations Office at Vien- na) was also represented. The foreign authors submitted papers in either Ger- man or English, while Polish authors – in Polish. Finally, all the papers were published in their original language versions. Each paper written in German or English had a summary in Polish, and those written in Polish had summaries 1 P. Hofmański (ed.), Z problematyki prawa karnego [On the problems of criminal law], Białystok 1994, p. 262. 2 E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Aktualne problemy prawa karnego i kryminologii. Current Pro­ blems of the Penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie, Białystok 1998, p. 622. XI Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… in English, German or French. Thus, the first publication series on an interna- tional scale was initiated with the objective to present the most recent trends and the results of research – often pioneering – both Polish and foreign, in two fields, namely criminal law and criminology (in English and German), with the participation of both leading representatives of those fields and outstand- ing young scientists from different countries and continents. The volume was published at a special time, as of 1.10.1997 an act was passed on transforming the Białystok branch of the Warsaw University into an autonomous university, the thirteenth in Poland. The third volume3 was published after profound structural transforma- tions which took place in the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok. On 1.9.2002, departments were established at the University, to include the Department of Criminal Law consisting of the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology4 and the Institute of Criminal Procedure. The intention of the editor of that volume was to present, in the first part of the book, the current directions of research conducted by the staff of the Department of Criminal Law. The other part of the volume was to include papers submitted by dis- tinguished professors representing selected Japanese and German universities who have maintained very close academic relations with the staff of the De- partment of Criminal Law. The next (fourth) volume5 was published after new structural changes were implemented in the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok, result- ing from academic promotions among the Faculty’s staff. The changes include, first, the establishment of the Department of Criminal Procedure6 and, second, the establishment of the Institute of Criminal Policy within the Department of Criminal Law. It needs to be emphasized that the Department of Criminal Law has significant achievements in its research, which confirms its leading role in studies on terrorism, organized crime, money laudering and on broadly defined issues of homeland security in Poland7. It was the Department that conducted, 3 E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Aktualne problemy prawa karnego i kryminologii. Current Pro­ blems of the Penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie, Białystok 2005, p. 468. 4 The author became the head of both the Department of Criminal Law and the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. 5 E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie, Białystok 2009, p. 772. 6 The Department was established on the basis of the Institute of Criminal Law. 7 See E.W. Pływaczewski, K. Laskowska, G. Szczygieł, E. Guzik-Makaruk, W. Filipkows- ki, E. Zatyka, Polskie kierunki badań kryminologicznych nad bezpieczeństwem obywateli [Direc- tions of Polish criminological studies of citizen security], Prokuratura i Prawo 2010, No. 1–2, pp. 176–201. E. Jurgielewicz, M. Perkowska, Kierunki badań prawnokarnych i kryminologicznych prowadzonych w Zakładzie Prawa Karnego i Kryminologii Wydziału Prawa Uniwersytetu w Bia­ łymstoku [Directions of research in criminal law and criminology conducted at the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology of the University of Białystok], [in:] I. Sepioło, Interdyscyplinar­ ność badań w naukach penalnych [Interdisciplinary nature of research in penal sciences], Poznań 2012, pp. 423–449. L. Paprzycki, Z. Rau (eds.), Praktyczne elementy zwalczania przestępczości zorganizowanej i  terroryzmu. Nowoczesne technologie i  praca operacyjna [Practical elements of the fight against organized crime and terrorism. Modern technologies and operational work], XII Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… in the years 2003–2006, the largest commissioned research project so far in Poland8, entitled “Legal and organizational-technical solutions in countering organized crime and terrorism with special emphasis on the problems related to trial evidence and the institution of immunity witness”. It was the first joint undertaking of academic circles and bodies of law enforcement and adminis- tration of justice. The project that Prof. Emil W. Pływaczewski had the honor to manage involved the participation of approximately 140 representatives of the Police, public prosecutor’s office, courts, and the science of criminal law. In October 2007, Prof. Emil W. Pływaczewski was entrusted with the posi- tion of the director of another commissioned research project titled “Monitor- ing, identification, and countering threats to citizens’ security” which was con- ducted in the years 2007–2010. The project was carried out by the consortium established by the University of Białystok and the Military University of Tech- nology in Warsaw. It involved 350 participants who are both representatives of academic circles (including many well-known professors in legal and technical fields) and practitioners from bodies of law enforcement and administration of justice. The aforementioned fourth volume of the book presented selected results of the work performed on the project on “Monitoring, identification, and countering threats to citizens’ security”, and mentioned especially the work performed by the staff of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology and the Department of Criminal Procedure. The team of 38 authors of pa- pers presented in the volume consists predominantly of foreign authors. Their papers provide a good basis to compare with the research conducted in the project. The foreign authors, traditionally including international authorities in the field of criminal law and criminology, come from such countries as Aus- tralia, Austria, China (Hong Kong, Macau), France, Germany, Japan, New Zea- land, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States. Like be- fore, the United Nations (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria) was also represented. The research project “Monitoring, identification, and countering threats to citizens’ security” was an integral part of the Polish Platform for Home- Warsaw 2009. E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Przestępczość zorganizowana [Organized crime], Warsaw 2011. K. Laskowska, (ed.), Oblicza współczesnej przestępczości zorganizowanej [The faces of con- temporary organized crime], Białystok 2014; E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Proceder prania pieniędzy i jego implikacje [Money laundering and its implications], Warsaw 2013. E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, W. Filipkowski, E.W. Pływaczewski, Zakres kryminalizacji procederu prania pieniędzy w  ujęciu prawnoporównawczym [The scope of criminalization of money laundering from the standpoint of comparative law], [in:] M. Kolendowska-Matejczuk, K. Szwarc (eds.), Wybrane aspekty noweli­ zacji prawa karnego. Zagadnienia penalizacji prania pieniędzy w świetle projektowanej nowelizacji. Kognicja sądów w sprawach wpadkowych w postępowaniu karnym [Selected aspects of criminal law amendments. The problem of penalization of money laundering in the light of the planned amendment. Jurisdiction of courts in incidental cases in criminal proceedings], Warsaw 2015, pp. 48–60. 8 Financial means are granted to projects of this type in the framework of a competition where the commissioning party (the State Committee for Scientific Research) provides financing to the leading Polish academic centers which can demonstrate their achievements in the proposed research area. XIII Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… land Security (PPHS) – Scientific University Network, a unique initiative that has been positively evaluated among others by representatives of the European Commission, the European Parliament, European Defence Agency and the 12th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice held in 2010 in Brazil9. The primary goal of this project is to create integrated computer tools to support various activities in the area of public security. The research projects (a total of thirty) performed in the framework of the PPHS focus, on the one hand, on using modern technology to support the work of the police, public prosecutors and security services and, on the other hand, on supporting ef- forts to enhance security and to counter crime committed by using modern technologies and, in particular, the Internet. Thus, the projects increase the ef- ficiency of the work of the state services and bodies responsible for the security of citizens and the state10. The fifth volume of this publishing series11 was of fairly similar structure to the previous volume. The publication presented the current directions and results of research conducted by the staff of the Faculty of Law of the Univer- sity of Białystok, specifically the Department of Criminal Law, which is one of the leading Polish academic entities conducting research in the field of gene- rally defined security, and the Department of Criminal Procedure. The publica- tion contained the outline of the results of the aforementioned research project involving publications of representatives of the academia and the practitioners of criminology and technical sciences, which was the largest scientific project conducted in Poland to date12. However, the main objective of the publication was to discuss, as broadly as possible, the current trends, both European and worldwide, in the fields of criminal law and criminology. With this in mind, a large group of criminal law and criminology experts from over ten countries was invited to take part in this publishing project. The invitation was extended mostly to scientists from those academic centers which the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok had cooperated with before or those which it had 9 See: E.W. Pływaczewski, Zapobieganie przestępczości i sprawiedliwość karna [Crime pre- vention and criminal justice], 12th United Nations Congress (Salvador, Brasil, 12–19.4.2010), Państwo i Prawo 2010, No. 10, pp. 133–135. 10 More on the Polish Platform for Homeland Security (PPHS): see E.W. Pływaczewski, Z. Rau, The Polish Platform for Homeland Security – a pioneer initiative for up­to­date security in the European Union, [in:] E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Current Problems of the Penal Law and Cri­ minology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie, Białystok 2009, p. 445  ff. E.W.  Pływaczewki, E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, Polish Platform for Homeland Security and its place in the research on security in Poland, [in:] J. Dworzecki (ed.), Selected aspects of internal security, Inglobal Writer Inc., New York 2015, pp. 219–234. 11 E.W. Pływaczewski (ed.), Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology. Aktuelle Probleme des Strafrechts und der Kriminologie, vol. 5, Warsaw 2012, p. 846. This position was pre- sented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology in Chicago as a part of the Directory of Exhibitors – a presentation of new publications by the world’s most recognized publishers. Thus, it was the first time in the long history of conferences of the American Society of Criminology that a book published in Poland was presented in the promotional exhibition of that forum. 