Cyfroteka.pl

klikaj i czytaj online

Cyfro
Czytomierz
00088 003611 18779858 na godz. na dobę w sumie
Exploring the virtual world of learning across generations. Information and communications technology for the educational support of immigrant youth - ebook/pdf
Exploring the virtual world of learning across generations. Information and communications technology for the educational support of immigrant youth - ebook/pdf
Autor: , , Liczba stron: 160
Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-8142-859-0 Data wydania:
Lektor:
Kategoria: ebooki >> edukacja >> socjologia
Porównaj ceny (książka, ebook (-19%), audiobook).

The book addresses the issue of intergenerational learning in a virtual world created by information and communication technology (ICT) and the role of ICT in an educational environment. In order to discuss how ICT can be used as a means to prevent early school leaving among immigrant youth, this book explores the literature on how learning can be understood in the intergenerational context, the challenges in preventing early school leaving, the prospects for ICT in education and presents the findings of an empirical study on intergenerational learning with the use of ICT. Authors findings highlight that ICT-supported intergenerational learning is a significant sociocultural platform for knowledge exchange, at the same time reducing intergenerational and cultural distance. It creates a sense of belonging and ensures mutual support, and encourages better understanding and harmonious coexistence between young immigrants and older citizens.

Znajdź podobne książki Ostatnio czytane w tej kategorii

Darmowy fragment publikacji:

Marcin Rojek, Joanna Leek – University of Łódź, Faculty of Educational Sciences Department of Education Theory, Pomorska 46/48 St., 91-408 Łódź Petr Svoboda – Czech Technical University in Prague, Masaryk Institute of Advanced Studies Department of Pedagogical and Sociological Studies, a. Kolejní 2637/2a St, 160 00 Praha 6 © Copyright by Authors, Łódź–Kraków 2020 © Copyright for this edition by University of Łódź, Łódź–Kraków 2020 © Copyright for this edition by Jagiellonian University Press, Łódź–Kraków 2020 All rights reserved Published by Łódź University Press Jagiellonian University Press First edition, Łódź–Kraków 2020 ISBN 978-83-8142-858-3 – paperback Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-4830-6 – paperback Jagiellonian University Press ISBN 978-83-8142-859-0 – electronic version Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-7109-0 – electronic version Jagiellonian University Press The scientific work has been funded with the support of Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education funds for science, for 2016 to 2018, allocated to the international co-financed project with agreement no. 3590/ERASMUS+/2016/2. The publication has been funded by the University of Lodz, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Łódź University Press 8 Lindleya St., 90-131 Łódź www.wydawnictwo.uni.lodz.pl e-mail: ksiegarnia@uni.lodz.pl phone +48 (42) 665 58 63 Jagiellonian University Press Editorial Offices: Michałowskiego 9/2, 31-126 Kraków Phone: +48 12 663 23 80, Fax: +48 12 663 23 83 Distribution: Phone: +48 12 631 01 97, Fax: +48 12 631 01 98 Cell Phone: + 48 506 006 674, e-mail: sprzedaz@wuj.pl Bank: PEKAO SA, IBAN PL 80 1240 4722 1111 0000 4856 3325 The book is available in the Columbia University Press catalog: https://cup.columbia.edu Table of contents Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 7 Chapter I Intergenerational learning in contemporary education – a theoretical justification of the ICT Guides project Marcin Rojek Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1.1. Learning in preference to education ............................................................................. 1.1.1. The behaviourist approach to learning ............................................................... 1.1.2. Cognitive learning ............................................................................................... 1.1.3. Social learning .................................................................................................... 1.1.4. The transformative approach to learning ............................................................ 1.1.5. The three dimensions of learning by Knud Illeris ............................................... 1.2. The potential of intergenerational learning in educational problem solving .................. 1.2.1. The educational potential of generations ........................................................... 1.2.2. Intergenerational learning as empowerment ...................................................... Summary ............................................................................................................................. Chapter II Immigrant youth education and early school leaving – challenges to contemporary education Joanna Leek Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2.1. Education of immigrant youth – an overview ................................................................ 2.2. Youths – between early school leaving and social exclusion ....................................... 2.3. Profile of the early school leaver ................................................................................... 2.4. Supporting the educational attainment of youths – recommendations for policy and practice .................................................................................................................. Summary ............................................................................................................................. 11 11 16 18 22 25 29 38 38 45 50 53 53 55 57 60 62 6 Chapter III Information and communications technology – a prospective approach to education Petr Svoboda Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 3.1. Information and communications technology (ICT) in education .................................. 3.1.1. New technologies and the current most frequently-used didactic tools ................ 3.1.2. New tools in distance education and blended learning ...................................... 3.1.3. Advantages and barriers in the use of new technologies in education .............. 3.1.4. Extension of new technologies in education ...................................................... 3.2. Digital literacy and its development .............................................................................. 3.3. Digital technology in education ..................................................................................... 3.3.1.Digital technology in pedagogical activities .......................................................... 3.3.2. Application of digital technology in education ...................................................... 3.3.3. Digital competence ............................................................................................. 3.4. ICT in informal education .............................................................................................. 3.4.1. M-learning – new methods and forms of education ........................................... 3.4.2. The goals and purpose of m-learning ................................................................. 3.4.3. Mobile technology in teaching ............................................................................ 3.4.4. Innovations in education using cloud computing ................................................ 3.4.5. The benefits of online collaboration in education ............................................... Summary ............................................................................................................................. Chapter IV The findings of the ICT Guides Joanna Leek, Marcin Rojek Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 4.1. Cases studies – the intergenerational learning courses ............................................... 4.1.1. The intergenerational courses held in Berlin ...................................................... 4.1.2. The intergenerational courses held in Gothenburg ............................................ 4.1.3. Intergenerational learning courses conducted in Madrid .................................... 4.1.4. The intergenerational courses held in Sheffield ................................................. 4.2. General conclusions from the project ........................................................................... Summary ............................................................................................................................. Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... Biograms ............................................................................................................................. 