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English Educational Policy. Contemporary Challenges in a Historical-Comparative Context - ebook/pdf
English Educational Policy. Contemporary Challenges in a Historical-Comparative Context - ebook/pdf
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The book concerns contemporary ideological discourses, preceded by a synthetic analysis of the roots of political changes in education in England. The author focusses on trends and stages of educational development from the tenth century to the post-war reform of the education system in England. Also presented are the neoliberal trend in English educational policy and the genesis of the 1998 educational reforms in England and their consequences up to 2013.

“The book constitutes an interesting proposal in the field of educational policy in a historical-comparative context [...]. A monograph-like approach to the subject and a combination of educational ideologies and historical traditions with the new challenges facing English education constitute the value of this book.”

Renata Nowakowska-Siuta, Dean of the Faculty of Education.

Head of the Department of Teaching and Education School.

 

Christian Theological Academy in Warsaw

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Arleta Suwalska – University of Łódź, Faculty of Educational Sciences Department of Education Theory, 46/48 Pomorska St., 91-408 Łódź © Copyright by Arleta Suwalska, Łódź 2017 © Copyright for this edition by University of Łódź, Łódź 2017 © Copyright for this edition by Jagiellonian University Press All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers Published by Łódź University Press Jagiellonian University Press First edition, Łódź–Kraków 2017 ISBN 978-83-8088-542-4 – paperback Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-4272-4 – paperback Jagiellonian University Press ISBN 978-83-8088-543-1 – electronic version Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-9628-4 – electronic version Jagiellonian University Press Łódź University Press 8 Lindleya St., 90-131 Łódź www.wydawnictwo.uni.lodz.pl e-mail: ksiegarnia@uni.lodz.pl phone +48 (42) 665 58 63 Distribution outside Poland Jagiellonian University Press 9/2 Michałowskiego St., 31-126 Kraków phone +48 (12) 631 01 97, +48 (12) 663 23 81, fax +48 (12) 663 23 83 cell phone: +48 506 006 674, e-mail: sprzedaz@wuj.pl Bank: PEKAO SA, IBAN PL 80 1240 4722 1111 0000 4856 3325 www.wuj.pl I am grateful to Professor Bogusław Śliwerski  for his priceless tips and suggestions  as well as his faith in my academic skills Table of contents Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1.1. State of knowledge of the ideologies of education and subject of study ........................ 1.2. Methodological justification of the research .................................................................... 1.3. Research methodology ................................................................................................... 1.3.1. The politolinguistic approach in the analysis of political rhetoric .......................... 1.3.2. Analysis of documents and study of discourses in political rhetoric ..................... Chapter 1. The political system of the state, the school system, and democracy ........ 1.1. The nature and content of the concept of “educational ideology” ................................... 1.1.1. Development of the concept of “ideology”: its origin and content ........................ 1.1.2. Features of contemporary ideology ...................................................................... 1.1.3. Ideology and political doctrine .............................................................................. 1.1.4. Pedagogical doctrine ........................................................................................... 1.1.5. Classifications of political thought ........................................................................ 1.2. Democracy, the political system of the state and ideology education ............................. 1.2.1. Development of the concept of “democracy” ........................................................ 1.2.2. The political system: definition and development ................................................ 1.2.3. Fascist ideology and education ............................................................................ 1.2.3.1. The ideology of the Communism of Lenin and education ...................... 1.2.3.2. Liberalism and education ....................................................................... 1.2.4. Conservatism and education ................................................................................ 1.3. Economy and state politics ............................................................................................. 1.3.1. The functions of the state in a capitalist market economy in the context of eco- nomic policy ........................................................................................................ 1.4. Educational change and education policy ....................................................................... 1.4.1. The importance of educational change ................................................................ 1.4.2. Reasons for initiating educational change and the associated processes .......... 1.4.2.1. Characteristics of change ...................................................................... 1.4.2.2. The teacher and educational change .................................................... 1.4.2.3. Planning educational change ................................................................ Chapter 2. The evolution of educational thought and the ideology of education in the history of England from the tenth to the end of the seventeenth century .. 2.1. The Church’s monopoly on teaching .............................................................................. 2.2. Bourgeois education ....................................................................................................... 2.3. Education of youth .......................................................................................................... 2.4. The beginnings of higher education: the Universities of Cambridge, Oxford and London .. 11 11 14 15 15 16 19 19 19 25 25 26 27 29 29 32 32 34 36 37 38 41 41 43 44 44 45 46 51 53 54 55 56 8 2.5. The monopoly of the Church in teaching and church schools ........................................ 2.6. The historical background of the development of Protestantism in England .................. 2.6.1. The doctrine of the Church of England ................................................................ 2.7. British political thought and education in the Age of Enlightenment ............................... Chapter 3. Pedagogical thought and educational ideologies in the United Kingdom from 1707 to World War II ................................................................................. 3.1. The pedagogical views of Jean-Jacques Rousseau ....................................................... 3.2. British political thought and education in the Age of Enlightenment ............................... 3.3. The positivistic trend in British education ........................................................................ 3.4. The schools of mutual instruction of Lancaster and Bell ................................................. 3.5. The Chartist movement and educational changes associated with the creation of the London Working Men’s Association ............................................................................... 3.6. Pedagogical and educational thought of the European workers’ movement in England .. 3.7. The English utopian socialism of Robert Owen .............................................................. 3.8. Herbert Spencer and his pedagogical views .................................................................. 3.9. The Elementary Education Act 1870 ............................................................................... 3.10. Directions and stages of development of public education in the United Kingdom: primary and secondary schools .................................................................................... 3.11. The structure of higher education ................................................................................. 3.12. Christian education in the nineteenth century ............................................................... 3.13. Fisher Education Act ..................................................................................................... 3.14. John Dewey and progressive pedagogy ....................................................................... 3.14.1. The assumptions of pedagogy of John Dewey and his school .......................... Chapter 4. Ideological contexts of the educational reforms of 1944 and 1988 in Britain and their consequences over the past twenty years .................................... 4.1. The Education Act of 1944 .............................................................................................. 4.1.1. Primary schools .................................................................................................... 4.1.2. Secondary education ........................................................................................... 4.1.2.1. Public schools ........................................................................................ 4.1.2.2. Grammar school .................................................................................... 4.1.2.3. Technical schools ................................................................................... 4.1.2.4. Modern school ....................................................................................... 4.1.2.5. Further education ................................................................................... 4.2. Open University and the neo-liberal free market principles in universities ..................... 4.3. The Plowden Report ....................................................................................................... 4.4. Genesis of educational reform in England and Wales, 1998 .......................................... 4.5. The ideology of the New Right in Britain in the 1980s .................................................... 4.6. The ideology of neoliberalism and corporatism in the UK in the second period of educa- tional change .................................................................................................................. 4.7. The Reform Act of 1988 in the light of the ideological contexts ...................................... 4.8. The consequences of the Education Reform Act of 1988 ............................................... 4.9. Post-Thatcher education reform in the UK ..................................................................... 4.10. Teachers’ careers .......................................................................................................... 4.11. Local Education Authorities ........................................................................................... 4.12. Headmasters and school governing bodies ................................................................. 4.13. The system of compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 to 16 years in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland ..................................................................... 4.14. Pre-school education .................................................................................................... 4.15. Education of students from 16 to 19 years ................................................................... 4.16. Neoliberalism and universities ...................................................................................... 4.17. Summary ...................................................................................................................... 