12 See: E.W. Pływaczewski, Z. Rau, The Polish..., p. 515 ff. XIV Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… signed a cooperation agreement with (e.g. the Northeastern University in Bos- ton (MA), the Bern University in Switzerland, the Masaryk University in Brno in the Czech Republic, or the Southwest University of Political Science and Law in China) or to scientists with whom scientific cooperation had started earlier and had been maintained for considerable periods of time13. In total, 63 authors (or co-authors) of 49 essays have participated in this publishing project. Besides Poland (18 authors), they represent the following countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, China (Hong Kong, Macau), the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Both the foreign and the Polish authors submitted their papers in either German or English. Like in the previous volumes, the authors include many distinguished scientists, mostly representing criminal law and criminology, with internatio- nally recognized status (some of them hold honoris causa doctorates of foreign universities and/or important national and international distinguished scholar awards). At the same time, however, the principle was observed that invita- tions were extended to outstanding Polish and foreign representatives of the younger generations of scientists in the aforementioned fields. A certain new characteristic of this volume is the participation of scientists from countries which, like Poland, were once a part of the communist block and its regional, military-political, and economic-trade arrangements. The main objective of the sixth volume was to present the current direc- tions and outcomes of research conducted by the staff of the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok, specifically the Department of Criminal Law, which is one of the leading Polish academic entities conducting research in the field of generally defined security, and the Department of Criminal Procedure. This involves, in particular, implementation of successive large projects at the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok and presentation of their selected research outcomes described in numerous papers in this book. The projects worth presenting in a detailed way comprise the two large projects carried out by the consortium established as a part of the Polish Platform for Homeland Security, with the University of Białystok as the consortium leader. The first project, led by Prof. Emil W. Pływaczewski of this preface, en- titled “State-of-the-art technologies for/in the criminal process and their use – technical, forensic-science, criminological, and legal”14, aims to conduct an in-depth technical research on enhancement of the safety of citizens owing 13 See among others: A. Eser, K. Yamanaka (eds.), Einflüsse deutschen Strafrechts auf Polen und Japan. Zweites Deutsch­Polnisch­Japanisches Strafrechtskolloquium 1999 in Osaka, Baden-Ba- den 2001; H.J. Hirsch (ed.), Krise des Strafrechts und der Kriminalwissenschaften? Tagungsbeiträge eines Symposiums der Alexander von Humboldt­Stiftung, veranstaltet vom 1. bis 5. Oktober in Bamberg. Schriften zum Strafrecht, Heft 129, Berlin 2001; D. Siegel, H. Van de Bunt, D. Zaitch (eds.), Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments, Studies of Organized Crime, Dor- drecht–Boston–London 2003; C.R. Huff, M. Killias (eds.), Wrongful Convictions. International Perspectives on Miscarriages of Justice, Philadelphia 2008. 14 The project was financed by the National Centre for Research and Development; project no. O ROB 0021 01/ID 21/2. The implementation period: July 2011 – June 2014. The members of the consortium who carried out this project encompass: the University of Białystok (leader), the XV Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… to the knowledge of law, forensic science, and criminology. In particular, this involves solutions that could support law-enforcement agencies, secret services, and the judiciary in the performance of their tasks, both in operational recon- naissance and process-related activities. What makes the project innovative and novel is that it involves work at the interface of the humanities and the technical sciences. The element that is com- mon to all the research areas is information, or, more precisely, its acquisition, collection, and analysis in order to use it to ensure public security and order. Nowadays, with the development of the society and the economy, and with the technological progress, not only do the new threats to security appear but also new ways of ensuring security. Not only do criminals use new off-the-shelf technologies freely but state bodies – supported by scientists – should look for ways to make their actions more effective15. Nevertheless, one must keep in mind that, according to the concept of a democratic law-abiding country, law enforcement bodies and the judiciary may only take those actions that are legal. Quite often, the law is unclear or allows different interpretations. The legal research involves not only evaluation of the binding laws but also search for new solutions (also those inspired by laws of other countries and by international law). Still, the fundamental issue is to observe the principle of proportionality between interference with human and civil rights using technological solutions and protection of such rights in democratic countries by defining the framework of permitted application of such solutions16. The above-mentioned deliberations will be supplemented with the re- search in the area of forensic science, more specifically the strategies and tech- niques for using modern technologies, the issue of their use, and analysis of the organizational aspects pertaining to law enforcement agencies and the ju- diciary17. Further research will be conducted in the field of criminology. Its objective is to compare the suitability and effectiveness of technical solutions in the context of contemporary threats, such as organized crime, terrorism, cybercrime, as well as the ways to ensure energy security. It needs to be emphasized here that cooperation between a university that focuses on humanities (like the University of Białystok) and technical univer- sities makes it possible to use the results of the research that has been con- Military University of Technology in Warsaw, the AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, and the PPBW Sp. z o.o. from Białystok. 