65 66 67 69 71 73 75 79 79 81 84 90 92 93 95 98 100 101 105 105 108 118 128 134 143 148 149 159 Table of contents Introduction The idea for this book came about as a result of the ICT Guides project, which was funded by the Erasmus+ programme.1 The project was carried out in 2015–2018 in Gothenburg (Sweden), Berlin (Germany), Madrid (Spain) and Sheffield (United Kingdom). The cities identified for the project all have a rela- tively high percentage of young school students with immigrant backgrounds. This group of Europeans in particular are at risk of early school leaving, and are over-represented in terms of unemployment. The book addresses the issue of information and communication technol- ogy (ICT) use in an educational environment, and presents research results from the ICT Guides project. In order to discuss how ICT can be used as a means to prevent early school leaving among immigrant youth, this book explores the literature on how learning can be understood in the intergenerational context (Chapter 1); what the challenges are in preventing early school leaving (Chapter 2), and the prospects for ICT in education (Chapter 3). Finally, we present the findings of an empirical study on intergenerational learning with the use of infor- mation and communications technology (Chapter 4). As reports2 on youth in Europe show, young immigrants are most at risk of social exclusion. Employment is a strong protective factor against the risk of poverty, and – as identified in the EU 2020 strategy – one of the most important targets for a smart, sustainable and inclusive Europe. Immigrant youths suffer from having an incomplete education, partly because of the economic crisis in Europe, and partly because of the military conflicts and strife in places such as Syria and Afghanistan. 1 Programme: Erasmus+; duration: 07/12/2015-31/08/2018; coordinator: SDFUTB – Sektor utbildning, SDF Västra Hisingen Göteborgs stad (Sweden); partners: Sheffield City Council (United Kingdom), DGI-CM – Dirección General De Inmigración, Comunidad De Madrid (Spain), SENBJF – Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Jugend und Familie Berlin (Germany), University of Lodz (Po- land). The project was funded with support from the European Commission, No. 2015-1-SE01- KA201-012232. This publication only reflects the views of the authors, and the European Commis- sion cannot be held responsible for any use made of the information contained herein. 2 Examples include Eurofound, NEETs – Young people not in employment, education and training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe, 2012; European Commission. Com- mission Staff Working Paper – Reducing early school leaving. Accompanying document to the Pro- posal for a Council Recommendation on policies to reduce early school leaving, 2010. European Commission 2020. A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. 2010. 8 Introduction Our findings highlight the fact that ICT-supported learning is a significant sociocultural platform for knowledge exchange, at the same time reducing inter- generational and cultural distance. It helps work toward the common good, cre- ates a sense of belonging and ensures mutual support, and encourages better understanding and harmonious coexistence between young immigrants and older citizens. The function of ICT in intergenerational learning is changing, from serving as its catalyst to facilitating its participants’ learning about each other. With this book, we want to submit our activities and results for international assessment in the hope that the results of our experience will be helpful in the future implementation of similar projects. The Authors Acknowledgements We would like to offer our sincere thanks to Linda Malmsten, coordinator of the international ICT Guides project, and all the project partners for their active involvement. Thanks also to all the project’s participants, including the youths and adults that took part in the ICT courses and gave their time to share their experiences with us for the study. Chapter 1 Intergenerational learning in contemporary education – a theoretical justification of the ICT Guides project Marcin Rojek Introduction Study of the subject of learning is a complex matter, mainly undertaken in the fields of psychology and pedagogy, but also various other sciences. For example, biology, neurology, medicine, sociology, cultural studies and econom- ics. This multidisciplinary approach has caused an increase in the subject’s complexity, which can be seen in the nearly innumerable number of original and overlapping, new and refurbished concepts and theories of learning, as well as in the focus on the study of learning in educational practice. Learning has ceased to be a process reserved for childhood and youth, and has begun to be consciously pursued by people throughout their lifetime, from early childhood to late old age. Similarly, the process has expanded spatially, that is, it has ceased to be identified only with school, and has become a characteristic of all human spaces, such as the home and workplace, in public spaces and online. The purpose of this first chapter is not to provide critical analysis of theories or the construction of new ones, because there are many separate scientific works devoted to this. Instead, its main aim is to present the generally-accepted knowledge of the subject of learning, and based on that, build and present the concept of intergenerational learning as used in the ICT Guides project’s assumptions, and in practical educational activities. 1.1. Learning in preference to education The first attempts to analyze the practise of learning were made in a phil- osophical context as part of the study of knowledge, which was treated as a result of learning. In his Theaetetus dialogue, Plato argued that knowledge is true belief, or convictions justified by earlier experiences and reflections. Almost two thousand years later, the Cartesian concept of the mind as an autonomous individual and John Locke’s concept of tabula rasa created opposition to the scientific thinking of the individual and society. Thus, a strict division was intro- duced between humans as individuals and humans as a collective (society). It was soon noted that a person’s environment is the basis for formation of their qualities and means of survival. Therefore, the need also arose to create syn- ergies between people and their environment. The answer to this need was the 12 phenomenon of learning. Learning appeared as an integrational mechanism, which explains how individuals behave, what regulates their behaviour and how it does so. Nowadays, learning is an interdisciplinary field and the subject of intense and ever-growing interest from researchers in various sciences and fields of knowledge. It is also highly appreciated by practitioners in formal and informal education, such as teachers, educators and social workers. This increase in research interests and the social importance of learning was noted in the middle of the last century by American psychologist, outstanding researcher and expert on the subject of learning, Ernest Hilgard, who explained this situation in the following way: The scientific study of learning is carried on primarily by psychologists. Psychology’s claim to the field was staked