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English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs języka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko - ebook/pdf
English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs języka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 288
Wydawca: Helion Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-283-3409-0 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> komputery i informatyka >> biznes it >> kompetencje osobiste
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Poszerz zasób słownictwa z branży IT i naucz się poprawnie je wykorzystywać!

Obecnie język angielski jest nieodłącznym elementem świata IT. Większość producentów oprogramowania oraz twórców metodyk i standardów w branży IT udostępnia materiały wyłącznie w tym języku. Ponadto wiele projektów informatycznych jest realizowanych we współpracy z ekspertami pochodzącymi z różnych krajów. Komunikacja odbywa się wówczas przeważnie także w języku angielskim. Jeśli więc jesteś specjalistą z branży IT, funkcjonującym na co dzień w środowisku anglojęzycznym, możesz z kolei nie czuć się w pełni swobodnie wypowiadając się w tym języku w każdym obszarze tak szerokiej dziedziny wiedzy.

Jeśli chcesz zatem: koniecznie sięgnij po tę książkę!

Znajdziesz tu profesjonalne angielskie teksty dotyczące różnych obszarów IT: baz danych, big data, sieci komputerowych, metod wytwarzania oprogramowania i wielu innych. Każdy z nich został opatrzony słowniczkiem zawierającym tłumaczenia na język polski zarówno terminów specjalistycznych, jak i tych z języka ogólnego. Ponadto w każdym rozdziale omówione zostały różne zagadnienia gramatyczne wraz z przykładami ich zastosowania w języku informatyki. Na końcu każdego rozdziału znajdziesz ćwiczenia, które pomogą Ci utrwalić poznane słownictwo i reguły gramatyczne. Dzięki temu opanujesz najważniejsze pojęcia, odkryjesz, w jakich kontekstach występują, i zaczniesz stosować je w praktyce.

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Darmowy fragment publikacji:

Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Nieautoryzowane rozpowszechnianie całości lub fragmentu niniejszej publikacji w jakiejkolwiek postaci jest zabronione. Wykonywanie kopii metodą kserograficzną, fotograficzną, a także kopiowanie książki na nośniku filmowym, magnetycznym lub innym powoduje naruszenie praw autorskich niniejszej publikacji. Wszystkie znaki występujące w tekście są zastrzeżonymi znakami firmowymi bądź towarowymi ich właścicieli. Autor oraz Wydawnictwo HELION dołożyli wszelkich starań, by zawarte w tej książce informacje były kompletne i rzetelne. Nie biorą jednak żadnej odpowiedzialności ani za ich wykorzystanie, ani za związane z tym ewentualne naruszenie praw patentowych lub autorskich. Autor oraz Wydawnictwo HELION nie ponoszą również żadnej odpowiedzialności za ewentualne szkody wynikłe z wykorzystania informacji zawartych w książce. Redaktor prowadzący: Michał Mrowiec Projekt okładki: Jan Paluch Fotografia na okładce została wykorzystana za zgodą Shutterstock.com Wydawnictwo HELION ul. Kościuszki 1c, 44-100 GLIWICE tel. 32 231 22 19, 32 230 98 63 e-mail: helion@helion.pl WWW: http://helion.pl (księgarnia internetowa, katalog książek) Drogi Czytelniku! Jeżeli chcesz ocenić tę książkę, zajrzyj pod adres http://helion.pl/user/opinie/anginf Możesz tam wpisać swoje uwagi, spostrzeżenia, recenzję. ISBN: 978-83-283-0433-8 Copyright © Helion 2017 Printed in Poland. • Kup książkę • Poleć książkę • Oceń książkę • Księgarnia internetowa • Lubię to! » Nasza społeczność Spis tre(cid:264)ci Spis zagadnie(cid:254) gramatycznych ......................................................... 7 Wst(cid:246)p .............................................................................................. 9 1. What is Information Technology? .................................................... 15 1.1. Information technology basics ................................................................................. 15 1.2. Measuring profitability of IT investments and their prioritization ........................... 16 1.3. Vocabulary .............................................................................................................. 18 1.4. Revise and expand your knowledge ........................................................................ 20 1.4.1. Did you know? .............................................................................................. 20 1.4.2. Latin expressions in English ((cid:225)aci(cid:276)skie wyra(cid:298)enia w j(cid:266)zyku angielskim) ..... 23 1.4.3. Irregular plural (nieregularna liczba mnoga) ................................................. 23 1.4.4. Elements of grammar .................................................................................... 25 1.5. Check your knowledge ........................................................................................... 27 2. Databases ..................................................................................... 31 2.1. What is a database and DBMS? ............................................................................... 31 2.2. Common types of DBMS ........................................................................................ 32 2.3. Database models ...................................................................................................... 33 2.4. Vocabulary .............................................................................................................. 35 2.5. Revise and expand your knowledge ........................................................................ 38 2.5.1. Did you know? .............................................................................................. 38 2.5.2. Data is or data are — a common problem in IT ............................................. 40 2.5.3. Information is or information are? ................................................................ 41 2.5.4. Elements of grammar .................................................................................... 41 2.6. Check your knowledge ............................................................................................ 47 3. How well do you know your computer? ........................................... 53 3.1. Computer hardware vs. computer software ............................................................. 53 3.2. How does an HD work? ........................................................................................... 55 3.3. What is the motherboard? ........................................................................................ 56 3.4. Vocabulary ............................................................................................................. 57 3.5. Revise and expand your knowledge ........................................................................ 59 3.5.1. Did you know? .............................................................................................. 59 3.5.2. An HDD or a HDD? ...................................................................................... 60 3.5.3. Elements of grammar .................................................................................... 61 3.6. Check your knowledge ......................................................................................... 63 4. Computer networks ........................................................................ 69 4.1. Types of computer networks .................................................................................... 69 4.2. Computer network architecture and topologies ....................................................... 70 4.3. Wireless network: how does it work? ...................................................................... 