57 60 63 63 65 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 71 72 73 75 75 77 80 81 83 83 85 85 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 93 93 95 99 101 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 112 English Educational Policy… Table of contents Chapter 5. The educational policy of the governments of Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, and David Cameron in the light of sociopolitical changes .......................... 5.1. The political leadership of the Labour Party in the years 1997‒2007 .............................. 5.2. The cultural revolution during the Tony Blair era ............................................................. 5.3. Detraditionalization in conservative terms ....................................................................... 5.4. The most important achievements of David Blunkett, Secretary of State for Education and Employment, 1997‒2001 ........................................................................................ 5.4.1. Social solutions and pro-family policy of the Labour Party ................................... 5.4.2. Organizational solutions favorable to changes in British education .................... 5.4.3. Education Management ....................................................................................... 5.4.4. The changing competencies of headmasters ...................................................... 5.4.5. Changes in the field of early childhood education ............................................... 5.4.6. Education Action Zones ....................................................................................... 5.4.7. Collecting data about students ............................................................................. 5.4.8. Adult education and the Learning Age ................................................................. 5.4.9. Further education ................................................................................................. 5.4.10. Higher education ................................................................................................ 5.4.11. Summary ............................................................................................................ 5.5. Educational policy of Estelle Morris, 2001‒2002 ............................................................ 5.6. Policy of Charles Clarke, Secretary of State for Education and Skills (October 2002‒De- cember 2004) ................................................................................................................. 5.6.1. The National Strategy for Child Care (2004) ........................................................ 5.6.2. Faith-based schools in Britain in the twenty-first century ..................................... 5.6.3. Every Child Matters .............................................................................................. 5.7. Educational policy of Ruth Kelly, Secretary of State for Education and Skills (December 2004‒May 2006) ............................................................................................................ 5.8. Educational policy of Alan Johnson as Secretary of State for Education and Skills (May 2006‒June 2007) ........................................................................................................... 5.8.1. Summary ............................................................................................................. 5.9. Educational policy of Prime Minister Gordon Brown and the end of the Labour govern- ment ............................................................................................................................... 5.9.1. Educational policy of Ed Balls (2007‒2010) ........................................................ 5.10. The world of the early twenty-first century from the perspective of postmodernism ..... 5.10.1. Foreign and domestic policy of David Cameron ................................................ 5.10.2. Education policy of David Cameron .................................................................. 5.10.3. Hidden curriculum, social inequalities and cultural reproduction in British edu- cation .................................................................................................................. 5.10.4. Schools and Colleges ........................................................................................ 5.10.5. The perception of the teacher in education under the government of David Cameron ............................................................................................................. 5.10.6. Global “Fourth Way” of educational change ....................................................... 5.10.7. Summary ............................................................................................................ Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 9 115 115 116 117 119 119 121 122 124 125 126 126 127 129 130 132 132 135 135 136 137 139 139 140 141 142 144 147 148 149 152 154 155 158 161 Introduction Analysis of the evolution of the ideology of education and pedagogical thought in each country creates new opportunities for understanding the condi- tions and course of the educational process and policy management in macro-, mezzo- and microinstitutional dimensions. The philosophy of education itself contributes not only to a new look at education in European countries, including the educational policy of Great Britain (which is of interest to me in the present studies), but also raises questions about its future, which is subject to discussion in academic and educational circles. The dissertation, which concerns contemporary ideological discourses, is preceded by a synthetic analysis of the roots of the political changes in education in the UK from the tenth century to the first decade of the twenty-first century, with particular emphasis on the last century. I present British political and education thought during the first seven centuries, then in the Age of Enlightenment; I show the roles of positivist current in British education, the Chartists movement, and the educational changes related to them. The remainder of the dissertation focus- es on the trends and stages of educational development to World War II, the post- war reform of the education system in England and Wales, the neoliberal trend in the educational policy of Britain, and the genesis of the 1998 educational reforms in England and Wales and their consequences up to 2013. The dissertation was written under supervision of Prof. B. Śliwerski (dr. h.c. multi) from University of Lodz, the Department of Education Theory. 1.1. State of knowledge of the ideologies of education and subject of study The subject of the research presented here is the evolution of the education- al policy of the UK due to changing educational ideologies within school manage- ment. Ideology is focused on “the ideas and beliefs (true or false) symbolizing conditions and specific life experiences of a socially significant group or class” (Rudnicki, Starnawski, Nowak-Dziemianowicz (eds), 2013, p. 297). 12 Educational ideologies are the carriers of values, views, or ideas about the world accepted a priori by their followers, along with beliefs about the potential for their implementation. Ideologies express the political and pedagogical interests of particular groups and classes or nations, communities, and religious or political movements seeking to impose their particular aims and interests and to dominate others. Ideologies have made a long-term and multidimensional contribution to educational thought in the creation of educational systems. On the other hand, the reality of the past decade draws attention to the fact that the programs of the major political parties of Great Britain, i.e., the Conservative and Labour Parties, with regard to education are not discussed very often. It should be noted that current changes in policy will also depend on the ideology of education in the European Union. Another aspect of the educational policy is social expectations regarding education. It is significant to look at the individual trends and thoughts regarding planned and implemented educational reforms in this selected European coun- try, whose experience became a point of reference for the transformation of education in the Third Republic of Poland after 1989. In the social sciences, there are three major ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and the radical (left- wing) current. Each political party in authority wants to stress its expectations for the place, role, education, and upbringing of the younger generation. Thus it is not surprising that the ideological premises of the party will affect the ed- ucational policy of the state. According to Krzysztof Konarzewski, “educational expedience breaks it into ideological camps and subjects it to political pressure” (Konarzewski, 1995, p. 127). As part of the critical analysis of the educational policy of Great Britain, I will examine the current state policy and its educational ideologies and, moreover, will discuss their roles in universal and compulsory education. Like Michael Ful- lan, a Canadian world expert in this field, I will begin my analysis with a review of the theory and practice of educational change. This will enable me to explain why such change occurs and what should be done to increase chances of educational success. Educational changes have been occurring for many years. The difficulty is that educational change is not a single entity even if we keep the analysis at the simplest level of an innovation in a classroom. Innovation is multidimensional. There are at least three components or dimensions at stake in implementing any new program or policy: (1) the possible use of new or revised materials; (2) the possible use of new teaching approaches (i.e., new teaching strategies or activities); and (3) the possible alteration of beliefs (e.g., pedagogical assumptions and theories underlying particular new policies or programs) (Fullan, 2001, p. 39). According to Fullan, one of the primary problems of modern education is to reform it without a clear and coherent vision of changes, without asking ques- tions: “What is the introduced change in education for, what is it, and how does one run it?” (Potulicka, 2001, p. 11). Research on changes in education started in the 1960s. Fullan compares the paradigm of thinking about change to a world in which change is like a journey to an unknown destination. English Educational Policy… Introduction 13 This philosophical and political approach contributes not only to a new look at education of the UK, but poses new questions that are open for discussion. The first half of the 1970s was marked by an educational crisis of credibility. It was a time when writers began to write and speak about the main factors as- sociated with the introduction of educational innovation. The 1980s constituted a period in which large-scale educational changes were introduced in England and the United States. A compulsory curriculum was also introduced. Moreover, students’ competences were clarified, and the standards of work and responsi- bility of professional teachers were changed, creating the conditions for a wave of intensified reform. The current situation in education is marked by tensions and divisions be- tween political supporters of centralization and decentralization reforms. The for- mer favors strong top-down regulation of educational policy along with permanent control of the educational system. Their system monitors the growth or decline of the student’s knowledge and skills. This group uses the strategies of local man- agement of schools and transfer of power over the schools to institutions outside the school. On the other hand, political supporters of decentralization reforms favor management within the schools, with a greater role for headmasters and teachers. They prefer the development of the mission and goals of schools to be created within the community of students and teachers. According to Fullan (1995, p. 31), supporters of both of these trends are carrying on a fruitless struggle. The contemporary world needs a different under- standing of educational change. Without a change in the thinking of educational policymakers, teachers, parents, and students have