15 More information can be found in E. Nawarecki, G. Dobrowolski, M. Kisiel-Dorohinicki (eds.), Metody sztucznej inteligencji w działaniach na rzecz bezpieczeństwa publicznego [Artificial intelligence methods in actions aimed to enhance public security], Kraków 2009, p. 291. 16 See: E.W. Pływaczewski, W. Filipkowski, Combating Transnational Crime Under the Rule of Law. Contemporary Opportunities and Dilemmas, [in:] P. Reichel, J. Albanese (eds.), Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice, Los Angeles–London–New Delhi–Singapore–Washington D.C. 2014, pp. 375–396. 17 See: W. Filipkowski, Technologiczne aspekty walki z przestepczością zorganizowaną [Tech- nological aspects of the fight against organized crime], [in:] J. Kasprzak, B. Młodziejowski (eds.), Wybrane aspekty procesu karnego i kryminalistyki [Selected aspects of the criminal process and of forensic science], Olsztyn 2010, p. 253 ff. XVI Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… ducted by the latter and to analyze their applicability in the area of security. In particular, it fosters further research and development of projects on an elec- tronic process module (and, more broadly, digitalization of court proceedings, in particular criminal ones), an electronic system for recovery of property, the use of operational technologies (used in the course of operational reconnais- sance activities), criminal intelligence analysis18 (with particular focus on data mining and artificial intelligence applications), use of open information sources (in particular the Internet), and the problem of video monitoring. The final result of the project will be comprehensive and complementary legal and forensic-science analyses pertaining to implementation of specific new technologies that are important to internal security of the state and pro- totypical implementations of such technologies (described later in the applica- tion). The project also assumes studies on commercial use of the results of the research that has been conducted. In order to improve the effectiveness and utility of the research, the project assumes broad involvement of experienced consultants from law enforcement agencies and the judiciary. The results of the research project are two extremely large monograph volumes and a large number of contributing works19. In his review, S. Waltoś, who is an undisputed authority in the field of penal science, stated that due to the size of the work two statements must be made: first that the work, like any collective work (containing a total of 103 works), contains works that are very different with regard to both the academic level and the clarity of com- munication; this work is an event in the Polish literature due to its subject and comprehensive approach; second that the work in question constitutes the most current compendium of knowledge about new forms of crime in the 21st century and about the problems associated with the fight against it. The work should be present in every academic library and every reference library of law enforcement bodies20. The performance of this project is closely related to the establishment of the European Institute of Homeland Security. On 13.2.2014, a declaration was signed that established the European Institute of Homeland Security (EIHS), whose seat is located in the Professor Hilary Koprowski Gdańsk Science and Technology Park. The EIHS was established in the form of an open cluster composed mostly of companies interested in developing technologies in the security area, as well as of research institutions, institutes, public sector entities, and institutions in the business environment. The coordinator of the cluster is the EIBW company 18 See: P. Chlebowicz, W. Filipkowski, Analiza kryminalna, Aspekty kryminalistyczne i pra­ wnodowodowe [Criminal intelligence analysis. Forensic-science and evidence-law aspects], War- saw 2011, p. 220. 19 E.W. Pływaczewski, W. Filipkowski, Z. Rau (eds.), Przestępczość w  XXI wieku – zapo­ bieganie i zwalczanie. Problemy prawno­kryminologiczne [Crime in the 21st century – prevention and suppression. Legal and criminological problems], Warsaw 2015, p. 973. E.W. Pływaczewski, W. Filipkowski, Z. Rau (eds.), Przestępczość w XXI wieku..., Warsaw 2015, p. 905. 20 S. Waltoś, review of the following books: E.W. Pływaczewski, W. Filipkowski, Z. Rau (eds.), Przestępczość w XXI wieku..., No. 4, pp. 159–163. XVII Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… that has been involved in R and D since it was established and has experience in performance of multiple research and implementation projects. The Institute focuses on and specializes in broadly defined public security and order. Key topics for the institute are terrorism, cyber terrorism, organized crime, security of the state, security of citizens, telecommunication security, functioning of law enforcement and judiciary, criminology, forensic science, business intelligence, and open source intelligence. The actions of the Insti- tute are mostly aimed to provide new technologies to support law enforcement agencies, mostly the Police and the Border Guard, as well as the judiciary and other entities that deal with internal security and order. These undertakings are intended, on the one hand, to support effective detection and fight against crime and, on the other hand, to support actions related to protection against and prevention of consequences of crimes. The main objective of the Institute is to create a platform for cooperation and exchange of information among representatives of the public sector and the private sector, conducting research and development activities, and supporting representatives of the two sectors with expert knowledge. Security is the field of interest of employees of the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology of the Faculty of Law of the University of Białystok. They not only actively support the activities of the European Institute of Homeland Security but also conduct broad research and development activities21. The other of the aforementioned projects, entitled “Elaboration of a system for detection of threats to the safety of blind and vision-impaired persons, with particular focus on road traffic. Criminal-law and technological aspects”22, is also unique, as there have not been any projects of this type in Europe so far23. The aim of the research is to design methods of ensuring the safety of blind and vision-impaired persons in road traffic, in particular in urbanized areas. This is particularly important in terms of problems which blind and visually-impaired people face every day while getting around. It should be noted that the imple- mentation of the project is the continuation of previous research work on blind 21 E.M. Guzik-Makaruk (ed.), Poczucie bezpieczeństwa obywateli w  Polsce. Identyfikacja i przeciwdziałanie współczesnym zagrożeniom [The citizens’ sense of security in Poland. Identi- fication and countering of contemporary threats], Warsaw 2011, p. 383; E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, E.W. Pływaczewski (eds.), Współczesne oblicza bezpieczeństwa [Contemporary images of securi- ty], Białystok 2015, p. 430. 22 The members of the consortium were University of Białystok (leader), AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Higher School of Computer Technology and Telecommunica- tion in Kielce, and Future Voice System Sp. z o.o. Decision no. 0022/R/ID3/2011/01. The project finished in June 2014, after 30 months of its implementation. Dr. hab. E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, a professor of the University of Białystok was the project manager and the staff of the Depart- ment of Criminal Law constitute the majority of the project team. In total, about 200 people are involved in the project. 23 E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, Sprawozdanie z konferencji inaugurującej projekt badawczo­rozwo­ jowy poświęcony bezpieczeństwo w ruchu drogowym osób niewidomych i słabowidzących [Report from a conference inaugurating an R and D project devoted to the safety of blind and visually impaired persons in road traffic], Paragraf na Drodze 2012, No. 5, pp. 77–80. XVIII Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology-origins… and visually-impaired people which was concluded with the publication in the form of an e-book24. The project is interdisciplinary i.e. combines technical and social sciences, which distinguishes it from other projects. Consequently, the research is per- formed in three fields: information technology, law, and criminology. One of the main objectives of the project is to develop a prototype of a smart mobile device that will help blind and visually impaired people to determine their lo- cation and to move around in urban areas and to detect threats that occur on the road. The system will enable safe movement of blind and visually-impaired persons and avoidance of common threats in road traffic, such as walking onto the carriageway, moving vehicles, collisions with other pedestrians, and walk- ing into objects. The project will also result in the development of solutions that will help such people learn how to move on their own in urban areas and, consequently, improve the safety of the project beneficiaries in road traffic. This aspect will be very important taking into account learning spatial orienta- tion by blind and visually-impaired persons, which they find very difficult and dangerous. Hence, they must overcome their fears before they start to move on their own. The main objectives of the research project, as far as legal aspects are con- cerned, refer to the analysis of binding domestic and international legislation regarding the safety of blind and visually impaired people. Domestic legislation i.e. the Polish road traffic regulations are evaluated in the light of experience of road traffic police officers. The analysis will lead, among other things, to de lege ferenda policy recommendations directed at the domestic legislator. As regards criminological issues, the research aims to help foster the target group’s feeling of security and establish a knowledge base of obstacles which pose haz- ards for blind and visually impaired people. This will enable the designing of an urban hazards map for blind and visually impaired people who wish to get around actively in the urban area. The criminological part of the project will be complemented with a catalogue of offences committed by blind and visually-impaired offenders. The advantage of the research tasks will be the two-dimensional percep- tion on the problem of how to ensure the safety of blind and visually impaired pedestrians; hence both the public bodies with the duty of care and visually impaired people will be involved in the project. Consequently, the readiness of local and regional government units for implementation of innovative solutions that contribute to an improved safety of blind and visually-impaired persons in road traffic will be evaluated. The results of empirical research will enable the development of an optimized technological tool intended to improve the safety of the beneficiaries of the project and, consequently, avoid their social 24 E.M. Guzik-Makaruk, Możliwości wykorzystania i wdrożenia nowoczesnych technologii do budowy narzędzi wspomagających codzienne funkcjonowanie osób niewidomych (e-book) [Imple- mentation of modern technologies to build tools supporting the everyday live of blind persons], Kraków–Białystok–Poznań 2011, p. 147. Blind and visually-impaired persons are the authors of many papers contained in the e-book. XIX
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