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De-Shamed. Feminist Strategies of Transgression: The Case of Lorna Crozier s Poetry - ebook/pdf
De-Shamed. Feminist Strategies of Transgression: The Case of Lorna Crozier s Poetry - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 192
Wydawca: Uniwersytet Śląski Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-8-3801-2612-1 Data wydania:
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Książka Zuzanny Szatanik poświęcona jest strategiom wykraczania poza doświadczenie wstydu, które stanowi nieodłączny komponent wytworzonego przez kulturę zachodnią konstruktu „kobiety”. Rozważania teoretyczne, dotyczące wstydu jako wykorzystywanego przez dyskursy androcentryczne zjawiska kulturowego, autorka ilustruje swoimi analizami wybranych wierszy współczesnej kanadyjskiej poetki Lorny Crozier.
Część teoretyczna De-shamed… lokuje się na pograniczu studiów feministycznych i psychologicznych studiów nad afektem (tzw. psychologii wstydu). Trzeci z obecnych w pracy teoretycznych dyskursów wywodzi się z pojęcia „kanadyjskości”, czy też kanadyjskiej tożsamości, przez wielu badaczy łączonego również z teorią queer.
Zawarte w rozdziałach interpretacyjnych rozważania, które ilustrują zastosowanie pojęcia kobiecego wstydu w praktyce analitycznej, prowadzą do konkluzji o możliwej zmianie istniejących teorii feministycznych lub uzupełnieniu ich o stanowisko nowe. Feministyczna teoria wstydu, której zręby buduje niniejsza praca, stanowi propozycję nieco innego niż dotąd spojrzenia na główny obiekt badań studiów feministycznych – kobietę i relacje, w jakie wchodzi ona we współczesnym świecie.
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“Shame is a common sensation. An unpleasant contraction felt when one is caught red-handed, shame is manifest on a blushing face. It makes one feel both exorbitantly aware of being and, at the same time, desperate not to be : to disappear or hide. As such, it is an antithetic emotion, described in terms of freezing, withdrawal or paralysis, as well as burning, aggrand- isement or transgression. Because of the fact that shame is felt in and on the body, and, at the same time, breaches the body’s limits, it makes one feel too large or too small, both indiscernible and overexposed. A shamed person is therefore perplexingly (un)framed. Indeed, the angst inscribed in the ex- perience of shame is that of “losing face”: the fundamental “(Who) am I?” be- comes inevitable. In this book, the “I” whose identity is thus unfixed is gen- dered feminine.” (From the “Introduction”) “In her De-shamed. Feminist Strategies of Transgression: The Case of Lorna Crozier s Poetry, Zuzanna Szatanik addresses the unsettling subject of Woman s shame, understood as a cultural and psychological phenomenon as well as a literary motif: a subject both important and rarely raised by Pol- ish and international academics alike. The complex, eclectic, methodology adopted by the Author deserves particular credit. Departing from existing psychological and psychotherapeutic studies of shame, burdened by their masculinist, or even misogynist, bias, Szatanik first explores questions con- cerning the relationship between shame and Woman. Subsequently, she focuses upon discursive remedial strategies of transcending Woman s shame in the culture of the West, which she then illustrates in her interpretations of seven poems by the contemporary Canadian poet, Lorna Crozier. To this end, she employs feminist and queer theories, viewed as necessary comple- ments to the existing psychological studies of shame. These approaches, crit- ically processed are then linked to relevant issues within the field of Canadian studies. The end result is a competent, multidirectional, but at the same time cogent study of Woman s shame in the context of transgressive de-shaming strategies employed in literary texts. ( From the review by Agnieszka Rzepa, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland ) z u z a n n a s z a t a n i k / d e - s h a m e d Zuzanna Szatanik is Assistant Professor in the Department of Canadian Studies and Literary Translation at the University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. issn 0208-6336 isbn 978-83-8012-612-1 price: 18 zł (+ VAT) wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Śląskiego katowice 2011 SDE MH–A ED SDE MH–A zuzanna szatanik A MH feminist strategies of transgression: the case of lorna crozier s poetry wydawnictwo uniwersytetu śląskiego katowice 2011 ED EDITOR OF THE SERIES: HISTORIA LITER ATUR OBC YCH Magdalena Wandzioch REFEREE Agnieszka Rzepa NR 2916 CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION DATA Affect (Psychology). Affective disorders. Canadian literature—History and criticism. Canadian poetry (English)—20th century—History and criticism—Theory, etc. Canadian poetry (English)—21st century—History and criticism—Theory, etc. Canadian poetry (English)—Women authors—History and criticism. Canadian poetry—Prairie Provinces—History and criticism. Crozier, Lorna, 1948— Feminism—Poetry. Feminism—Theory. Shame. Self. Szatanik, Zuzanna, 1976— for paweł O T A BL E contents E O F BL contents acknowledgments and copyright information .............................................11 1. introduction. gendering shame ......................................................................17 1.1. shame psychology: androcentrism in therapy ..............................21 1.2. de-centering androcentrism: toward a reconceptualisation of methodology ............................25 1.3. an ascending spiral: methodology and organisation of the argument ........................28 2. toward a theory of woman s shame..............................................................33 2.1. blind spots: psychology of shame and the question of gender ...................................................................35 2.2. shame-less voices: woman s shame in light of feminist studies ...................................49 2.3. queering shame: toward the empowerment of the language of the margins ............................................................56 2.4. subversion/transgression/language: a feminist theory of woman s shame .................................................62 3. lorna crozier s feminist strategies: four studies in transcending woman s shame ..........................................65 3.1. transgressing transgression. subverting the authority of the biblical creation myth .............70 3.2. shrinking the shrink. subverting the authority of the classical theories of sex and gender ..................................................................................... 86 3.3. gazing at the gaze. 3.4. subjectifying the subject: 3.4. kissing and telling: subverting the ocular regime ..........................................................111 subverting the western beauty myth ............................................. 134 a résumé ...................................................................................................... 152 conclusion: toward a revision of cultural practice? ................................. 155 works cited ................................................................................................................ 161 streszczenie/résumé .............................................................................................. 177 index of names ......................................................................................................... 185 9 THA KN acknowledgments and copyright information A KN S acknowledgments This book would not have seen the light of day if not for the support of my mentors and friends. In particular, I owe a debt of gratitude to professor Tadeusz rachwał, Head of the Department of English- Language Cultural and Literary Studies at the Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities, whose advice and patience were instru- mental to my work. Likewise, my sincere thanks go to professor Miro- sława buchholtz (Head of the Department of English at the Nicolaus Copernicus university in Toruń, poland) and to professor Joanna Dur- czak from the Department of American Literature and Culture at Maria Skłodowska-Curie university in Lublin, poland, whose constructive comments and critical suggestions allowed me to transform an imper- fect draft into a consistent text. I also wish to express my profound in- debtedness to professor Agnieszka rzepa of Adam Mickiewicz univer- sity in poznań, poland, who reviewed the text in its modified form. Her meticulous, eye-opening reading of the book made the final re- visions easy. Central to the project was the friendship and support of my excel- lent Canadian colleagues and friends: my gratitude goes in particular to Dr. Nancy Earle of the Memorial university of Newfoundland, who selflessly dedicated her time and energy to the careful proof- reading of the submitted text, to professor Edward Możejko and Sheila Steinhauer-Możejko, who were my surrogate family during my four- month stay in Edmonton, Alberta, in 2004, and to Dr. ruth Dyck Feh- derau, who opened up her home and mind to me when I returned to the university of Alberta to continue my research for several months in 2006. I certainly would not have succeeded if not for the conducive atmos- phere created by my superiors and colleagues at my own university. For his kindness, respectfulness, and open-mindedness, I wish to ex- press my heartfelt thanks to professor Krzysztof Jarosz, Head of the De- partment of Canadian Studies and Literary Translation at the univer- sity of Silesia, with whom I have had the honour to work over the past four years. Likewise, I would like to thank all my colleagues from the Department for their warm support and intellectual motivation. I am also very grateful to Dr. Eugenia Sojka, Head of the Canadian Stu- dies Centre at the Institute of English Cultures and Literatures, univer- 13 sity of Silesia, who (many years ago) first provided me with the incen- tive to take up Canadian Studies, and has generously shared with me her knowledge, books, and indefatigable enthusiasm ever since. The graphic artist and the typographer, whose combined talents transformed a mere printout into a book, deserve a particular acknow- ledgment. For their brilliant work, I wish to thank Karolina Wojdała, who created the book s haunting cover, and Tomasz Gut, who perfected the book s layout and was responsible for the final shape of the whole. Special thanks go to Nika, Marcin and Tomaszek: my closest friends, who, in their own (workaholic, sociopathic, or hypochondriac) ways, have always provided me with a sense of stability. Finally, I owe the greatest debt of gratitude to my husband, partner and companion, paweł Jędrzejko, who, over the decade together, has in- vented countless strategies of de-shaming me. copyright information summary of the theoretical chapter together with an earlier version of my analysis of Lorna Crozier’s poem entitled “Alice” were pub- lished in Open Letter. A Canadian Journal of Writing and Theory, no. 3 “Mistaken Identity,” guest-edited by Lola Lemire Tostevin, (Summer 2007), 91–100. My reading of Lorna Crozier’s “Original Sin” and “What I Gave you Truly” was published in Romanica Silesiana, no. 5 “Les Trans- gressions” (Katowice: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Śląskiego, 2010), 235–252. My interpretation of Lorna Crozier’s “poem for Sigmund” was published in polish in Męskość w kulturze współczesnej, edited by Andrzej radomski and bogumiła Truchlińska (Lublin: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie, 2008), 220–226. Finally, parts of Chapter Three dedicated to Crozier’s “Alice” and “Sometimes My body Leaves Me” were published in English in From the Foundation of Quebec City to Present-Day Canada (1608–2008): Retrospections, Path of Change, Challenges, edited by Krzysztof Jarosz, Joanna Warmuzińska-rogóż and Zuzanna Szatanik (Katowice: para, 2009), 191–208, and in polish in Er(r)go, no. 17 “Klonowanie Kanady,” guest- edited by Eugenia Sojka, (2/2008), 37–50. I am grateful for permissions to reuse the material above, which, in this book, has been—sometimes very radically—revised and modified. INTR p t e a c h gendering shame NT OR The evidence of decades of trans- cultural studies indicates that social codes and moral strictures are socially constructed, but based on nonspecific biological elements. Apparently, we have an inborn capacity for the response we call shame. but we are taught which of our actions are shameful. We cannot become victims of shame until we are taught about shame. yet, despite the evi- dence, there is still an insistence among both religious fundamentalists and many sociobiologists that our sense of shame is an unalterable part of a specific moral conscience that we are born with. A belief in such “inborn” shame is the basis of the Western mythology of transgression. Jamake Highwater, The Mythology of Trans- gression: Homosexuality as Metaphor (11) e n hame is a common sensation. An unpleasant contraction felt when one is caught red-handed, shame is manifest on a blushing face. It makes one feel both exorbitantly aware of being and, at the same time, desperate not to be: to disappear or hide. As such, it is an anti- thetic emotion, described in terms of freezing, withdrawal or paralysis, as well as burning, aggrandisement or transgression. because of the fact that shame is felt in and on the body, and, at the same time, breaches the body’s limits, it makes one feel too large or too small, both indis- cernible and overexposed. A shamed person is therefore perplexingly (un)framed. Indeed, the angst inscribed in the experience of shame is that of “losing face”: the fundamental “(Who) am I?” becomes inevi- table. In this book, the “I” whose identity is thus unfixed is gendered feminine. Shame, at the same time, is a cultural phenomenon. Inscribed within basic discourses of the culture of the West, it becomes an in- strument of power and subjection. As such, it not only merits a full- fledged study, but also calls for a remedy. As a function of the lan- guage rooted in androcentric metanarratives, it has detrimentally affected women since the time immemorial—not only at the level de- scribable in terms of sociopolitical dynamics between (traditionally conceived) genders, but also at the level of the body: a non-discursive entity beyond language. born in discourse, cultural shame transcends discourse; yet, even though the body will not lend itself to deconstruc- tions, rhetorical strategies of shaming, which involve the attribution of values to the body, will. The underlying assumption of the argument presented in this book is that, like shame, the rhetorical disempower- ment of shaming discourses will manifest itself in and on the shame- less body: at home with one’s body, the de-shamed self becomes “rift- less.” No longer politically disciplined or coerced, such a self may seek its own definition beyond inherited categories: Woman’s1 self, no longer determined by the androcentric language, loses rigid fixity imposed by patriarchal categories: instead, it brings a plethora of possible alter- natives into play. It is, obviously, easier said than done: we are born into and raised in a language that has always already defined our reality. And yet, lit- 1 Whenever in my work I refer to “woman” (and/or “man”) as generalised, cultural constructs, I start the words with the capital letters or use plural forms. I address complexities inscribed in the concept of “Woman” and her affinity to shame in greater detail in the second, theoretical, chapter of this book. 19 erature, the testing ground for ideas, remains far from “exhausted.” poised against language, self-conscious and self-reflective, literature has the power of annulling and redefining categories not only by de- constructing fundamental oppositions upon which central metanarra- tives rest, but also by its capacity of exposing the reader to an experi- ence which in itself transgresses discourse. An act of reading, as well as an act of writing, is an existential act, throwing one into the liminal space where the organising principles of the dominant discourses col- lapse. It is such an experience, born in my immersion in the literary discourse of Canada, that inspires this book: my theoretical reflection concerning the fundamentals of culture is derived from the “literary testing ground” of Lorna Crozier’s poetry, whose intuitive attempts to use language against itself result in the disempowering of the rhet- oric of shame without resorting to the use of unyieldingly rigid, accept- able, institutionalised, “intersubjectively verifiable” categories. My book begins where she has left off: it uses Crozier’s literary intuitions as a pre- text to revise existing theoretical visions of shame in order to propose a non-essentialist theory which would acknowledge the value of meta- phorical, non-categorial, poetic language as a means to both describe and create reality. My study’s departure point is, at the same time, a point of conver- gence of the literary discourses, mainstream feminist theories and psy- chological studies focused upon the nature of the shame affect. It is upon such a fundament that I aim to translate the psychological theory of shame into the language of feminism, thus working out a set of tools by means of which it would be possible to formulate a gendered theory of Woman’s shame. First, however, things first. 1.1. shame psychology: androcentrism in therapy I knew that I needed to intervene. As I continued to gaze into her face and into her eyes, I said, “Imagine me right there beside you as your ally, right there in that room with you. I want you to picture me standing there. Can you see me?” After a pause, Theresa nodded her agreement, her eyes closed. “Yes . . . I can see you . . . with me.” Gershen Kaufman, The psychology of Shame. Theory and Treatment of Shame-based Syndromes (306) hame psychology is a field of study originating in the work of Silvan Tomkins, and further evolving in the writings of such major figures in the field as Gershen Kaufman, benjamin Kilborne, Michæl Lewis, Donald L. Nathanson, Stephen pattison or Léon Wurmser. Although, in general, it is unaffiliated specifically to either cultural studies or femi- nist theory, shame psychology offers the most expansive studies of the eponymous affect, and was one of the first academic disciplines to acknowledge shame as a factor crucial to the formation and devel- opment of one’s identity. Thus far, as a rule, specialists in the area have mostly focused their attention on the negativity of the experience of shame and its destructiveness to the process of identity formation. In their works, shame has emerged as “the most disturbing experience individuals ever have about themselves”—one wounding the self from within (Kaufman and raphael xiii). The wound, however, as Gershen Kaufman and Lev raphæl imagine it, is not mortal: therefore, the re- searchers have proposed that shame be fought by means of boosting their patients’ self-esteem and helping them discover their “inner power.” The validity of their therapeutic goals notwithstanding, the clinical practice seems to rest upon theoretical foundations rein- forcing, rather than eliminating, the essential reason why their patients became patients in the first place, which claim the following examples seem to confirm. Gershen Kaufman’s description of one of his “clinical [cases]” (305), providing the motto opening this section of my book, involves a story 21 of Theresa, a patient of his, and a victim of childhood sexual abuse, who suffered consequences of prolonged exposure to shame. “physi- cally violating the body,” writes Kaufman, “invariably generates pro- found shame; in response to shame one naturally feels to blame” (305). In Theresa’s story two different representations of patriarchal power— the father and the therapist—come to perform, respectively, two oppo- site functions: that of the abuser and that of the saviour. However, most intriguing about the motto is that its rhetoric seems modelled on representations of gender omnipresent in romantic narratives. In her therapist’s account, Theresa becomes a damsel in distress, who pas- sively awaits masculine assistance. The man, on the other hand, ac- tively intervenes, by means of penetrating the woman with his probing look and then entering her mind. Evidently, the therapist-patient rela- tionship reflects the agent-patient hierarchy characteristic of the tradi- tional Western order of gender relations. Other shame psychologists offer similar narratives. For example, in Nathanson’s Shame and Pride. Affect, Sex, and the Birth of the Self, Michæl Lewis’s Shame: The Exposed Self, or Léon Wurmser’s “Shame: The Veiled Companion of Narcissism,” theoretical ponderings of the au- thors are often intertwined with the personal confessions of their fe- male patients. regardless of whether these stories are narrated in the first person, or already “appropriated” by the therapist, the pa- tients are presented as coming to therapy in order to seek illumina- tion: an epiphany by the light of the therapist’s authority. The process of helping a shamed woman seems to require that she surrenders her- self to the authority, or—like Theresa—closes her eyes in an act of ther- apeutic submission. The three “case studies” below manifest different facets of the complex relationship between a male therapist and a fe- male patient: e m a h s g n r e d n e g . i i n o t c u d o r t n i Consider Laura, a young woman who came into therapy to see if she was “crazy,” as her father had always taught her. Well, no, she certainly was not crazy, but she seemed frozen inside, the needing and feeling part of her locked deeply away. Therapy proceeded slowly, intellectually, until the fourth session. I sensed she was feeling shame, a prisoner of exposure. She appeared to be feeling acutely self-conscious during our meetings. After she agreed with my observation, I asked her if she was willing to try something. Looking at me quizzically, she nodded. I invited her to relax in the chair and close her eyes, adding that I would close mine and I would not peak. She laughed. (Kaufman 161) 22 Sandy and I are well into the initial history, that group of sessions during which a therapist should be the most intrusive. At forty, she has a graduate degree that allows her to make a good living, but is otherwise unhappy with her life. What she wants out of therapy is clear: “I want confidence— believing in yourself. I am so afraid of intimacy that I am afraid if I meet the right person I won’t know what to do. Near the end of our first meeting she touched her cheek fleetingly as if to check its temperature, then breathed a sigh of relief and said, “At least I didn’t say ‘I’m sorry’ every five minutes like I used to.” . . . We have agreed that, in order for us to learn what lies be- neath her symptoms, I will be permitted to ask several deeply personal questions. (Nathanson 315) d e - s h a m e d A patient of mine had a sexual encounter with someone outside of her mar- riage. She told me that this encounter had occurred several years earlier and that she had felt terribly ashamed. She saw herself as violating the family unit and, because of this shame, found herself so unhappy that she finally confessed her transgression to her husband. It is important to note what she reported she felt after she finally confessed. She said, “After I told him, and he said that he understood and still loved me, I felt as if weight had been lifted from me.” In other words, confession had redeemed her, since she would confess to the one whom she transgressed against and who forgave her. (Lewis 134) The first patient, Laura (not unlike Theresa), passes from subjection to one patriarchal authority (the father who proclaimed her “crazy”) to another (a therapist whose professional training allows him to verify the father’s statement). Laura is “frozen inside” and “a prisoner of ex- posure.” The goal of her therapist, therefore, is to warm her up and make her feel comfortable. The first stage of her therapy—slow and in- tellectual—is a form of a foreplay followed by a breakthrough: Laura relaxes and places her confidence in the man (she trusts he will not peek). As evidenced by the quotation above, the (supposedly remedial) discursive act of baring oneself in front of a therapist resembles “a sexual act based on male norms” (bernstein 23). The process of free associations in particular requires that “the patient [yields] to psycho- analysis, . . . [abandons herself] to a process, a phrase that implicates the talking cure as a version of sexual seduction” (bernstein 25). Con- currently, Sandy—the second case study—comes to her therapist for lessons in intimacy, and consents to the man’s intrusiveness. The mention of the patient touching her—possibly hot, possibly blushing—cheek and breathing a sigh of relief adds an erotic dimension to Nathanson’s description. 23 The anonymous woman of the third quote is healed through acts of confession: first she confesses her transgression to her husband and then—to her therapist. In order to be cured, she needs to tell a shame-full story twice, a sine-qua-non of the commencement of the process of recovery. psychotherapy—especially when based on Freudian psychoanalysis—is similar to confession (not only in its de- mand that the shameful truth be revealed, but also because it is regu- lated by the hierarchy inscribed between the therapist and the patient). Like confession, also psychotherapy commonly relies on storytelling and interpreting. both often focus on sexuality, and particularly on “whatever is considered pathological, perverse or illicit” (bernstein 16). Like confession, psychotherapy promises absolution through purgation. What is more—to return to the earlier analogy—in order for psycho- analysis to work, the psychoanalyst has to be consecrated as the father confessor, endowed with a “magnified scope of visual, aural, and silent sources of knowledge” (26), an almost godlike ability to read the un- conscious. The “talking cure,” in other words, requires that the unques- tionable superiority of the therapist be accepted by the patient, and therefore the “talking” part of it gives way to the more important notions of control and silencing. In the light of what has been stated so far, it seems apparent that for a shamed woman thus construed psy- choanalysis can be used as a way to further subjugation, rather than liberation.2 2 A Canadian author who intimates the problematic relationship between a woman and her therapist from the perspective of both, a patient and a feminist, is Janice Williamson. In her Crybaby!—a narrative which revolves around the memory of childhood sexual abuse—she anxiously observes how someone’s memories can be usurped and either certified or invalidated by instances of power. She also offers an insight into how a woman patient is construed as powerless and hence having no access to the truth. “In our culture”—as Williamson asserts—“the figure of the child has a lot in common with the woman who speaks into the wind; in spite of experience and accomplishments, the problem of legitimacy persists” (176). Corre- spondingly, a woman who narrates her shameful story is a child-woman who speaks with the child’s voice, and as such needs to respond to the authority and judgment of her therapist. Williamson expresses her doubts concerning the therapeutic “act of telling things” a number of times, most clearly, perhaps, in the penultimate part of the book, titled “Fragments of an Analysis.” Although the extent to which the methods em- ployed by her therapists rely on Freudian conception of psychoanalysis is not clearly determined, they depend on verbal expression and require that the hierarchy be- tween the doctor and the patient be maintained. “In spite of many satisfying mo- ments of comfort and the fact that good therapy probably saved my life”—writes 24 e m a h s g n r e d n e g . i i n o t c u d o r t n i 1.2. de-centering androcentrism: toward a reconceptualisation of methodology d e - s h a m e d Even though the examples quoted above support the intuitive need to revise available theories of shame, I do not aim to propose any alternative forms of individual therapy. Instead, since I am interested in shame as a cultural phenomenon, rather than discussing an appar- ently neutral concept of a (de)shamed “self,” my argument focuses spe- cifically on the phenomenon of the (de)shaming of women in the cul- ture of the West. Concentrating upon strategies of transcending shame (which, when translated into the language of popular psychology, con- notes “fighting it,” or “self-healing”), I am primarily interested in the de- marginalisation of possible parallel (subversive) paradigms of reading of cultural texts, which, albeit potentially therapeutic in individual cases, applies, above all, to a wide cultural context. With such a goal in mind, in order to explore the relationship between Woman and shame I examine ways in which the findings of shame psycholo- gists have been read and interpreted by a group of influential theorists critiquing the principles underlying the metanarrative orders that orga- nise Western societies. In fact, for over a decade now, a number of feminist, postcolonial, and queer theorists have been involved with the debate addressing the theory of shame as related to their own fields of study. This, in turn, has produced a plethora of cultural and literary interpretations re- Williamson—“sometimes I found myself . . . resenting the conversation” (176). What she subsequently details are, seemingly, the moments of resistance against the au- thority of her therapists. She notices repeatedly that these specialists—regardless of their gender—work within the constraints of a limited and limiting patriarchal discourse, that they often reiterate overly simplified formulas, and disregard their patient’s intelligence and insight. “Talk about ‘the child within’ drove me wild with fury”—Williamson declares—“as though history were a series of transparent layers to be peeled off one by one” (176). What the narrator senses at times is that she knows more, knows better, as a feminist, a scholar, and a chronicler of her own past. However, she finds herself “playing dumb” (177), and saying nothing. “Why?”—she asks—“It doesn’t make sense” (177). 25 volving around shame or adopting it as a central concept.3 For instance, such feminist critics as Simone de beauvoir or Sandra Lee bartky em- phasise the paralysing effects of shame and write about shaming as a cultural mechanism of control, implemented and institutionalised in order to keep women passive. In turn, queer theorists, including Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Sally r. Munt, focus on the transgressive na- ture of the affect. The parallel existence of these two, apparently con- trary, perspectives indicates the paradoxical nature of shame. The above notwithstanding, however, both must be taken into account in order to elucidate the dynamics underlying the two processes of my interest: cultural shaming, and feminist de-shaming of Woman. And thus, rather than simply due to the fact that the source of my inspiration was the work of a Canadian woman poet, it is mainly via feminist and queer studies that the affect central to this book becomes linked to my third area of interest. The rhetoric of shame, interestingly, seems to harmonise with the language employed by scholars in these fields to address the ever-elusive concept of Canadianness. yet, while queer theorists emphasise the indefiniteness and unfixedness of Cana- dian national identity, feminist researchers assert that women and Ca- nadians speak from the same position of the margins. The feminiza- tion of Canada, however, precedes the feminist critique of Woman as the Other: for example, in the 19th-century adventure stories set in the Canadian North, the hostile landscape was often addressed by means of the topos of the female body—one which needs first to be tamed and then taken in possession. Granted, it is in thus gendered Canadian scenery that Lorna Cro- zier’s poems are inscribed. In fact, Crozier’s works—including her most recent Small Beneath the Sky: A Prairie Memoir (2009) and Small Me- 3 These publications include Joseph Adamson’s Melville, Shame and the Evil Eye: A Psychoanalytic Reading (1997), Scenes of Shame. Psychoanalysis, Shame, and Writing (1999), edited by Joseph Adamson and Hilary Clark, J. brooks bouson’s Quiet As It’s Kept. Shame, Trauma, and Race in the Novels of Toni Morrison (2000), and Ewan Fernie’s Shame in Shakespeare (2002). The more recent works linking shame studies with feminist, and gay and lesbian studies, respectively, are J. brooks bouson’s Embodied Shame. Uncovering Female Shame in Contemporary Women’s Writing (2009) and Gay Shame by David Halperin and Valerie Traub (2010). As I was preparing this book for publication, the following works were announced as forthcoming: Timothy bewes’s The Event of Postcolonial Shame (2011), Neil See- man’s and patrick Luciani’s XXL: Obesity and the Limits of Shame (2011) and Amy Erdman Farrell’s Fat Shame: Stigma and the Fat Body in American Culture (2011). e m a h s g n r e d n e g . i i n o t c u d o r t n i 26 chanics (2011)—have most often been classified as “prairie writing.” yet, even though the seven poems I have chosen as illustrations of my theoretical considerations make no direct references to Canada as a place, they often focus on the female body as markedly “deterrito- rialised.” by means of the same “topographical” rhetoric, which often looms large in poetic descriptions of the space of Canada, Crozier em- phasises the body’s transformative properties in order to question pa- triarchal definitions of Woman and effectively points to such a theo- retical space where the theories of shame, gender, queerness and Canadianness meet and intersect. d e - s h a m e d 1.3. an ascending spiral: methodology and organisation of the argument Attaining thus defined goals, however, requires a rather rigid argu- mentative frame, fashioned, so to say, upon the principle of the “as- cending spiral.” rather than dismiss the findings of androcentric shame psychology, I revise the assumptions of this discipline by recontextual- ising it within frames of contemporary feminist and queer studies. The consistency of a thus proposed theory would rely upon the “gen- dered” version of the methodological foundations of shame psychology, yet its applications would go beyond individual therapy. Such a theory aspires to offer tools first to recognise and then to interpretively coun- teract shaming discourses inscribed within cultural texts of the West. The methodological position I develop translates into the following composition of the book: in chapter two, “Towards a Theory of Wom- an’s Shame,” I first present an overview of selected works by the most influential shame psychologists in order to both introduce concepts I employ further in my work, and—more importantly—to indicate the areas these thinkers have left uncharted due to the paucity of their references to women or gender. It is, in fact, my intention to try and fill in these gaps with the use of feminist and queer theories. Secondly, I characterise the generalised cultural construct dubbed “Woman” and then proceed to define Woman’s shame in light of femi- nist cultural studies. The definition of Woman which I adopt is histori- cally rooted in the now canonical theory proposed by Simone de beau- voir, the first feminist author to evidence a close relationship between Woman and shame. Western culture, in beauvoir’s interpretation, tends to identify Woman with her body, and to attach multiple, often self-contradictory and objectionable meanings to the Woman/body construct. The Woman’s body is visible; it both makes her and is her; it is a conspicuous object that others examine and evaluate. In beau- voir’s terms, becoming Woman resembles being taught how to play a role in a cultural performance—a role which requires no lines and no movement, but demands that the trainee go on stage with the acute realisation that an audience is there, invisible, yet watchful and judg- 28 e m a h s g n r e d n e g . i i n o t c u d o r t n i d e - s h a m e d mental. In order to guide Woman off the thus construed stage, in the final sections of the second chapter I offer an insight into shame’s transformative and transgressive potential. In light of queer theory and the highly ambiguous concept of Canadianness, it becomes pos- sible to demonstrate that shame may provide the stimulus opening up possibilities of various redefinitions of Woman’s subjectivity. To illustrate the applicability of the theoretical perspective worked out in chapter two, I proceed to the third, interpretive chapter, “Lorna Crozier’s Feminist Strategies: Four Studies in Transcending Woman’s Shame.” It comprises four subchapters illustrating particular ways of de- shaming Woman. In the first subchapter, entitled “Transgressing Trans- gression. Subverting the Authority of the biblical Creation Myth (‘Orig- inal Sin’ and ‘What I Gave you, Truly’),” I demonstrate how the ideas presented in the theoretical chapters relate to the paradigmatic experi- ence of Woman’s shame. The subject of my investigation is the biblical Eve and the Original Shame she brought upon humankind. The anal- yses of Crozier’s poems allow me to trace both feminist and queer strat- egies which prove efficient as discursive tools facilitating acts of “going beyond shame”: in this case, the shame attributed to Eve, one of the pro- totypical models of femininity in Western culture. The broad perspective of foundational metanarratives of Judeo- Christianity provides a backdrop against which the analyses included in the second subchapter, “Shrinking the Shrink. Subverting the Au- thority of the ‘Classical’ Theories of Sex and Gender (The Penis Poems),” gain particular focus. In this section, I propose a reading of Crozier’s “poem for Sigmund” and “Tales for Virgins,” which belong to a poetic cycle of twelve verses under the common title of The Penis Poems. “poem for Sigmund” is a feminist response to the Freudian concept of “penis envy” and to the cultural sublimation of the male sexual organ. Employing the rhetoric of feminist re-visions of Freud’s theo- ries, I aim to demonstrate central characteristics of Crozier’s ironic strategy, and to show how she succeeds in de-shaming Woman’s ap- parent “lack.” This, subsequently, leads to the debarring of the “oxy- moronic” nature of cultural myths narrating (and thus regulating) vir- ginity and its loss, as well as conditioning the shame inscribed in both. The overall effect of such a strategy is the undermining of the “institu- tionalised truths” about femininity, legitimised by virtue of their root- edness of androcentric psychoanalytic discourses in patriarchal meta- narratives of the West. 29 The third subchapter, “Gazing at the Gaze. Subverting the ‘Ocular regime’ (‘Alice’ and ‘Sometimes My body Leaves Me’),” focuses upon two representations of the Woman’s body. The bodies in both poems would commonly be referred to as “normal”: there is nothing excep- tional about them. And yet, it is in these bodies that shame emerges “naturally” due to the objectifying, shaming look the heroines of the poems adopt as their own. My goal is to examine possible counter-looks, ones that transgress the “self-other” duality. The ensuing, fourth subchapter, titled “Subjectifying the Subject. Subverting the Western beauty Myth (‘The Fat Lady’s Dance’),” criti- cally addresses meanings attributed to the female body marked as fat. Since contemporary Western culture has rendered the fat body partic- ularly visible, in light of the debate on the troubled relationship be- tween shame and visibility it becomes clear why it is the body of a fat woman that would be burdened with an exceptionally negative weight. Crozier’s poem, however, consistently unburdens the Fat Lady—not of fat, but of shame-inducing meanings. The interpretive chapter ends with a short résumé entitled “Kissing and Telling.” The analysis of Crozier’s de-shaming strategies, carried out within the frame of the theory worked out in the theoretical sections of this book, leads to its final chapter. recapitulating findings derived from analyses, the “Conclusions” simultaneously confirm the applicability of the proposed theoretical apparatus to the study of issues relating to Woman’s shame and indicate possible paths towards further revision of the existing state of knowledge, as well as—consequently—toward the abandonment of detrimental cultural practices. It is thus without any claims to exhaustiveness or universality that the present book as- pires to make a foray into a territory of transgression: working from “within” the dominant patriarchal paradigm, the argument presented here leads towards a space in which shame’s defining power would no longer affect either the shape of Woman’s self, or that of her body. S T SZZER C E E NI résumé od-wstydzona dépasser la honte SZZE C zuzanna szatanik od-wstydzona „wykroczenie” jako feministyczna strategia: przypadek poezji lorny crozier (streszczenie/summary in polish) Niniejsza książka poświęcona jest strategiom wykraczania poza do- świadczenie wstydu, które – jak wykazuje autorka – stanowi nieod- łączny komponent wytworzonego przez kulturę zachodnią konstruktu „kobiety”. rozważania teoretyczne, dotyczące wstydu jako wykorzysty- wanego przez dyskursy androcentryczne zjawiska kulturowego, autorka ilustruje swoimi analizami wybranych wierszy współczesnej kanadyj- skiej poetki Lorny Crozier. Część teoretyczna pracy lokuje się więc na po- graniczu studiów feministycznych i psychologicznych studiów nad afektem (tzw. psychologii wstydu). Trzeci z obecnych w pracy teoretycz- nych dyskursów wywodzi się z pojęcia „kanadyjskości”, czy też kanadyj- skiej tożsamości, przez wielu badaczy łączonego również z teorią queer. W skład części teoretycznej książki wchodzą dwa rozdziały. W pierwszym analizowane są najważniejsze pozycje z dziedziny psycho- logii wstydu oraz ukazana jest nieobecność „kobiety” w owych opra- cowaniach. Drugi rozdział koncentruje się na tych tekstach teoretycz- nych z dziedziny teorii feminizmu i gender studies, w których temat wstydu został wyraźnie powiązany z kobiecością. Zasadniczym celem tej części jest przełożenie psychologicznej teorii wstydu (wypracowanej przez takich badaczy, jak Silvan Tomkins, Gershen Kaufman, Michæl Lewis, Donald L. Nathanson, Stephen pattison i Léon Wurmser) na język współczesnego feminizmu i zaproponowanie swoistej „femi- nistycznej teorii wstydu”. Teoria ta stanowi podstawę do wypraco- wania takich narzędzi interpretacji tekstu, które z jednej strony opierają się na badaniach psychologicznych, a z drugiej uwzględniają specyfikę obiektu badawczych zainteresowań autorki: kobiety jako uogólnionego konstruktu kulturowego. Kobiecy wstyd – afekt mający odmienne cechy niż inne rodzaje wstydu – okazuje się zjawiskiem wyjaśniającym wiele elementów dyskursywnych i pozadyskursywnych, jakie determi- nują relację kobiecości do kultury zachodniej, wobec czego niniejsza 179 propozycja teoretyczna może stanowić fundament nowego kierunku w badaniach feministycznych. Trzeci, analityczny rozdział pracy koncentruje się na strategiach wykraczania poza kobiecy wstyd – czyli „odwstydzania” kobiety – które wywodzą się z teorii oraz literatury feministycznej i obecne są w poezji Crozier. Cechą wspólną owych feministycznych technik od- wstydzania jest kwestionowanie kulturowych „prawd” dotyczących kobiecości i kobiecego ciała. Tematem trzech omawianych w pracy wierszy są te przedstawienia kobiety, które w kulturze patriarchalnej funkcjonują jako szczególnie wstydliwe. Owe wizerunki to biblijna Ewa (wiersze pt. Original Sin i What I Gave You Truly), oraz Gruba pani (The Fat Lady’s Dance). pozostałe cztery analizy (wierszy zatytu- łowanzch Alice, Sometimes My Body Leaves Me, Poem for Sigmund i Tales for Virgins) prezentują „normalną” kobiecość jako rzekome źródło wstydu. Zawarte w rozdziałach interpretacyjnych rozważania, które ilu- strują zastosowanie pojęcia kobiecego wstydu w praktyce analitycznej, prowadzą do konkluzji o możliwej zmianie istniejących teorii femini- stycznych lub uzupełnieniu ich o stanowisko nowe. Feministyczna teoria wstydu, której zręby buduje niniejsza praca, stanowi propozycję nieco innego niż dotąd spojrzenia na główny obiekt badań studiów fe- ministycznych – kobietę i relacje, w jakie wchodzi ona we współcze- snym świecie. Zaproponowane interpretacje siedmiu wierszy Lorny Crozier są jednocześnie świadectwem zachodzących już teraz kulturo- wych zmian w postrzeganiu kobiety, prowadzących do wytworzenia takiej transgresyjnej przestrzeni, w której kobiecy wstyd przestaje być jednym ze stałych parametrów kobiecości. zuzanna szatanik dépasser la honte. stratégies feministes de transgression : la cas de la poésie de lorna crozier d e - s h a m e d (résumé/summary in french) C e livre est consacré à des stratégies de dépassement de l’expérience de la honte qui est, selon l’auteure, une partie inhérente à la constru- ction « femme » dans la culture occidentale. Le contenu théorique de ce travail, qui porte sur la honte en tant que phénomène culturel propre aux discours androcentriques, est illustré par l’analyse des poèmes choisis de la poète canadienne contemporaine Lorna Crozier. La partie théorique aborde donc les thèmes proches des études féministes et des recherches psychologiques sur l’affect (psychologie de la honte). Ces deux discours sont traversés dans ce travail par le discours sur la « canadia- nité » voire l’identité canadienne que beaucoup de chercheurs et cher- cheuses analysent dans le cadre de la théorie queer. La partie théorique se compose de deux chapitres. Le premier porte sur les travaux les plus importants dans le domaine de la psychologie de la honte et montre que « la femme » y est absente. Le deuxième cha- pitre se concentre sur les textes théoriques du féminisme et des gender studies, qui se sont déjà proposés d’analyser la notion de honte par rap- port à la féminité. L’objectif de la partie théorique est de rapporter la théorie psychologique de la honte, élaborée par des chercheurs comme Silvan Tomkins, Gershen Kaufman, Michæl Lewis, Donald L. Nathanson, Stephen pattison et Léon Wurmser, au discours féministe contemporain, et par conséquent de proposer une théorie féministe de la honte. Celle-ci permet d’élaborer les outils d’interprétation du texte qui sont basés sur les études psychologiques, mais qui tiennent également compte de la spécificité de l’objet d’étude qui intéresse l’auteure : femme géné- rique. La honte féminine, affect qui est bien différent d’autres types de honte, est un phénomène qui explique de nombreux éléments discur- sifs et adiscursifs qui composent la relation féminité – culture occidentale, et peut donner des fondements à une nouvelle piste de recherches fémi- nistes. 181 Le troisième chapitre est analytique et se concentre sur des stratégies de dépassement de la honte féminine qui sont propres à la théorie et lit- tératures féminines et qu’on peut retrouver dans la poésie de Crozier. En principe, ces techniques de dépassement de la honte consistent à re- mettre en question les « vérités » culturelles pour ce qui est de la fémi- nité et du corps féminin. Trois poèmes analysés dans le livre portent sur les représentations de la femme qui sont particulièrement honteuses dans la culture patriarcale : Ève biblique (« Original Sin » et « What I Gave you Truly ») et la Grosse Madame (« The Fat Lady’s Dance »). Quatres analyses (consacrées aux poèmes « Alice », « Sometimes My body Leaves Me », « poem for Sigmund » et « Tales for Virgins ») présentent la féminité normale comme la présumée source de la honte. Les chapitres interprétatives, qui mettent en application la notion de honte féminine abordée dans la partie analytique, arrivent à la conclu- sion qu’il est possible de changer ou compléter les approches féministes existantes. La théorie de la honte féminine qui est à la base de ce livre propose une autre manière de voir la femme en tant qu’objet des études féministes et les relations qu’elle entretient dans le monde contempo- rain. Les sept interprétations des poèmes de Lorna Crozier témoignent des changements culturels pour ce qui est de la perception de la femme, ces changements se situant dans un espace transgressif où la honte n’est plus l’un des apanages permanents de la féminité. I OF NDE X names OF X E a Adamson, Joseph 26, 51, 65, 163 Allan, James 57, 163 Andersen, Hans Christian 40, 98–100, 103–104, 163 Aristophanes 75–79 Arouet, François-Marie 61 Atwood, Margaret 60, 68, 111, 116, 119, 143, 163–164, 174–175 b bachelard, Gaston 115, 164 bakhtin, Mikhail 100, 149 balder, Wade 52 bartky, Sandra Lee 26, 51–52, 54, 83, 106, 129–130, 138, 139, 164 battella, patricia 138, 140, 164 beauvoir, Simone de 26, 28, 49–52, 54, 63, 91, 101, 109, 119, 124, 131, 164, 172 berger, John 126–127 bernstein, Susan 23–24, 72, 80, 81, 83, 159,164 best, Sue 115–116, 164 bewes, Timothy 26, 164 bierwiaczonek, bogusław 174 birke, Linda 89, 164 birney, Earle 111 block Lewis, Helen 54 blum, Virginia L. 134–135, 137, 164 bonaparte, Marie 98–99, 106, 164 bordo, Susan 49, 68, 86–87, 91, 97, 119, 129–130, 134–136, 138–139, 141–145, 148, 151, 164–165 braithwaite, John 52 brennan, Teresa 94, 165, 173 breughel, Jan 113 brooks bouson, J. 26, 165 brooks, Carellin 91, 165 brooks, peter 82, 165 bryan, T. J. 151, 165 buchholtz, Mirosława 13 butler, Judith 58, 151 d e m a h s - e d c Calhoun, Cheshire 55, 165 Carroll, Lewis 46 Carter, Angela 68, 165 Ciudad real, Antonio de 114 Clark, Hilary 26, 65, 163 Currie, Dawn H. 88, 166 d Daly, Mary 54, 83, 85, 104–107, 166, 169 Dame, Enid 75, 166 Davis, Natalie 149 Deigh, John 51 Deutsch, Helen 106 Dhanani, Zahra 147, 166 Diamond, Nicky 142, 166 Dickinson, peter 61, 166 Dowson, Thomas A. 56, 166 Durczak, Joanna 13 Dyck Fehderau, ruth 13 e Earle, Nancy 13 Edelman, Lee 57 Erdman Farrell, Amy 26, 166 Everingham, John 41, 166, 173 f Felman, Shoshana 83, 166 Fernie, Ewan 26, 47, 54, 74, 82, 166 Forssberg, Manne 86-87, 167, Foskett, Mary F. 107–108, 167 Foucault, Michel 44, 72, 167 Freud, Sigmund 24, 29, 72, 91–97, 106, 167 Frye, Marilyn 108, 129, 167, 169 g Gérin, Annie 61, 173 Giddens, Anthony 105, 167 Giffney, Noreen 57, 167 Gilligan, Carol 132, 167 Gilmore, Leigh 71–73, 167 187 Goldie, Terry 61, 163, 167, 172 Graves, robert 75, 167 Grosz, Elizabeth 120–121, 151, 164, 167 Gut, Tomasz 14 h Halperin, David 26, 167 Hawthorne, Nathaniel 132 Helms, Gabriele 111, 117, 167 herising, Fairn 132, 168 Highwater, Jamake 17, 168 Hirsch, Marianne 98, 168 Holland, Samantha 67, 168 Hollingsworth, Margaret 152, 168 Hulan, renée 111–113, 115, 168 Humphries, Carl 174 Hunter, Catherine 134, 152–153, 165, 168 Hurwitz, Siegmund 75, 168 Hutcheon, Linda 117, 119, 132, 168 Irigaray, Luce 92–93, 96, 98, 101, 168 i j Jackson, Michæl 137 Jacoby, Mario 74, 86, 168 James, Jancy 116, 168 Jantzen, Grace M. 102–103, 169 Jarosz, Krzysztof 13, 15 Jędrzejko, paweł 14 Joy, Morny 169 k Kamboureli, Smaro 59–60, 123, 133, 166, 169, 174 Kaufman, Gershen 21–22, 35–38, 43, 169, 179, 181 Keahey, Deborah 