71 Poleć książkęKup książkę 4 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko 4.4. Network communication standards .......................................................................... 72 4.5. Vocabulary .............................................................................................................. 73 4.6. Revise and expand your knowledge ........................................................................ 75 4.6.1. Did you know? .............................................................................................. 75 4.6.2. Linking words and phrases (spójniki) ............................................................ 77 4.6.3. Elements of grammar .................................................................................... 79 4.7. Check your knowledge ............................................................................................ 82 5. What’s so big about big data? ........................................................ 87 5.1. What is big data? ..................................................................................................... 87 5.2. Challenges in big data analysis ................................................................................ 88 5.3. What is Hadoop? ..................................................................................................... 88 5.4. Hadoop vs. conventional relational database ........................................................... 89 5.5. Vocabulary .............................................................................................................. 90 5.6. Revise and expand your knowledge ........................................................................ 91 5.6.1. Did you know? .............................................................................................. 91 5.6.2. What is an issue? ........................................................................................... 95 5.6.3. Elements of grammar .................................................................................... 96 5.7. Check your knowledge ............................................................................................ 99 6. Business Intelligence ................................................................... 103 6.1. What is Business Intelligence? .............................................................................. 103 6.2. BI system architecture ........................................................................................... 104 6.3. Star schema vs. snowflake schema ........................................................................... 106 6.4. Gartner Magic Quadrant ........................................................................................ 106 6.5. Vocabulary ............................................................................................................ 107 6.6. Revise and expand your knowledge ...................................................................... 109 6.6.1. Did you know? ............................................................................................ 109 6.6.2. To do the analysis — useful synonyms ....................................................... 110 6.6.3. Describing trends ......................................................................................... 111 6.6.4. Elements of grammar .................................................................................. 112 6.7. Check your knowledge .......................................................................................... 117 7. Data mining ................................................................................. 123 7.1. Introduction to data mining .................................................................................... 123 7.2. Data mining methods and techniques .................................................................... 124 7.3. Data mining challenges .......................................................................................... 125 7.4. Vocabulary ............................................................................................................ 126 7.5. Revise and expand your knowledge ...................................................................... 128 7.5.1. Did you know? ............................................................................................ 128 7.5.2. Time series: singular or plural? ................................................................... 129 7.5.3. Synonyms of the word ‘interesting’ ............................................................. 129 7.5.4. Elements of grammar .................................................................................. 130 7.6. Check your knowledge .......................................................................................... 132 8. Software licensing ........................................................................ 137 8.1. What is software licensing for? ............................................................................. 137 8.2. What is EULA? ..................................................................................................... 138 8.3. Common software licensing models ...................................................................... 138 8.4. Demoware vs. shareware vs. freeware vs. abandonware ....................................... 139 8.5. Vocabulary ........................................................................................................... 140 8.6. Revise and expand your knowledge ...................................................................... 142 8.6.1. Did you know? ............................................................................................ 142 8.6.2. Acronyms in business emails and their meaning ......................................... 143 8.6.3. Elements of grammar .................................................................................. 144 8.7. Check your knowledge ......................................................................................... 147 Poleć książkęKup książkę Spis tre(cid:264)ci 5 9. Software development methodologies ........................................... 151 9.1. Present approach to software development ............................................................ 151 9.2. Heavyweight vs. lightweight software development methodologies ..................... 152 9.3. Agile software development methodologies and frameworks ............................... 153 9.4. Vocabulary ............................................................................................................ 156 9.5. Revise and expand your knowledge ...................................................................... 159 9.5.1. Did you know? ............................................................................................ 159 9.5.2. The team agree or agrees? ........................................................................... 162 9.5.3. Elements of grammar .................................................................................. 163 9.6. Check your knowledge ......................................................................................... 166 10. The Internet and the World Wide Web ........................................... 171 10.1. The Internet: how exactly does it work? .............................................................. 171 10.2. Common Internet services ................................................................................... 173 10.3. Google search engine: how does it work? ........................................................... 174 10.4. Revise and expand your knowledge .................................................................... 177 10.5. Vocabulary .......................................................................................................... 175 10.5.1. Did you know? ........................................................................................ 177 10.5.2. Elements of grammar ............................................................................... 180 10.6. Check your knowledge ....................................................................................... 183 11. Data governance .......................................................................... 187 11.1. What is data governance? .................................................................................... 187 11.2. Data governance roles .......................................................................................... 189 11.3. Vocabulary .......................................................................................................... 190 11.4. Revise and expand your knowledge .................................................................... 192 11.4.1. Did you know? ........................................................................................ 192 11.4.2. Elements of grammar ............................................................................... 195 11.5. Check your knowledge ....................................................................................... 198 12. Software testing .......................................................................... 203 12.1. What is ISO, IEC and ISO/IEC/IEEE 29119? ..................................................... 203 12.2. ISO/IEC 29119-4: Test Techniques ..................................................................... 204 12.3. SDLC, STLC and the V-Model ........................................................................... 205 12.4. Vocabulary .......................................................................................................... 206 12.5. Revise and expand your knowledge .................................................................... 209 12.5.1. Did you know? ........................................................................................ 209 12.5.2. How to write and read dates correctly? .................................................... 212 12.5.3. Elements of grammar ............................................................................... 213 12.6. Check your knowledge ........................................................................................ 215 English-Polish Glossary ................................................................. 221 Polish-English Glossary ................................................................. 241 Answers ....................................................................................... 265 Bibliografia .................................................................................. 279 Poleć książkęKup książkę 6 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko Poleć książkęKup książkę 2. Databases 2.1. What is a database and DBMS? Database can be defined as a repository for storing data or information which is: (cid:141) Interrelated: It means that parts of data within the database are associated with other parts in it, e.g. data on purchased products must be related to customers who bought them. (cid:141) Organized: It means that data is usually arranged on the basis of application requirements; data with the same properties is e.g. grouped together. (cid:141) Accessible exploitable: It means that data must be available for quick data retrieval by third party applications using a variety of programming languages such as Java. It is the role of database administrator (DBA) to operate, secure, monitor and main- tain the database, whereas data administrator is a non-technical position responsi- ble for defining and implementing consistent principles connected with data, such as setting data standards and data definitions that apply to all the databases in an organization. The simplest type of database is a set of flat files stored on computer disk. A simple data- base usually consists of tables that are managed by a Database Management System (DBMS) used as an interface between a database and its users and other programs which access that database. DBMS helps to define, create, query, update and administer data- base. All database files are integrated into one system, so there are less redundancies and data management is more efficient. The DBMS can be accessed by the database administrator e.g. through the web interface or Graphical User Interface (GUI). Poleć książkęKup książkę 32 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko DBMS vendors such as Oracle®, Microsoft® or PostgreSQL® provide various drivers for different programming languages and platforms which enable access to database engine. The main functionalities and objectives for DBMS are the following: (cid:141) Data availability: It refers to making data available to multiple concurrent users. Such access is controlled by the DBMS to avoid conflicts and deadlocks. (cid:141) Data manipulation: This includes alteration of stored data and retrieval of data. (cid:141) Data integrity: It refers to the assumption that data available in the database is reliable and correct, without any inconsistencies in data types, legal values, format, key uniqueness and referential integrity. (cid:141) Data security: It is connected with preventing unauthorized users from accessing the database; in order to ensure security for the database DBMS uses: (cid:57) Encryption: It refers to converting data in the database to format which cannot be deciphered by the users who make an attempt to view data. (cid:57) Authentication: It refers to identification of a user trying to access the database by verifying his username and password. (cid:57) Authorization: This is a set of rules that DBAs set up to specify access levels that individuals or groups of users can have. (cid:141) Data backup recovery: This means that DBMS provides ways to recover a database if there is a risk of data loss. The easiest way to do this is to make regular backups of data or replicate database from master server to slave server. 2.2. Common types of DBMS Presently, the most widely used DBMS types are the following: (cid:141) Relational DBMS (RDBMS): This is the most widely used data model which is based on relational model defined by E.F. Codd. It will be discussed in more detail in the next part of this chapter. Data in RDBMS is stored in database objects called tables. A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns (attributes) and rows (tuples). A field is a column in a table which includes specific information about every record in it. Data stored in different tables is related by common fields. Such connection between two tables is called a relationship. The most popular RDBMS are MS SQL Server®, DB2®, Oracle® and MySQL®. Most RDBMS use SQL (Structured Query Language) as database query language. To ensure accuracy and consistency of data in a relational database, integrity constraints are used. Three types of integrity constraints which are an inherent element of the relational data model are: entity integrity constraints, referential integrity constraints and domain integrity constraints. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 33 (cid:141) Object-oriented DBMS (OODBMS): It is used for storing data in the form of objects. An object-oriented database can store data from various sources, such as photographs and texts, and produce output in multimedia format. (cid:141) Object-relational DMBS (ORDBMS): This is an RDBMS engine with additional functionality to handle such objects as audio, video and image files. ORDBMS was created as a result of increased usage of object-oriented programming languages. Data in DBMS can be stored in different ways. Having that in mind, the following DBMS can be listed: (cid:141) In-memory DBMS (IMDBMS): This is a DBMS in which the entire database is stored in RAM (Random Access Memory) instead of SSDs (Solid State Drives) to optimize data storage and speed of data retrieval. Owing to massive intra-query parallelism on many-core central processing units (CPUs) the execution time of complex analytical queries can be reduced to seconds. (cid:141) Cloud-based DBMS: This is a distributed DBMS which is based on cloud computing platform. It means that database is stored within a cloud and accessible remotely. (cid:141) Distributed DBMS: This is a centralized application which manages databases distributed over multiple different computers. (cid:141) Embedded DBMS: This is a DBMS which is tightly integrated with application software which requires access to data. Database is however not accessible for end-users of the application. (cid:141) Database as a Service (DBaaS): This is a cloud computing service model in which database is located on service provider’s servers. It is accessed by the client over the network. Clients lease use of a database. Administration of such database is provided by the service provider. 2.3. Database models In order to build database properly and show logical organization of database objects, database designers create a data model. Development of data model involves analyz- ing the data and information needs of an entire organization. Building a conceptual, logical and physical database model is just one of the steps in database development process. By and large, it consists of the following phases: 1. Collection of requirements and analysis of needs which the database should meet. 2. Evaluation of DBMS criteria and database selection (Access®, SQL Server®, Oracle®, etc.). Poleć książkęKup książkę 34 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko 3. Preparation of database design including conceptual, logical and physical database model. 4. Implementation which involves creation of disk space in the form of tablespaces, tables, etc. 5. Data migration loading which involves ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes in order to load data from different systems. 6. Testing and performance tuning for performance, integrity, concurrent access and security constraints. 7. Database release to production environment. A new information system is accessed by the users, who add new data, modify or delete existing data. Administrators do some performance tuning activities and apply access control mechanisms. On the basis of information retrieved from the system, users make business decisions. 8. Maintenance which includes modifications to the existing database design as well as maintenance and upgrade of hardware. In conceptual data model elements of the requirements analysis are grouped into indi- vidual entities presented at the high level. Entities are objects which store data on the same topic, e.g. sales entity usually stores such information as order number, order quantity, order value, etc. Conceptual data model also presents relationships between those entities. These relationships include i.a. one-to-many relationships, one-to-one relationships, many-to-many relationships. Logical data model includes all entities, their attributes and relationships between those entities, with respect to business requirements. The complete logical data model is called the Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). The most popular notations used in ERDs are crow’s foot notation and UML (Unified Modelling Language) notation. At the end of the analysis phase, the entities are fully normalized, the unique identifier for each entity is determined and any many-to-many relationships are resolved into associative entities. There are also primary and foreign keys specified for each entity. Physical database model is a graphical representation of database implementation. In other words, it shows how the model will be built in the database. It is based on the logical model and it includes all such information about database structures as table names, column names, column data types, constraints (including information whether a column can be null or not), as well as previously defined primary keys, foreign keys and relationships between tables. In the picture below (see figure 2.1) you will find all three exemplary data models described above. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 35 Figure 2.1. Example of conceptual, logical and physical data model 2.4. Vocabulary ENGLISH — POLISH access control mechanism — mechanizm kontroli dost(cid:266)pu access level — poziom dost(cid:266)pu accessible — dost(cid:266)pny accessible remotely — dost(cid:266)pny zdalnie accuracy — dok(cid:225)adno(cid:286)(cid:252)/precyzyjno(cid:286)(cid:252)/trafno(cid:286)(cid:252) (to) administer database — administrowa(cid:252) baz(cid:261) danych alteration — zmiana (to) apply (to something) — odnosi(cid:252) si(cid:266) (do czego(cid:286))/ dotyczy(cid:252) (czego(cid:286))/mie(cid:252) zastosowanie (do czego(cid:286)) (to) arrange — organizowa(cid:252)/porz(cid:261)dkowa(cid:252) associative entity — encja asocjacyjna assumption — za(cid:225)o(cid:298)enie attribute — atrybut ENGLISH — POLISH authentication — uwierzytelnienie/po(cid:286)wiadczenie authorization — upowa(cid:298)nienie/uprawnienie/ autoryzacja backup — kopia zapasowa by and large — ogólnie rzecz bior(cid:261)c central processing unit (CPU) — procesor cloud computing platform — platforma oparta na chmurze obliczeniowej cloud-based DBMS — system zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych w chmurze collection of requirements — zbiór wymaga(cid:276) column — kolumna conceptual database model — konceptualny model bazy danych concurrent access — równoczesny dost(cid:266)p consistency — spójno(cid:286)(cid:252) Poleć książkęKup książkę 36 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko ENGLISH — POLISH consistent — spójny constraint — ograniczenie constraints — wi(cid:266)zy (to) convert (something to something) — przekszta(cid:225)ca(cid:252) (co(cid:286) w co(cid:286)) crow’s foot — kurza stopka data administrator — administrator danych data availability — dost(cid:266)pno(cid:286)(cid:252) danych data backup — data integrity — integralno(cid:286)(cid:252) danych data loading — (cid:225)adowanie danych data loss — utrata danych data management — zarz(cid:261)dzanie danymi data manipulation — operowanie/ manipulowanie danymi data migration — migracja danych data model — model danych data need — zapotrzebowanie na dane data recovery — odzyskiwanie danych data retrieval — wyszukiwanie danych data security — bezpiecze(cid:276)stwo danych data standards — standardy zwi(cid:261)zane z bazami danych data storage — przechowywanie danych data type — typ danychkopia zapasowa danych database administrator (DBA) — administrator baz danych database as a service (DBaaS) — baza danych jako us(cid:225)uga database design — projekt bazy danych database designer — projektant bazy danych database engine — silnik bazy danych database management system (DBMS) — system zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych database object — obiekt bazodanowy database query language — j(cid:266)zyk zapyta(cid:276) do bazy danych deadlock — zakleszczenie/blokada wzajemna (to) decipher — rozszyfrowa(cid:252)/odcyfrowa(cid:252) disk space — przestrze(cid:276) dyskowa ENGLISH — POLISH distributed DBMS — system zarz(cid:261)dzania rozproszon(cid:261) baz(cid:261) danych domain integrity constraints — wi(cid:266)zy integralno(cid:286)ci domeny driver — sterownik embedded DBMS — system zarz(cid:261)dzania wbudowan(cid:261) baz(cid:261) danych (to) enable — umo(cid:298)liwia(cid:252) encryption — szyfrowanie end-user — u(cid:298)ytkownik ko(cid:276)cowy (to) ensure — zapewnia(cid:252) entity integrity constraints — wi(cid:266)zy integralno(cid:286)ci encji entity relationship diagram (ERD) — diagram zwi(cid:261)zków encji entity — encja ETL (extract, transform, load) process — proces ETL/proces ekstrakcji, transformacji, i (cid:225)adowania evaluation — ocena execution time — czas wykonania exploitable — nadaj(cid:261)cy si(cid:266) do wykorzystania field — pole flat file — plik p(cid:225)aski foreign key — klucz obcy graphical user interface (GUI) — graficzny interfejs u(cid:298)ytkownika inconsistency — niespójno(cid:286)(cid:252) information need — potrzeba informacyjna inherent — nieod(cid:225)(cid:261)czny in-memory DBMS — system zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych in-memory integrity — integralno(cid:286)(cid:252) integrity constraints — wi(cid:266)zy integralno(cid:286)ci interface — interfejs interrelated — wzajemnie powi(cid:261)zany intra-query parallelism — wykonanie pojedynczego zapytania przy równoleg(cid:225)ym u(cid:298)yciu kilku procesorów (to) involve — dotyczy(cid:252)/obejmowa(cid:252) key uniqueness — unikalno(cid:286)(cid:252) na poziomie kluczy Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 37 ENGLISH — POLISH (to) lease — wydzier(cid:298)awi(cid:252) legal value — dozwolona warto(cid:286)(cid:252) logical database model — logiczny model bazy danych (to) maintain — utrzymywa(cid:252) maintenance — utrzymanie (to) make an attempt — podj(cid:261)(cid:252) prób(cid:266) many-core central processing unit (CPU) — procesor wielordzeniowy many-to-many relationship — relacja wiele do wielu master server — serwer g(cid:225)ówny multimedia format — format multimedialny multiple concurrent users — wielu równoczesnych u(cid:298)ytkowników normalized — znormalizowany notation — notacja object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) — obiektowy system zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych object-oriented programming language — obiektowy j(cid:266)zyk programowania object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) — obiektowo-relacyjny system zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych one-to-many relationship — relacja jeden do wielu one-to-one relationship — relacja jeden do jednego (to) operate — obs(cid:225)ugiwa(cid:252) performance tuning — dostrajanie wydajno(cid:286)ci performance — wydajno(cid:286)(cid:252) physical database model — fizyczny model bazy danych (to) prevent (someone from doing something) — powstrzymywa(cid:252) (kogo(cid:286) przed czym(cid:286)/kogo(cid:286) przed zrobieniem czego(cid:286))/ uniemo(cid:298)liwia(cid:252) (komu(cid:286) co(cid:286)/komu(cid:286) zrobienie czego(cid:286)) primary key — klucz g(cid:225)ówny principle — zasada programming language — j(cid:266)zyk programowania (to) provide — dostarcza(cid:252)/zapewnia(cid:252) ENGLISH — POLISH (to) purchase — naby(cid:252)/zakupi(cid:252) query — zapytanie (to) query database — odpytywa(cid:252) baz(cid:266) danych query language — j(cid:266)zyk zapyta(cid:276) RAM (random access memory) — pami(cid:266)(cid:252) o dost(cid:266)pie swobodnym/pami(cid:266)(cid:252) RAM record — rekord/zapis redundancy — nadmiarowo(cid:286)(cid:252)/ redundancja referential integrity constraints — wi(cid:266)zy integralno(cid:286)ci referencyjnej referential integrity — integralno(cid:286)(cid:252) referencyjna relational database management system (RDBMS) — system zarz(cid:261)dzania relacyjn(cid:261) baz(cid:261) danych relational model — model relacyjny relationship — relacja/zwi(cid:261)zek release to production environment — uruchomienie w (cid:286)rodowisku produkcyjnym (to) replicate — powiela(cid:252)/replikowa(cid:252) repository — repozytorium requirements analysis — analiza wymaga(cid:276) (to) resolve (into something) — rozk(cid:225)ada(cid:252) (na co(cid:286)) retrieval of information — wyszukiwanie informacji row — wiersz security constraints — ograniczenia ze wzgl(cid:266)dów bezpiecze(cid:276)stwa service provider — dostawca us(cid:225)ugi slave server — serwer zapasowy (to) set standards — wyznacza(cid:252) standardy SQL (structured query language) — strukturalny j(cid:266)zyk zapyta(cid:276) SSD (solid state drive) — dysk SSD/dysk pó(cid:225)przewodnikowy (to) store — przechowywa(cid:252)/sk(cid:225)adowa(cid:252) stored data — przechowywane/sk(cid:225)adowane dane tablespace — obszar tabeli third party application — aplikacja producenta zewn(cid:266)trznego/zewn(cid:266)trznego dostawcy Poleć książkęKup książkę 38 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko ENGLISH — POLISH tuple — krotka UML (Unified Modelling Language) — zunifikowany j(cid:266)zyk modelowania unauthorized user — nieautoryzowany /nieuprawniony u(cid:298)ytkownik unique identifier — unikalny identyfikator ENGLISH — POLISH upgrade — aktualizacja vendor — dostawca web interface — interfejs www whereas — podczas gdy with respect to (something) — odno(cid:286)nie do (czego(cid:286)) 2.5. Revise and expand your knowledge 2.5.1. Did you know? RELATIONSHIP TO (SOMETHING) vs. RELATIONSHIP WITH (SOMEBODY) Definition: We talk about a relationship to something when we want to express that two or more things are connected in some way. Example sentence: Data in database is interrelated which means that e.g. data on purchased products must have relationship to customers who bought them. Dane w bazie danych s(cid:261) ze sob(cid:261) powi(cid:261)zane. Oznacza to, (cid:298)e np. dane dotycz(cid:261)ce naby- tych produktów musz(cid:261) by(cid:252) powi(cid:261)zane z danymi o klientach, którzy je kupili. Definition: We talk about a relationship with somebody when we want to say that there is a way in which two people or groups behave towards each other. Example sentence: I established a good working relationship with my boss. Dobrze mi si(cid:266) wspó(cid:225)pracuje z moim prze(cid:225)o(cid:298)onym./Mam dobre relacje w pracy z moim prze(cid:225)o(cid:298)onym. AUTHENTICATION vs. AUTHORIZATION Definitions example sentences: Authentication means identification of a user trying to access the database by veri- fying his username and password. Uwierzytelnianie oznacza identyfikacj(cid:266) u(cid:298)ytkownika, który próbuje uzyska(cid:252) dost(cid:266)p do bazy danych, poprzez weryfikacj(cid:266) jego nazwy i has(cid:225)a. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 39 Authorization is a set of rules that DBAs set up to specify the levels of access that individuals or groups of users are allowed to have. Autoryzacja oznacza zestaw regu(cid:225) formu(cid:225)owanych przez administratorów baz danych w celu okre(cid:286)lenia poziomów dost(cid:266)pu, jakie mog(cid:261) zosta(cid:252) nadane poszczególnym osobom lub grupom u(cid:298)ytkowników. INTEGRITY vs. INTEGRATION Definition: Integrity is the state of a thing which indicates that it is not divided and it exists as a whole. Example sentence: Data integrity means that data available in the database are reliable and correct, without any inconsistencies in data types, legal values, format, key uniqueness and referential integrity. Integralno(cid:286)(cid:252) danych oznacza, (cid:298)e dane dost(cid:266)pne w bazie danych s(cid:261) wiarygodne i po- prawne, nie zawieraj(cid:261) (cid:298)adnych niespójno(cid:286)ci w zakresie typów danych, dozwolonych warto(cid:286)ci, formatu, unikalno(cid:286)ci na poziomie kluczy i integralno(cid:286)ci referencyjnej. Definition: Integration is the process of joining two or more things so that they work together. Example sentence: In Database Management System (DBMS) all database files are integrated into one system, so there are less redundancies and data management is more efficient. W systemie zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych wszystkie pliki bazy danych s(cid:261) zintegrowane w jeden system, aby zmniejszy(cid:252) ilo(cid:286)(cid:252) danych nadmiarowych, a tak(cid:298)e aby zarz(cid:261)dzanie danymi by(cid:225)o bardziej efektywne. DOWNLOAD vs. UPLOAD vs. RETRIEVAL Definition: A download is an activity of moving data from a large computer system to a smaller one. Example sentence: A free trial of data backup software is available for download. Bezp(cid:225)atna wersja próbna oprogramowania do tworzenia kopii zapasowej danych jest dost(cid:266)pna do pobrania. Definition: An upload is a process of moving data from a smaller computer system to a larger one. Poleć książkęKup książkę 40 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko Example sentence: This tool enables you to upload data from external data resources like databases to Hadoop. To narz(cid:266)dzie umo(cid:298)liwia za(cid:225)adowanie danych do Hadoopa z zewn(cid:266)trznych (cid:296)róde(cid:225) danych takich jak bazy danych. Definition: A retrieval of data takes place when you find information or data and get it from the memory of a computer or from a disk. Example sentence: In-memory DBMS is a DBMS in which the entire database is stored in RAM instead of SSDs to optimize data storage and speed of data retrieval. System zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych in-memory to system, w którym ca(cid:225)a baza danych przechowywana jest w pami(cid:266)ci RAM zamiast na dyskach SSD w celu zoptymalizowa- nia przechowywania danych i przyspieszenia wyszukiwania danych. 2.5.2. Data is or data are — a common problem in IT The word data, meaning a given fact, originates from Latin. Its singular is datum, but this form is rarely used. In the nineteenth century, data gained new meaning — facts, statistics and figures — and it is used both as plural and singular, depending on the intention of the speaker or his personal preference. Therefore all sentences below are correct. Data is usually treated as uncountable noun in non-scientific texts (including IT texts). It can be replaced by the word information. Example sentence: This data is useless because it was collected 2 years ago. Te dane s(cid:261) bezu(cid:298)yteczne, gdy(cid:298) pochodz(cid:261) sprzed 2 lat. Data stored in different tables is related by common fields which are database table columns. Dane przechowywane w ró(cid:298)nych tabelach s(cid:261) ze sob(cid:261) powi(cid:261)zane za pomoc(cid:261) wspólnych pól, b(cid:266)d(cid:261)cych kolumnami w tabeli w bazie danych. Much of the data used in the project was out of date, so the testers were unable to test the solution properly. Wiele danych wykorzystanych w tym projekcie by(cid:225)o nieaktualnych, wi(cid:266)c testerzy nie byli w stanie odpowiednio przetestowa(cid:252) rozwi(cid:261)zania. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 41 Data is usually treated as countable noun in specialized scientific fields. It can be replaced by the word facts or figures. Example sentence: A correlation coefficient value of zero means that data are randomly scattered and there is no linear correlation between the variables. Warto(cid:286)(cid:252) wspó(cid:225)czynnika korelacji równa zero oznacza, (cid:298)e dane s(cid:261) losowo rozproszone i nie istnieje liniowa zale(cid:298)no(cid:286)(cid:252) mi(cid:266)dzy zmiennymi. 2.5.3. Information is or information are? Information is an uncountable noun which is singular. We use a singular verb with it, so we say information is. Example sentence: The information is stored in separate data marts. Te informacje s(cid:261) przechowywane w wydzielonych tematycznych hurtowniach danych. 2.5.4. Elements of grammar 2.5.4.1. Countable nouns (rzeczowniki policzalne) It’s important to distinguish between countable and uncountable nouns in English as there are separate rules for their usage. Countable nouns are the things we can count. They have a singular and a plural form. In the table below there are some hints on their proper usage: SINGULAR Positive There is a primary and a foreign key specified for each entity. Administrators do a performance tuning activity. We can use a/an before the noun in singular. PLURAL Positive There are primary and foreign keys specified for each entity. Administrators do some performance tuning activities. Negative There aren’t primary and foreign keys specified for each entity. Administrators don’t do any performance tuning activities. We can use some before the noun. We can use any before the noun. Question Are there any primary and foreign keys specified for each entity? How many performance tuning activities do the administrators do? We can use any/how many before the noun. Poleć książkęKup książkę 42 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko 2.5.4.2. Uncountable (mass) nouns (rzeczowniki niepoliczalne) Uncountable nouns usually have no plural — they are used with a singular verb. These are the things which we cannot count using numbers and we cannot use a/an with these nouns. These are: Abstract nouns which refer to states, concepts, feelings, emotions, etc., which do not exist physically, e.g.: freedom, happiness, truth, darkness, humour, idea, music, love, behaviour, luck, life. Physical objects that are too small to be counted — liquids, gases, powders, sub- stances in grains, e.g.: coffee, sugar, milk, salt, rice, sand, water. Materials, e.g.: wood, plastic, glass. Other general categories, e.g.: money, information, software, knowledge, time, mail, work, equipment, advice, progress, help. Non-plurals with -s, e.g.: economics, mathematics, physics, news, ethics. Here are some examples of uncountable nouns used in a sentence. Example sentences: Users make business decisions on the basis of information which is retrieved from the system. U(cid:298)ytkownicy podejmuj(cid:261) decyzje biznesowe na podstawie informacji pobranych z systemu. Lack of errors in the new information system is good news. Brak b(cid:225)(cid:266)dów w nowym systemie informacyjnym to dobra wiadomo(cid:286)(cid:252). Database management software is used to manipulate and manage data in order to find and present useful information. Oprogramowanie do zarz(cid:261)dzania bazami danych jest wykorzystywane do operowania i zarz(cid:261)dzania danymi w celu odszukania i zaprezentowania u(cid:298)ytecznych informacji. Notice! You can make some uncountable nouns countable by adding quantifiers (okre(cid:286)lniki ilo(cid:286)ciowe). Below you will find some quantifiers used in connection with the above given uncountable nouns: Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 43 SINGULAR FORMS OF UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Abstract nouns a piece of music (utwór muzyczny) a stroke of luck ((cid:225)ut szcz(cid:266)(cid:286)cia) a sense of humour (poczucie humoru) a moment of truth (chwila prawdy) Liquids, powders, etc. Materials a cup of coffee (fili(cid:298)anka kawy) a pinch of salt (szczypta soli) a handful of rice (gar(cid:286)(cid:252) ry(cid:298)u) a glass of water (szklanka wody) a piece of plastic (kawa(cid:225)ek plastiku) a plank of wood (deska z drewna) Non-plurals with -s a piece of news (wiadomo(cid:286)(cid:252)) a field of economics (dziedzina ekonomii) General categories a piece of information (informacja) a piece of advice (porada) an area of knowledge (dziedzina wiedzy) an element of software (element oprogramowania) Here is a set of quantifiers and their possible application in countable and uncountable nouns: QUANTIFIER COUNTABLE NOUNS + + UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS + + + + + + + no/none few/a few*/fewer little/a little/less/least* a number of a bit of some/any many/several much a lot of/lots of a great deal of/a large amount of plenty of a great number of/ a large number of * few/little = not much/not many/not enough a few/a little = some/a small number/a small amount + + + + + + + EXAMPLE no hope/none of the people a few information systems a little time a number of data models a bit of luck some hints many change requests much information a lot of practice a great deal of work plenty of programmers a large number of instructions Poleć książkęKup książkę 44 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko 2.5.4.3. Passive voice (strona bierna) Passive voice is generally used when the speaker wants to focus on the action, not on the person performing this action. It is more common in written English and often used in formal language, especially when the audience is unknown. In order to build a sentence in passive voice, apply the following pattern: SUBJECT + FORM OF TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: ACTIVE SENTECE Database administrator operates, secures and maintains the database. subject verb object PASSIVE SENTENCE The database is operated, secured and maintaind by the database administrator. subject form of to be verb (past participle) object Here are some of the rules of building passive sentences for each tense with simplified translation into Polish. Here are some alternative ways to form passive voice sentences. Example sentences: ACTIVE: The database administrator specifies proper levels of access for database users. Administrator bazy danych okre(cid:286)la odpowiednie poziomy dost(cid:266)pu dla u(cid:298)ytkowników bazy danych. PASSIVE: Database users have proper levels of access specified by the database administrator. U(cid:298)ytkownicy bazy danych maj(cid:261) okre(cid:286)lone odpowiednie poziomy dost(cid:266)pu przez admi- nistratora bazy danych. ACTIVE: The project manager believed that the database administrator specified proper levels of access for database users. Kierownik projektu s(cid:261)dzi(cid:225), (cid:298)e administrator bazy danych okre(cid:286)li(cid:225) odpowiednie pozio- my dost(cid:266)pu dla u(cid:298)ytkowników bazy danych. PASSIVE: The database administrator is believed to have specified proper levels of access for database users. Wydaje si(cid:266), (cid:298)e administrator bazy danych okre(cid:286)li(cid:225) odpowiednie poziomy dost(cid:266)pu dla u(cid:298)ytkowników bazy danych. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 45 H S I L O P O T N I N O I T A L S N A R T e n a z c e i p z e b a z (cid:261) s h c y n a d y z a B z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a z e z r p . h c y n a d . h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a y (cid:225) a t s o z h c y n a d y z a B z e z r p e n o z c e i p z e b a z ) (cid:276) e i z d o c a n ( e n a z c e i p z e b a z (cid:261) s h c y n a d y z a B z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a z e z r p . h c y n a d . . h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a z e z r p e n a z c e i p z e b a z y (cid:225) y b h c y n a d y z a B (cid:225) a t s e z r p r e w r e s . p n y d g ( ) (cid:252) a (cid:225) a i z d ) i l i w h c j e t w ( h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a y (cid:225) a t s o z h c y n a d y z a B z e z r p e n o z c e i p z e b a z (cid:261) s e n a d z a r e t d o u m e t i k (cid:266) i z d ( ) e n z c e i p z e b (cid:298) u j e n a z c e i p z e b a z (cid:261) s h c y n a d y z a B z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a z e z r p . h c y n a d . h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a y (cid:225) a t s o z h c y n a d y z a B z e z r p e n o z c e i p z e b a z ) a n a r d o . p n ( ) y (cid:298) e l a n k a j o (cid:225) a (cid:225) a i z d o k t s y z s w j a r o z c w c (cid:266) i w , j e i n (cid:286) e z c w ( T C E J B O B R E V T C E J B U S . r o t a r t s i n i m d a e s a b a t a d y b d e r u c e s e r a d e r u c e s e r e w g n i e b e r a d e r u c e s g n i e b e r e w d e r u c e s n e e b e v a h d e r u c e s s e s a b a t a d e h T PASSIVE n e e b e v a h d e r u c e s g n i e b n e e b d a h d e r u c e s h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b a z c e i p z e b a z ) (cid:276) e i z d o c a n ( O T N I N O I T A L S N A R T H S I L O P h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b (cid:225) y z c e i p z e b a z h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b a z c e i p z e b a z . h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A h c y n a d y z a b (cid:225) a z c e i p z e b a z ) i l i w h c j e t w ( (cid:225) a t s e z r p r e w r e s . p n y d g ( ) (cid:252) a (cid:225) a i z d h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b (cid:225) y z c e i p z e b a z e n a d z a r e t d o u m e t i k (cid:266) i z d ( ) e n z c e i p z e b (cid:298) u j (cid:261) s h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b a z c e i p z e b a z ) a n a r d o . p n ( h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A . h c y n a d y z a b (cid:225) y z c e i p z e b a z ) y (cid:298) e l a n k a j o (cid:225) a (cid:225) a i z d o k t s y z s w j a r o z c w c (cid:266) i w , j e i n (cid:286) e z c w ( i : g n n a e m r i e h t e s u f o s e l p m a x e e c i o v e v i s s a P T C E J B O B R E V T C E J B U S E S N E T . s e s a b a t a d e h t s e r u c e s d e r u c e s g n i r u c e s s i g n i r u c e s s a w d e r u c e s s a h n e e b s a h g n i r u c e s d e r u c e s d a h r o t a r t s i n i m d a e s a b a t a D ACTIVE s u o u n i t n o C t n e s e r P s u o u n i t n o C t s a P t n e s e r P t c e f r e P e l p m S i t s a P t n e s e r P e l p m S i s u o u n i t n o C t n e s e r P t c e f r e P t c e f r e P t s a P . k o o b e h t n i h t i w l i a t e d n i d e b i r c s e d e b l l i w e g a u g n a l T I n i d e s u y l l a u s u e r a h c i h w s e s n e t e s o h T ! e c i t o N Poleć książkęKup książkę 46 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko . . h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a z e z r p e n a z c e i p z e b a z y (cid:225) y b h c y n a d y z a B j a r o z c w (cid:298) a , u t n e m o m o d ( ) m e l b o r p (cid:266) i s (cid:225) i w a j o p h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a (cid:261) n a t s o z h c y n a d y z a B z e z r p e n o z c e i p z e b a z ) m y t o (cid:266) j z y c e d o t (cid:266) j d o p e i n (cid:286) a (cid:225) w ( . h c y n a d z a b a r o t a r t s i n i m d a (cid:261) n a t s o z h c y n a d y z a B z e z r p e n o z c e i p z e b a z (cid:266) j z y c e d o t (cid:266) j d o p u m e t s a z c (cid:286) i k a j ( ) m y t o . r o t a r t s i n i m d a e s a b a t a d y b n e e b d a h d e r u c e s g n i e b H S I L O P O T N I N O I T A L S N A R T T C E J B O B R E V T C E J B U S e b o t g n i o g s i d e r u c e s . h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A h c y n a d y z a b y z c e i p z e b a z o t (cid:266) j d o p u m e t s a z c (cid:286) i k a j ( ) m y t o (cid:266) j z y c e d d e r u c e s e b l l i w s e s a b a t a d e h T PASSIVE . h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A h c y n a d y z a b y z c e i p z e b a z (cid:266) j z y c e d o t (cid:266) j d o p e i n (cid:286) a (cid:225) w ( ) m y t o . h c y n a d z a b r o t a r t s i n i m d A h c y n a d y z a b (cid:225) a z c e i p z e b a z O T N I N O I T A L S N A R T H S I L O P j a r o z c w (cid:298) a , u t n e m o m o d ( ) m e l b o r p (cid:266) i s (cid:225) i w a j o p T C E J B O B R E V T C E J B U S E S N E T o t g n i o g s i e r u c e s . s e s a b a t a d e h t e r u c e s l l i w r o t a r t s i n i m d a e s a b a t a D ACTIVE e r u t u F e l p m S i n e e b d a h g n i r u c e s t c e f r e P t s a P s u o u n i t n o C Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 47 ACTIVE: The project manager obliged the database administrator to specify proper levels of access for database users at once. Kierownik projektu zobligowa(cid:225) administratora bazy danych do natychmiastowego okre- (cid:286)lenia odpowiedniego poziomu dost(cid:266)pu dla u(cid:298)ytkowników bazy danych. PASSIVE: The database administrator was obliged to specify proper levels of access for database users at once by the project manager. Administrator bazy danych zosta(cid:225) zobligowany przez kierownika projektu do natychmia- stowego okre(cid:286)lenia odpowiedniego poziomu dost(cid:266)pu dla u(cid:298)ytkowników bazy danych. 2.6. Check your knowledge A. Solve the crossword and find its final solution. Poleć książkęKup książkę 48 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko ACROSS 1. A __________ identifier makes each row in an entity one of a kind. 2. Another word for repository for data or information. 3. A type of database which runs on a virtualized computing platform. 4. A central processing ______ is a core part of every computer. DOWN 1. A type of relationship between two entities in which each row in one table can be related to many rows in the relating table. 2. A copy of data from database that can be used to reconstruct it. 3. A single row of data from a table. 4. A request for information from a database. 5. A connection between two tables in a relational database. 5. A volatile type of data storage in a computer. 6. A DBMS which is used for storing data in the form of objects is called _______-oriented DBMS. 7. In order to improve system operation, administrators usually do some ________ tuning activities. 8. Processes connected with retrieving data from database, data modification and loading into target database. 9. A type of data model which includes all entities, their attributes and relationships between those entities, with respect to business requirements. 10. An object which represents data related to the same topic. 6. A detailed study or examination of something in order to understand it. 7. A synonym to simultaneous. 8. A set of rules set up by the database administrator which specify the levels of access that individuals or groups of users should have to use the computer system. 9. Duplication of data in a database. 10. A column or combination of columns which uniquely identifies a record in a database is called a __________ key. 11. A modelling language with rich notation and set of diagrams available for various purposes. 11. A person that actually uses the information system is called the end-_______. 12. A complete logical data model with all entities, their attributes and relationships between those entities. 13. A tool which allows humans to interact with computers. 14. A type of DBMS which stores the entire database in RAM to improve speed of data retrieval. Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 49 B. Find mistakes in the sentences below and correct them. The first one has been done for you. The 1. Most popular notations which are used in Entity Relationship Diagrams are is crows foot notation or UML notation. and ‘ 2. Owing to CPUs with much cores, the execution times of a complex query can be reduced to little seconds. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 3. A number of crucial informations were written down in the requirement analysis. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 4. Database administrators perform a great deal of performance tunings activities to make the use of database more effective. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 5. Embedded databases are databases who are integrated within application softwares and are accessible for the end-users of the application. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 6. The simplest type of databases is a set of flat files which are being stored on computer disk. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... C. Match the word from the left with the one from the right to build full expression from the text and translate it into Polish. 1) key 2) unauthorized 3) data 4) integrity 5) data 6) production 7) concurrent 8) performance 9) foreign 10) unique a) recovery b) migration c) uniqueness d) access e) identifier f) tuning g) user h) key i) environment j) constraints .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... nieautoryzowany/nieuprawniony u(cid:298)ytkownik .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... Poleć książkęKup książkę 50 English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs j(cid:246)zyka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko D. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions from the box. The first one has been done for you. 1. Data in database is interrelated which means that parts of data within the database are associated with other parts in it. 2. Logical data model includes all entities, their attributes and relationships ............ those entities, ............ respect to business requirements. 3. ............ the end of the analysis phase, the entities are fully normalized, the unique identifier for each entity is determined and any many-to-many relationships are resolved ............ associative entities. 4. Data stored ............ different tables is related ............ common fields. 5. A distributed DBMS is a centralized application which manages databases distributed ............ multiple different computers. 6. Database as a Service (DaaS) is accessed ............ the client ............ the network and its administration is provided ............ the service provider. 7. Data administrator is a non-technical position responsible ............ defining and implementing consistent principles connected ............ data, such as setting data definitions that apply ............ all the databases in an organization. 8. Encryption refers ............ converting data in the database ............ format which cannot be deciphered ............ the users who make an attempt ............ view data. at by (x4) to (x4) between in for with (x2) over (x2) into E. Rewrite the sentences below using the passive voice. The object to be used as subject in passive voice has been underlined for you. 1. Logical data model includes entities, their attributes and relationships between those entities. ....................................................................................................................... 2. E.F. Codd created a definition of relational model. ....................................................................................................................... 3. The project manager has accepted the release of database to production environment. ....................................................................................................................... 4. Database administrator was recovering the database from backup when the power went off. ....................................................................................................................... 5. The system analyst identified primary and foreign keys for each entity. ....................................................................................................................... Poleć książkęKup książkę Rozdzia(cid:228) 2. (cid:105) Databases 51 F. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Informacje wyszukane w bazie danych s(cid:261) wykorzystywane przez u(cid:298)ytkowników do podejmowania decyzji biznesowych. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 2. Wi(cid:266)zy integralno(cid:286)ci s(cid:261) wykorzystywane w celu zapewnienia dok(cid:225)adno(cid:286)ci i spójno(cid:286)ci danych w relacyjnej bazie danych. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 3. System zarz(cid:261)dzania baz(cid:261) danych w chmurze to system zarz(cid:261)dzania rozproszon(cid:261) baz(cid:261) danych bazuj(cid:261)cy na platformie opartej na chmurze obliczeniowej, a wi(cid:266)c jest dost(cid:266)pny zdalnie. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 4. Dostawcy systemów zarz(cid:261)dzania bazami danych dostarczaj(cid:261) rozmaite sterowniki, które umo(cid:298)liwiaj(cid:261) dost(cid:266)p do silnika bazy danych. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 5. Aby zminim
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English 4 IT. Praktyczny kurs języka angielskiego dla specjalistów IT i nie tylko
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