no alternative to conserva- tive thinking in the analysis of changes in ideology. “No innovation can be assim- ilated unless its meaning is shared” (Fullan, 1995, p. 31). Every teacher should understand the changes which result from reform and the legitimacy of their implementation in the educational institution in which he or she works. The process of change should take place according to a model: initiation, implementation, follow-up, and results. In the beginning, the direction of change should be properly defined and explained by its initiator in order for it to be presented to interested parties. The next step is the implementation phase, which may be more or less effective. Changes in education policies are initiated by influential party leaders and educators. Where such changes are politically motivated, we see greater involve- ment on the part of political leaders, new educational ideas, and financial expendi- ture. This results in unrealistic demands on education and schedules as well as simplified solutions. In terms of educational motivation, the introduced changes are desirable in school practice and enable the efficient functioning of education. The most important factors influencing a change in education are the proper- ties of that change. Here, we consider needs, clarity, complexity, and its practical aspect. “If the specific needs of schools have been identified, implementation is more efficient” (Potulicka, 2001, p. 22). Moreover, diffuse aims, poorly chosen measures, and a lack of clarity present difficulties in implementing local reforms at schools. 14 Changes in educational policy are positive insofar as they are seen as prac- tical, even when they are characterized by many stages. Their purpose must be understood and implemented by teachers, headmasters, and government agen- cies. A more detailed study of the literature in this area of academics shows that some issues still require additional theoretical findings. The analysis of these issues is the subject of the proposed dissertation. 1.2. Methodological justification of the research The aim of the inquiry in the theoretical part of the dissertation is the dis- tinction of ideologies of education. I wish to systematize the existing knowledge about their relationship to political ideologies. Another issue is an attempt to search for the role of ideology in the educational policy of the state. Prepara- tion of a multifaceted response to the question of how to ensure the success of school reform will permit the achievement of the established cognitive goals. This will enable us to see the impact of political and social change on educa- tional strategies and the direction of education management in the UK in the last quarter-century. Based on a historical analysis of literature, I will investigate the conditions and scope of educational change and its impact on British education. Today’s social realities and educational practice are not free from hidden ideological premises that promote specific ways of describing and explaining educational realities. They constitute a special atmosphere of acquiescence to the practical consequences of ideological changes in school. Realization of this overriding goal has been subordinated to the following specific objectives: 1. An analysis of the determinants of political-historical-economic thought and ideology of teaching in the educational policy of the UK. 2. Indications of continuity and change in the dominant ideology of the edu- cational system of Great Britain since 1988. Taking the above into account, I pose the following research questions: 3. To what extent did the education policy of the Conservative Party during the period of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (October 13, 1979‒November 28, 1990) influence changes in educational policy and what changes resulted in the school system? 4. What was the role played by the New Left in changing educational ideolo- gy under the leadership of the Labour Party from May 2, 1997 under the govern- ment of Tony Blair, and from May 2, 2007 under the government of Prime Minister Gordon Brown? 5. What measures (priorities in education, unchanged in the face of educa- tion reform in connection with changing ideologies) have been applied to reduce the negative impact of the “negative” ideology of predecessors on the work of contemporary British schools, including on students’ achievements? English Educational Policy… Introduction 15 1.3. Research methodology There are many factors that significantly inhibit the conduct of comparative research and limit the potential for development of a sub-discipline of educa- tion science such as comparative pedagogy. These factors include comparability, which “is always set in a context, and can take place only on a historical, cultural, socioeconomic, and political basis” (Nowakowska-Siuta, 2014, p. 15). It is more important in comparative pedagogy “to understand information than just to collect it” (Nowakowska-Siuta, 2014, p. 15). To understand the problems that arise in the course of comparative studies, some knowledge of foreign languages is essential in connection with various forms of terminology serving to designate the facts and phenomena of education in a historical context. As well, understanding the multidimensional problems of education is an un- usually difficult and complex task. Comparative education is helpful, because it shows the development of reform and educational policy and establishes the nec- essary principles helpful in explaining the functioning of education systems. In this dissertation, the research instrument is the problem method, which makes it possi- ble to “[…] make predictions and formulate possible variants of educational policy.” The problem method derives from “[…] the phenomena of education and upbring- ing located in time and made relevant to the society through contrasting different views” in order to discern patterns and principles (Nowakowska-Siuta, 2014, p. 16). Overcoming interdisciplinary barriers in various academic fields, such as so- ciology, political science, history, and philosophy, is helpful in achieving this goal. Its purpose is to demonstrate the comparative reconstruction of the evolution of the ideology of education in the educational policy of Great Britain at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. It was necessary to review literature previously published (to 2014) on the Polish publishing market related to the subject of the dissertation. Textbooks on pedagogy and comparative education were taken into consideration: Śliwerski (ed.) (2006); Pa- chociński (1995, 1998); Gmerek (2011); Nowakowska-Siuta (2014); Průcha (2006). In the Polish literature, there is a dearth of detailed studies concerning ed- ucation policies and the dominant ideology in Great Britain after 1997. During the preparation of this dissertation, the author used English-language litera- ture (magazines, academic textbooks, educational laws and debates, and UK websites devoted to education) as well as the website of the British Ministry of Education (Department for Education, http://www.education.gov.uk/, accessed: September 24, 2016), and also purchased thematically related English-language (Canadian and American) textbooks from the last ten years. 1.3.1. The politolinguistic approach in the analysis of political rhetoric The political aspect of educational ideology in this dissertation was ana- lyzed through a transdisciplinary approach in political rhetoric through the polito- linguistic approach, “[…] which brings together and combines critical discourse 16 analysis and concepts derived from political science” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 152). Political rhetoric has many connections with political education (docere), political considerations (logos), political justification or legitimization (probare), and political entertainment (delectare). Politolinguistics implies ac- ceptance of a transdisciplinary perspective connecting rhetoric, political science and linguistics. It distinguishes three different “[…] dimensions of politics: polity, policy and politics” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 152). The polity dimension is created using formal frames of reference that give rise to political activities and manifest themselves in the political norms, principles, rules, and values of a given political culture. Thus political rhetoric associated with this dimension is char- acterized by the purposefulness and mindfulness of the created message. The adjective “rhetorical” is the easiest to explain, using the element of politicization, which can be attributed to everything that politicians do. Political activities refer to the dimensions of policy and politics. Various po- litical arenas are shaped by the dimension of policy and implemented by leaders of political parties. Policy is manifested in the dimension of the educational policy of the national government. Its main goals are achieved through offering political justifications and finding political allies. “Politics […] applies to processes related to the articulation of political interests” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 152). The most important goal for politicians is to convince their listeners to accept their proclaimed political opinions and to gain followers. In a broader sense, political rhetoric in the dimension of politics is aimed at achieving the greatest interest in a specific political position and maintaining power. In this dissertation, political fields are social forms of the action of political rhetoric, in terms of the legislative procedures regarding educational laws in the UK. They influence the attitudes, opinions, and wills of the dominant political par- ty in terms of the party’s internal educational policy as well as its relationship to the educational policy of the opposition party. Another study area was the political administration and implementation of specific laws. The author’s conviction concerning the suitability of the planned historical re- search and the politolinguistic approach in the analysis of political rhetoric, along with their interpretation, was a basic premise of the recording of changes in the ideologies of education in the educational policy of the United Kingdom in view of the goal set by the author. 1.3.2. Analysis of documents and study of discourses in political rhetoric In view of the historical character of the subject of research, work on the dissertation will include triangulation in the collection and creation of discourse data for analysis. The data collection process applies to “[…] macro-themes of discourse, specific political agents, and political activity” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 156) in the field of education ideology and educational policy. Analysis of documents applies to the process of “[…] the emergence, trans- formation and mutation of ideas, practices, and identity, as well as […] the mech- English Educational Policy… Introduction 17 anisms by which they become a relatively enduring element of the present” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 205). It consists of an attempt to understand and describe “[…] the trajectory of all of these modern ideas, practices and iden- tities that are currently taken for granted” (Wodak, Krzyżanowski, 2008, p. 205). This method of text analysis leads researchers to conclusions as to why people behave a particular way and not otherwise, as well as why some people have the power to learn about others and affect their environment. Reconstruction of “the trajectory of studied discourses and description of specific strategies” (Rapley, 2010, p. 206) leads to the production of one particular education ideology and the rejection of others. Text analysis is meant to focus equally on what the document says, i.e., “[…] the constructive mechanisms contained in the arguments, ideas or con- cepts, as well as what is not said, that is, silence, shortcomings and omissions” (Rapley, 2010, p. 194). Another important aspect of the analysis of text is its rhe- torical power: how the issues constituting the subject of the text are “structured and organized, as well as how it tries to convince us of the legitimacy of the inter- pretation contained within it” (Rapley, 2010, p. 194). In this paper I intend to use documents originating from primary sources, rather than secondary sources emerging in a different time or place than the re- ported events. I have translated fragments of documents and laws into Polish, in order to analyze the collected material to meet the requirements of the doctoral thesis. The first step is to create an archive of newspaper articles, government publications, and materials from parliamentary debates which outline the direc- tions of government policy and the strategy behind changes in educational policy. This enables me to trace “the trajectory of individual discourses” (Rapley, 2010, p. 41), since the intentions of and planned changes in the legislation are also described therein. In Great Britain, for example, all debates held in the House of Commons and House of Lords are documented in a series of publications issued under the Hansard aegis (Rapley, 2010, p. 41). The pedagogical thought present in the educational policy of Great Britain to the nineteenth century will be analyzed and reconstructed on the basis of the analysis of historical documents, while educational ideologies changing with particular governments and prime ministers of the UK will be discussed based on government archives (government publications and parliamentary debates), UK government web pages which make the content of laws available in the origi- nal English (.pdf), academic websites, newspapers (articles on British education), and British academic studies on the subject. This method was chosen because the historical documents and above-mentioned websites are, in my opinion, the best way to learn about the realities of changing educational ideology which con- stitute the subject of the research. The method of analysis of historical documents involved the National Ar- chives (the official government archives of the United Kingdom); the Women’s Library; and the National Film and Television Archive. Other sources included the websites of the most famous universities in the UK, namely, the Cambridge Uni- versity Library (ul.cam.ac.uk), the Libraries of Oxford University (library.ox.ac.uk) 18 and the Library of the University of London’s political collections (blpes.ise.c.uk, accessed: September 24, 2016), as well as UK government pages in the .pdf format (http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www. education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/01049-2008DOM-EN.pdf, accessed: September 24, 2016). American and British historical sources on the Internet, containing links to bibliographies, documents, archives, source texts, maps, statistical information and photos (http://www.educationengland.org.uk/ history/chapter08.html, accessed: September 24, 2016), were helpful in the anal- ysis of documents. Sampling of relevant sources within the documents led to the creation in this dissertation of a set of materials for further analysis. The next step was the deliberate choice of materials for final analysis in the area of the planned topics. I also sampled the most picturesque, evocative, supportive, and perhaps also the most controversial, conclusions. The authorities of the Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education in Warsaw made it possible, by way of a research grant “Educational policy of the UK government over the last twenty years,” for the author to make a week-long trip to London at the end of January and beginning of February 2013 to partic- ipate in academic training. My stay in England enabled me not only to use the library collections of the University of London (Department of Education), London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), and the British Library, but also to consult with academics at those schools on the legitimacy of using these sources, rather than others, to resolve the formulated issues. English Educational Policy… CHAPTER 1 The political system of the state, the school system, and democracy 1.1. The nature and content of the concept of “educational ideology” 1.1.1. Development of the concept of “ideology”: its origin and content According to the Dictionary of the Polish Language, an ideology is a system of the political, sociological, legal, ethical, religious, or philosophical views, ide- as, and concepts of individuals or groups of people, conditioned by time, place, and social relations; it is a view of the surrounding world (Szymczak (ed.), 1978, p. 767). In the eighteenth century, the French Enlightenment philosophes used the term ideology “to explain how groups generate and use ideas.” Moreover, Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715‒1780) denied “that ideas were innately present in the mind as Plato asserted,” and claimed that sensation was the source of all human ideas. In relation to the development of ideology, Condillac and other philosophes “asserted that human ideas did not originate in a metaphysical realm […] but rath- er resulted from the human being’s sensory experience within the environment” (Gutek, 2009, p. 164). The term ideology originally meant the “science of ideas that examined how people originated and used ideas to create institutions and to regulate their behavior” (Freeden, 2003, p. 4). The philosophes wanted to explain how ideas are born and how to use them. They rejected not only theological but also metaphysical interpretations. Their studies suggested the idea of a scientific approach. The term ideology was used by Antoine Destutt de Tracy, a philosopher and thinker of the French Enlightenment, in his Éléments d’idéologie, published in 1817‒1818. The term comes from Greek and derives from “eidos ‒ idea and logos ‒ science, connected to the designation of the social doctrine of ideas”
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English Educational Policy. Contemporary Challenges in a Historical-Comparative Context
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