69, 169 Kent, Le’a 143, 150, 169 Kessel, Jan van 113 Kilborne, benjamin 21, 46–48, 158, 169 Kipnis, Laura 140–144, 169 Klein, richard 73, 169 Kofman, Sarah 83 Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve 26, 57, 59, 169, 170 s e m a n f o x e d n i Kristeva, Julia 79–80, 102–104, 109, 169, 170, 172 Kroetsch, robert 133, 170 Kruks, Sonia 49–51, 129–131, 170 Kucich, John 81, 170 l Lafrance, Michele N. 135, 170 Lane, patrick 166 Lau, Evelyn 170 Laub, Dori 83, 166 Lawrence, D(avid) H(erbert) 91 Lebesco, Kathleen 150–151, 169, 170 Leder, Drew 123–125, 128–129, 170 Lehtinen, ullalina 53 Levinas, Emmanuel 58 Lewis, Michæl 21, 23, 42–44, 170, 179, 181 Lindisfarne, Nancy 47, 171 Lindsay-Hartz, Janice 53 Lord, M. G. 137 Luciani, patrick 26, 173 Lugones, Maria 129–130 Lynd, Helen Merrel 74, 146, 171 m MacLachlan, bonnie 105, 171 Macpherson, pat 101, 104, 171 Mansfield, Nick 106–107, 171 Merleau-ponty, Maurice 123, 127, 129, 171 Merritt, Juliette 126–127, 133, 171 Michele, Mary di 110, 170–171 Miki, roy 59–60, 166, 169, 174 Miller, William Ian 56, 171 Mitchell, Juliet 96 Monk, Katherine 60, 171 Morawski, Jull G. 132 Morton, Mark 87–88, 171 Możejko, Edward 13 Munt, Sally r. 26, 53, 55, 57–58, 73, 171 Myers, Anita M. 135, 170 n Nabokov, Vladimir 91 Nathanson, Donald L. 21, 23, 36–40, 46, 91, 95–96, 148, 158, 171, 175, 179, 181 188 Nestle, Joan 49, 171 New, William Herbert 111, 117–118, 172 Newman, Zoë 57, 172 o O’Grady, Kathleen 169 Oliver, Kelly 79, 92, 170, 172 Orbach, Suzie 143, 146, 172 p parton, Dolly 137 paster, Gail 39–40, 100, 172 pathai, raphæl 75, 167 perrault, Charles 125–126, 172 pattison, Stephen 21, 53–54, 82, 95, 172, 179, 181 petty, Sheila 61, 173 plath, Sylvia 99, 101, 103–104 plato 75–79, 172 polack, Devra 146, 172 poxon, Judith L. 169 probyn, Elspeth 37, 52–53, 55, 62, 152–153, 155, 164, 172 r rachwał, Tadeusz 13, 115, 172, 174 radomski, Andrzej 15 rank, Otto 88 raphæl, Lev 21, 43, 169 rawl, John 51 rhys, Jean 68, 172 riegel, Christian 132, 172 rivers, Joan 137 rivlin, Lilly 75, 166 rooke, Constance 122–123, 173 rossetti, Dante Gabriel 75, 173 russo, Mary 148–149, 173 rzepa, Agnieszka 13 s Sartre, Jean-paul 51, 58, 128–129, 131, 173 Scheler, Max 130 Schenk, roy u. 41–42, 166, 169, 173 u v 189 d e m a h s - e d Schnitzer, Deborah 69, 169, 173 Scott-Dixon, Krista 86, 89, 173 Seeman, Neil 26, 173 Segal, Naomi 91, 95, 173 Sexton, Anne 68, 173 Sherbert, Garry 60–61, 173 Shick, Carol 69, 173 Showalter, Elaine 68, 173 Sławek, Tadeusz 113–114, 173 Slemon, Stephen 60, 174 Smart, Carol 92, 94–97, 174 Sojka, Eugenia 13, 15 Spelman, Elizabeth V. 54, 174 Steinhauer-Możejko, Sheila 13 Sturgess, Charlotte 112–113, 116, 174 Swift, Jonathan 46 Sylvester, Christine 129–130 Szatanik, Zuzanna 15, 60, 143, 174 t Tamaki, Mariko 150, 174 Tolson, Andrew 112 Tomkins, Silvan 21, 36–37, 43, 63, 179, 181 Torok, Maria 90, 174 Tostevin, Lola Lemire 15 Traub, Valerie 26, 167 Truchlińska, bogumiła 15 Trump, Ivana 137 ussher, Jane M. 105–106, 174 van Herk, Aritha 117, 174 Voltaire—see: Arouet, François-Marie w Wall, Kathleen 107, 175 Waller, Margaret 170 Warmuzińska-rogóż, Joanna 15 Weldon, Fay 134, 175 Wenkart, Henry 75, 166 Wilkie-Stibbs, Christine 101–102, 175 Williamson, Janice 24–25, 175 Winter, Warner 110, 175 Wojdała, Karolina 14 Wolf, Naomi 62, 138–139, 142–144, 151, 175 Wolff, Janet 137, 175 Woolf, Virginia 152 Wright, Joanne H. 68–69, 175 Wurmser, Léon 21–22, 36, 44, 48, 51, 62, 158, 175, 179, 181 z Zivian, Marilyn T. 135, 170 s e m a n f o x e d n i 190 EXECUTIVE EDITOR: Krystian Wojcieszuk COVER DESIGN: Karolina Wojdała On the cover: “De-shamed” by Karolina Wojdała LAYOUT DESIGN: Paweł Jędrzejko and Zuzanna Szatanik Fonts used: Apolonia (by Tomasz Wełna) and Adobe Myriad Pro (by Robert Slimbach and Carol Twombly) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior per- mission of Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego (University of Silesia Press) and the Author. Copyright © 2011 by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego All rights reserved ISSN 0208-6336 ISBN 978-83-226-2079-3 (print edition) ISBN 978-83-8012-612-1 (digital edition) PUBLISHER Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego ul. Bankowa 12B 40–007 Katowice, Poland www.wydawnictwo.us.edu.pl e-mail: wydawus@us.edu.pl First impression. Printed sheets: 12.0. Publishing sheets: 11.0 Paper: Alto 90 g/m2, vol. 1,5 Price: 18 zł (+ VAT) Printing and binding: PPHU TOTEM s.c. M. Rejnowski, J. Zamiara ul. Jacewska 89, 88–100 Inowrocław, Poland “Shame is a common sensation. An unpleasant contraction felt when one is caught red-handed, shame is manifest on a blushing face. It makes one feel both exorbitantly aware of being and, at the same time, desperate not to be : to disappear or hide. As such, it is an antithetic emotion, described in terms of freezing, withdrawal or paralysis, as well as burning, aggrand- isement or transgression. Because of the fact that shame is felt in and on the body, and, at the same time, breaches the body’s limits, it makes one feel too large or too small, both indiscernible and overexposed. A shamed person is therefore perplexingly (un)framed. Indeed, the angst inscribed in the ex- perience of shame is that of “losing face”: the fundamental “(Who) am I?” be- comes inevitable. In this book, the “I” whose identity is thus unfixed is gen- dered feminine.” (From the “Introduction”) “In her De-shamed. Feminist Strategies of Transgression: The Case of Lorna Crozier s Poetry, Zuzanna Szatanik addresses the unsettling subject of Woman s shame, understood as a cultural and psychological phenomenon as well as a literary motif: a subject both important and rarely raised by Pol- ish and international academics alike. The complex, eclectic, methodology adopted by the Author deserves particular credit. Departing from existing psychological and psychotherapeutic studies of shame, burdened by their masculinist, or even misogynist, bias, Szatanik first explores questions con- cerning the relationship between shame and Woman. Subsequently, she focuses upon discursive remedial strategies of transcending Woman s shame in the culture of the West, which she then illustrates in her interpretations of seven poems by the contemporary Canadian poet, Lorna Crozier. To this end, she employs feminist and queer theories, viewed as necessary comple- ments to the existing psychological studies of shame. These approaches, crit- ically processed are then linked to relevant issues within the field of Canadian studies. The end result is a competent, multidirectional, but at the same time cogent study of Woman s shame in the context of transgressive de-shaming strategies employed in literary texts. ( From the review by Agnieszka Rzepa, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland ) z u z a n n a s z a t a n i k / d e - s h a m e d Zuzanna Szatanik is Assistant Professor in the Department of Canadian Studies and Literary Translation at the University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. issn 0208-6336 isbn 978-83-8012-612-1 price: 18 zł (+ VAT) wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Śląskiego katowice 2011
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De-Shamed. Feminist Strategies of Transgression: The Case of Lorna Crozier s Poetry
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