in part by masterly pioneers such as Ebbinghaus (1885), Bryan and Harter (1897, 1899) and Thorndike (1898). Those who have followed in their footsteps have been pri- marily psychologists. Professional educators have been welcomed educational psychology as a foundation science upon which to build their practices, and studies of learning have gone on concurrently in laboratories of general psychology and laboratories of educational psychology, which interplay between pure and applied fields. Under the circumstances, it is very natural for psychologists to feel that the study of learning belongs to them. In addition to historical reasons, there is another basis on which to account for psychol- ogist’s interest in learning. This is centrality of learning in the more general systems of psy- chological theory. A scientific, along which the desire to satisfy his curiosity about the facts of nature, has a predilection for ordering his facts into systems of lows and theories. He is interested not only in verified facts and relationships, but in and parsimonious ways of summa- rizing these facts. Psychologists with a penchant for systems find a theory of learning essential because so much of man’s diverse behaviour is the result of learning. If the rich diversity of behaviour is to be understood in accordance with a few principles, it is evident that some of these principles will have to do with the way which learning comes about (Hilgard 1956: 1). The role of learning has always been greatly appreciated, but it is only modern man who has begun to realize that one can learn not only at school, but also (and perhaps above all), outside school, thus becoming a being that accomplishes by acquiring knowledge. Furthermore, the conviction that learning does not end with the completion of a formal (school) education is burrowing deeper and deeper into the social consciousness. Learning lasts a lifetime, is a necessary condition for adults to keep pace with rapid technological, social and cultural changes, and above all, to cope with social and economic demands. Of these latter, the most important include competitiveness on the labour market, entrepreneurialism, the ability to operate on the free market in an atmosphere of uncertainty, and a read- iness to change jobs or professions. Thus, the phenomenon of learning is now characteristic not only of a person’s school days, but also throughout their life. The learning renaissance, both during and beyond school, has already begun. It is a process aimed at making huge qualitative changes in education, and is a dif- ficult and irreversible process. We are now standing in the twilight of the primacy of teaching over learning (at least, outside of school), due to the low effective- ness of ‘teaching’ compared to the enormous potential of ‘learning’. Intergenerational learning in contemporary education… Learning in preference to education 13 Peter Jarvis (2006: 13–17), a prominent researcher and expert on learn- ing, argues that it occurs through stimulation of human senses by their external environment, both natural and physical, social and cultural. This contributes to the integration of the individual with the world. Over the centuries, a different understanding of learning has appeared that generally fits two perspectives: the psychological and pedagogical. From the psychological perspective, learning is the emergence of a relatively permanent change in the behaviour of individuals (behaviourism), or assimilation of messages indicating the process and adaptive nature of learning (the cogni- tive approach). From a psychological point of view, even if learning occurs in relation to one’s surroundings, and so has the character of an internal mental process in the mind of the individual learner, it still results in behavioural changes or acquisition of new knowledge, skills and habits. The pedagogical perspective points to the more humanist nature of learning and its relationship with school. In this perspective, learning is associated with a specific type of attitude to knowl- edge and to life, which requires personal commitment and initiative. Pedagogical learning is the more powerful figure in comparison to its original, psychologi- cal counterpart. It is frequently planned with the intention of achieving a particular purpose, for example, solving contemporary educational issues such as behavioural problems, lack of motivation for learning, a lack of desire for self- -improvement, prevention of addictions and early school-leaving. This kind of learning is accompanied by the use of various symbolic systems, including lan- guage, concepts and theories. Learning is not the only activity undertaken deliberately to assimilate knowl- edge or acquire skills. According to the world’s leading educational researchers, learning is a mechanism of general human development, a kind of continuous response to events in order to achieve a sense of control over life (Biesta et al. 2010: 6). Today, there are many epithets, definitions and concepts of learn- ing. In the intention of its creators, each new theory or concept of learning is designed to overcome the limitations of the previous theories. Two British learn- ing researchers – Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Uta Frith – postulate that the multiplicity of the concept of learning and great interest in the research on it, should lead to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary science dedicated to learning, drawing on the achievements of neurophysiology, psychology and pedagogy. In their view, it must also take into account the fact that learning lasts a lifetime (Blakemore, Frith 2008: 190). The first step towards solving our research questions is to present the current understanding of intergenerational learning, as it was applied in the ICT Guides project. The human being is thus an individual fulfilling them- selves through the acquisition of knowledge. In contemporary culture and society ‘a learning renaissance’ is clearly visible. This applies to the learning of youths, adults and seniors, as well as to formal and informal learning. It is a process aimed at making a huge qualitative change in education for cer- tain people and institutions (e.g. schools), and for some it will be difficult, but 14 once started is irreversible. Nowadays, we can see the signs of the end of the supremacy of teaching over learning, because of the low effectiveness of teaching compared to the high potential of learning. In contemporary consid- erations about education, emphasis is placed on the fact that people should learn from each situation that occurs in their life, and draw conclusions from it for application in the future. This is because ‘human life – development – learning’ forms a distinctive ontological-anthropological triad determining humanity. Learning is therefore more important to becoming, rather than being a human. The worth of a person is thus defined by their learning. To para- phrase the famous quote, you could say ‘I learn, therefore I am’. To undertake research on the practise of learning it is essential to familiarize oneself with the different points of view on the process. Analysis of the scientific literature shows that the term ‘learning’ has become fashionable and is being increas- ingly used. A multitude of kinds of learning have appeared, with a multitude of definitions of learning and types of learning. These include learning from biography (one’s own and others); life-long learning; general learning (vs. partial learning); learning by work; incidental learning; learning by tests and mistakes; involuntary learning; learning by imitation; unintentional and inten- tional learning; learning by uncovering; observational learning; learning from memory; cognitive learning; learning by relations; learning to learn oneself; learning by strategy; planned learning; organized learning; self-learning; asso- ciative learning; conditional learning; learning by rule; ‘all or nothing’ learn- ing; series learning; selective learning; subliminal learning; intergenerational learning, and many more. Some of these are only presented as intuitive and colloquially understood slogans, while others seem to form a prospective field of inter-disciplinary research. It is quite difficult to obtain an overview of the current understanding of the topic of learning while sticking to only one per- spective. According to various authors, the learning process can be under- stood as: • A process of reacting to external stimuli and responses (Edward Thorn- dike, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B. F. Skinner, Edward Tolman). • Cognitive development based on the computational process of acquiring and storing data (Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler). • Acquire a way of representing ‘recurrent regularities’ in their environ- ment effecting the concepts, categories and problem-solving procedures invented previously by national culture, as well as the ability to ‘invent’ these things for oneself (Jerome Bruner). • Controlling, modelling and imitating others (Albert Bandura). • Interaction between the learner and the environment, in order to acquire mind tools (Lev Vygotskij, Aleksei Leontiev, Aleksander Luria, Max Wert- heimer, Wolfgang Köhler, Theodor Adorno). • Transforming external mental structures into internal structures that allow the expression of beliefs and opinions (Jack Mezirow, Paulo Freire Jürgen Intergenerational learning in contemporary education… Learning in preference to education 15 Habermas, John M. Dirkx, Robert D. Boyd, J. Gordon Myers, Rosemary R. Ruether). • Interaction between cognitive, emotional and social processes (function- ality, sensitivity and integration) effecting the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competences (Knud Illeris). The above are just a few examples of what learning is. But they are enough to prove that the scope of our understanding of this process is quite broad. Taken together, all of these perspectives cover a wide range of: • Types of learning (acquiring information, skills, habits, developing abilities • Forms of learning (learning by trial and mistake, by imitation, discovering • Learning conditions (age, environment, motives, stimuli, abilities). • Learning results (increase in knowledge and skills, development of abili- and attitudes). and activities). ties and attitudes. Figure 1. The main theoretical perspectives of learning Source: original study • Knowledge transfer – the consequences of learning information and skills and passing them on to others. At the same time there is no one general, universal or most representative theory of learning. The modern understanding of learning is a conglomeration of theses from various theories, which can be conventionally included in the five 16 theoretical perspectives of/ approaches to learning given above. In the following subchapters, they will be characterized more closely. 1.1.1. The behaviourist approach to learning The behaviourist view of learning was developed by Edward Thorndike (1911, 1931), who presented a theory of learning that incorporated the conse- quences of behaviour in the form of how the behaviour was reinforced. Thorn- dike then developed his ‘law of effect’, which stated that behaviours that are rewarded tended to recur, while behaviours that are punished or not rewarded tended to weaken the character. Later, Thorndike (1931) refined his law of effect to reflect the fact that he found that punishment did not weaken the stimulus-re- sponse connection, but rather led subjects to avoid the situation, or initiated feelings of anxiety or fear. The significance of this to the study of learning was summarised by Thorndike himself as “we may increase our confidence in posi- tive rather than negative learning and teaching” (Thorndike 1931: 46). Nowadays, behaviourism is perceived as a scientific approach, shaped on the basis of psychology and first appearing in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The leading representatives of behaviourism are Edward Thorndike (1874–1949), Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), John Watson (1878–1958), and Clark Hull (1884–1952). They sought to develop a theory of the preservation of organisms without considering what might be happening in their minds, which they considered unscientific. Instead, the behaviourists, aiming to explain human behaviour, made learning the central concept. Following Darling’s idea that man is a continuation of animals, they assumed that the way in which both people and animals learn is similar, and involves experiences gleaned from the environment. To further examine this theory, they used strict research methods culled from the natural sciences. The result was the statistical recognition of the relationship between objectively mea- surable stimuli and the reactions they trigger. Pavlov and other behaviourists then used the same research methods in their own scientific work. The result was, amongst other things, the theory of conditioned reflexes, also known as the physiology of higher nervous functions. They assumed that learning takes place in the neural system. If learning causes a change in the behaviour of the individual, the reason is a change in the way their neurons (the most impor- tant cells in the human nervous system) are communicating. From a biological point of view, learning is the creation of new connections between nerve cells in the brain, or the stimulation of these connections. However, knowing what is happening between neurons is of little help if it is not embedded in a broader context, as it does not create a broader picture and as such is not subjectable to interpretation. Taking the neural theory of learning as a basis behaviourists have developed two main theories of how information from the environment is processed, explaining the relationship with changes in the behavioural potential of the individual. These two theories also constitute two methods of research on Intergenerational learning in contemporary education…
Pobierz darmowy fragment (pdf)

Gdzie kupić całą publikację:

Exploring the virtual world of learning across generations. Information and communications technology for the educational support of immigrant youth
Autor:
, ,

Opinie na temat publikacji:


Inne popularne pozycje z tej kategorii:


Czytaj również:


Prowadzisz stronę lub blog? Wstaw link do fragmentu tej książki i współpracuj z Cyfroteką: