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„Fikcyjna rzeczywistość” - ebook/pdf
„Fikcyjna rzeczywistość” - ebook/pdf
Autor: , , Liczba stron: 350
Wydawca: Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 9788364091674 Rok wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> historia, militaria, wojskowość
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„Temat okupacji, rozumianej jako narzucony system terroru, gwałtownie zmieniający dane społeczeństwo i dotykający każdego obywatela, nie jest ani przedmiotem gruntownych badań historycznych, ani głównym elementem pamięci kulturowej. Okupacja, jako doświadczenie historyczne, budzi też w wielu krajach odmienne recepcje, a w Niemczech w pamięci komunikatywnej i kulturowej kojarzona jest z okresem 1945-1949, gdy Niemcy znajdowały się pod pokojową okupacją aliantów. Z perspektywy różnorodnych doświadczeń okupacji w Europie oraz jej znaczenia dla zrozumienia traumy i interpretacji wojny w Polsce, nowe spojrzenie na codzienność 1939-1945 i jej pamiętanie staje się ważnym dezyderatem badawczym. Centrum Badań Historycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk w Berlinie proponuje ponowne włączenie „okupacji” do centralnych kategorii definiujących drugą wojnę światową.

Dwie ilustracje na okładkach tomu sugerują jednoznacznie jego sens. Autentyczne zdjęcie tramwaju w okupowanej przez Niemców Warszawie oraz rekonstrukcja tramwaju z ekspozycji w oddziale krakowskiego Muzeum Historycznego Fabryka Emalia Oskara Schindlera tworzą ramy opowieści o losach okupowanej Polski i sposobach ich pamiętania. Teksty zamieszczone w książce mają dać, w intencji wydawców, nowy impuls do badań nad okupacyjną codziennością”.

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Summaries Summaries Robert Traba, Katarzyna Woniak, Anna Wolff-Powęska “Fictional Reality”: Everyday Life, Lifeworlds and the Memory of the German Occupation of Poland: An Introduction Occupation is a “great combination of social and moral paradoxes”¹. This is how occupation was described by Kazimierz Wyka in the intro- duction to the second edition of his essay Życie na niby [A Make- believe Life] (1958). Both the occupier and the occupied exist in two spaces – the apparent and the actual one: By completing the basic obligations of their professions and working in the framework of an officially existing community, they live a make-believe life; by enclosing themselves among their mates, they live a real life². Looking for chances of survival, Polish society was determined by deeply corrupting factors. The conditions imposed by the occu- pier turned the lives of Poles into a fictional reality, while their own desires, values and beliefs were limited to the realm of a deeply closed-off privacy. Living a make-believe life meant that the daily coexistence of the occupiers and the occupied was a “mutual exchange of fiction”³ in an atmosphere of constant terror and humiliation, in which attempts to preserve the dignity and func- tional cooperation with the occupiers intertwined. This extremely 1 K. Wyka, Życie na niby, Universitas, Kraków 2011, p. 144. 2 Ibidem, p. 145. 3 Ibidem, p. 146. 311 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 311 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 311 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries apt metaphor can also be seen in other autobiographical accounts of the war, including memoirs by writers such as Maria Dąbrowska⁴, Zofia Nałkowska⁵, Stanisław Rembek⁶, the world-renowned soci- ologist Jan Szczepański⁷ or the Krakow officer Edward Kubalski⁸. These are just a few examples that, in our opinion, most relate to the multi-faceted layer of everyday life. While the mechanisms of life under the occupation still belong to scientifically unexplored areas, a number of ego-documents presents a wide range of atti- tudes and behaviours and inspires new research questions to be asked. The inertia found in the research on everyday life under the occupation and the importance of memoirs has been aptly pre- sented by a Polish culture expert, Pawel Rodak: Victims speak to the imagination. However, everyday life is a bit like the air. It seems clear and obvious, not worthy of consideration, but we only start to see it once it becomes “disturbed” or “contami- nated”. Everyday life under occupation is a disturbed life, derailed from the mode of “everyday” functioning; it is an “unusual every- day life, as Małgorzata Baranowska calls it, or an “untamed eve- ryday life”, as it is referred to by Jerzy Jedlicki… Therefore, ways of taming new experiences, which gradually become something normal and begin to be regarded as components of everyday life, 4 M. Dąbrowska, Dzienniki. 1914−1965, T. Drewnowski (ed.), Polska Akademia Nauk, Wydział I Nauk Społecznych, Komitet Nauk o Literaturze, Warszawa 2009. 5 Z. Nałkowska, Dzienniki czasu wojny, Czytelnik, Warszawa 1972 and eadem, Dzienniki, Vol. 5: 1939−1944, Introduction and Commentary by H. Kirch- ner, Warszawa 1996. 6 S. Rembek, Dziennik okupacyjny, Agawa, Warszawa 2000. 7 J. Szczepański, Dzienniki z lat 1935−1945, Introduction by D. Kadłubiec, Galeria “Na Gojach” ABK Hreczko, Ustroń 2009. 8 E. Kubalski, Niemcy w Krakowie: dziennik 1 IX 1939 – 18 I 1945, J. Grabowski, Z.R. Grabowski (ed.), Austeria, Kraków – Budapeszt 2010. 312 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 312 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 312 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries are so important during occupation. The sphere of “tamed experi- ences” is an example of a wider phenomenon⁹(cid:402) In Poland, until 1989, despite many significant studies, sci- entific publications and representations in culture, the subject of the occupation was a “victim” of political censorship and part of the strategy for legitimizing the prevailing political system. Życie na niby [A Make-believe Life] by Kazimierz Wyka was a pioneering work, which has been inspiring to this day. A new research direc- tion was set by Tomasz Szarota’s monograph entitled Okupow- anej Warszawy dzień powszedni [Everyday Life in Occupied Warsaw], which was first published in 1973¹⁰. After the political transforma- tion in 1989, the German occupation did not enter the mainstream narrative of the war, as evidenced even by the minuscule number of Polish historians of the younger generation concerned with this topic. Instead, the focus has mainly been on problems concerning the Soviet terror in Poland, the broad issue of the resistance move- ment and, more recently, the fate of the Jewish community. Only two years ago, the Institute of National Remembrance began its research project, “Polish Lands Under the Occupation of 1939−1945”, the aim of which was to continue the Institute’s research on German and Soviet occupation during the World 19 P. Rodak, Niecodzienna codzienność czasu okupacji, „Znak” 2009, no. 652, (http://www.miesiecznik.znak.com.pl/6522009pawel-rodakniecodzienna- codziennosc-czasu-okupacji/ – (accessed on 20th June 2015); cf. Warszawa 1943 – Warszawa 1944. Fotograf nieznany, A. Grupińska (ed.), Wydawnictwo Książkowe “Twój Styl”, Warszawa 2002 and Michał Głowiński, Tak jest dziwnie, tak jest inaczej, in: idem, Narracje literackie i nieliterackie. Prace wybrane, R. Nycz (ed.), Universitas, Kraków 1997, Vol. II, p. 145 et seq. 10 T. Szarota, Okupowanej Warszawy dzień powszedni, 4th edition, Czytelnik, Warszawa 2010. 313 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 313 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 313 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries War II¹¹. The first volume of this project’s research results was published in 2015. The content relates to both the everyday life of the occupied and the repressive policies imposed by the occupi- ers¹². The project title, which refers to occupation in the grammati- cal singular form, indicates an intention to unify the occupation experiences of Poles, abandon any attempts to develop distinctive indicators of German and Soviet occupations, and explore what they specifically meant for Polish society. One has the impression that, by starting with exiguous research, it was forgotten in the first instance to make a varied, yet thorough and comprehensive, sum- mary of the achievements of Polish historiography, which primarily developed in the 1970s and 1980s and has been neglected by Polish researchers in recent years. It is paradoxical, then, that this period of Polish historiography has often been viewed as an important benchmark for Western European studies. Despite the tendency to unify occupation experiences, the volume entitled Polska pod okupacją 1939−1945 [Poland under Occupation: 1939−1945] suggests that certain changes should be made: that it to say, while it is neces- sary to stop “heroizing the past” and “building monuments”, there is also “a need to take stock of the findings of Polish historiogra- phy”, preferably in comparison with international studies¹³. 11 Cf. T. Szarota, Dokonania badawcze Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w zakresie historii II wojny światowej, in: Bez taryfy ulgowej. Dorobek naukowy i edukacyjny Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w latach 2000−2010, A. Czyżewskiet et al. (eds), Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, Oddział w Łodzi, Łódź 2012, pp. 67−85. 12 Polska pod okupacją 1939−1945, Vol. 1, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, War- szawa 2015. 13 M. Gałęzowski, O projekcie wydawniczym „Polska pod okupacją 1939 – 1945”, in: ibidem, pp. 20−21. 314 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 314 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 314 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries In addition to historical research, the current studies carried out by Polish literary scholars, sociologists and cultural theorists (filmologists and theatrologists) offer an additional perspective to the problem of the occupation, especially in the context of sec- ond degree history. By using their own methods, they significantly enrich the cognitive perspective on this topic. Three recent pub- lications by Grzegorz Niziołek¹⁴, Małgorzata Hendrykowska¹⁵ and Sławomir Buryła¹⁶ are worth mentioning here. The album by Joanna Urbanek of the Museum of the World War II in Gdansk¹⁷ is also an important publication. From the point of view of histo- riography, the book Pamięć – brzemię i uwolnienie [Memory: Burden and Liberation] by Anna Wolff-Powęska summarizes the problem of dealing with the war past. The author analyses the mecha- nisms with which Germans dealt with the Nazi dictatorship until 2010¹⁸. To this day, there is no similar monograph concerned with the meaning of the war and the occupation in Polish memory¹⁹. 14 G. Niziołek, Polski Teatr Zagłady, Krytyka Polityczna, Warszawa 2013. 15 M. Hendrykowska, Film polski wobec wojny i okupacji. Tematy, motywy, pytania, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2011. 16 S. Buryła, Tematy (nie)opisane, Universitas, Kraków 2013 and S. Buryła, Paweł Rodak (eds.), Wojna: doświadczenie i zapis, Universitas, Kraków 2006. 17 J. Urbanek, Codzienność w cieniu terroru. Okupacja niemiecka w Polsce 1939−1945, Muzeum II Wojny Światowej, Gdańsk 2014. 18 A. Wolff-Powęska, Pamięć – brzemię i uwolnienie. Niemcy wobec nazis- towskiej przeszłości (1945−2010), Zysk i s-ka, Poznań 2011. 19 This gap has been filled by individual studies conducted primar- ily by the following Polish sociologists: P.T. Kwiatkowski; L.M. Nijakowski; B. Szacka, Między codziennością a wielką historią: druga wojna światowa w pamięci zbiorowej społeczeństwa polskiego, Warszawa – Muzeum II Wojny Światowej, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Gdańsk 2010. 315 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 315 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 315 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries In current Western historiographies, the Holocaust represents the central category of stories about World War II. Other events, such as the war of extermination, the resistance movement, col- laborations, displacements and deportations, have been grounded by numerous well-established historical studies. The occupa- tion, understood as an imposed system of terror, which rapidly changed society and affected every citizen, was neither the subject of thorough historical research²⁰ nor the main element of cultural memory. The reception of the occupation as a historical experience is viewed differently in a number of countries; in German commu- nicative and cultural memory, it is automatically associated with the period from 1945 to 1949, when Germany was under the post- war Allied occupation. Publications by Jan Tomasz Gross²¹ and Timothy Snyder²² have brought a new impetus to historical research. Although they do not focus exclusively on the topic in question, they describe the atti- tudes of the population enslaved by the occupiers in an innovative manner and from different perspectives. The latest reference point 20 A large contribution to the historiography has been made by the recently published works of young German researchers: Maximilian Becker (Mitstreiter im Volkstumskampf: Deutsche Justiz in den eingegliederten Ostgebieten 1939−1945, De Gruyter Oldenbourg, München 2014); and Maren Röger (Kriegsbeziehun- gen: Intimität, Gewalt und Prostitution im besetzten Polen 1939 bis 1945, S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2015). 21 J.T. Gross, Złote żniwa. Rzecz o tym, co się działo na obrzeżach zagłady Żydów, Znak, Kraków 2011 and idem, Polish Society Under German Occupa- tion: The General Government, 1939−1944, Princeton University Press, Princeton, Guildford 1979. 22 T. Snyder, Bloodlands. Europe between Hitler and Stalin, Basic Books, New York 2010; Polish edition: Skrwawione ziemie. Europa między Hitlerem a Stalinem, translated by B. Pietrzyk, Świat Książki, Warszawa 2011. 316 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 316 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 316 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries for further research on everyday life under the occupation is a book entitled Gewalt und Alltag im besetzten Polen: 1939−1945²³ [Violence and Everyday Life in Occupied Poland: 1939−1945] and an interna- tional publishing and research project, conducted by the Herder Institute in Marburg, called “Der Zweite Weltkrieg – Alltag unter deutscher Besatzung” [World War II – Everyday Life under Ger- man Occupation]²⁴. From the perspective of both the diverse experience of the occu- pation in Europe and its importance to the understanding of the trauma and the interpretation of the war in Poland, a new look at everyday life between 1939 and 1945, together with the mem- ory of it, becomes an important research hypothesis. The Centre for Historical Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Berlin has proposed reintroducing “the occupation” to the central categories that define the World War II. Rather than comparing the Soviet and German occupations, we focus on the lands under German terror. We hope that this will allow us to focus on analysis and, at the same time, facilitate a greater diversification in terms of research ques- tions. Our approach is not limited to the perspective of everyday life, as it also covers the attitudes and behaviour of the occupying forces, including “ordinary” officials and their families. The back- ground to the analysis of these relations is the Jewish community, which was sentenced to the Holocaust by the German occupation authorities, thereby excluding Polish Jewry from the category of “the occupied”. 23 J. Böhler, S. Lehnstaedt (eds.), Gewalt und Alltag im besetzten Polen: 1939−1945, fibre Verlag, Osnabrück 2012. 24 https://www.herder-institut.de/forschung-projekte/laufende-projekte/ world-war-ii-everyday-life-under-german-occupation.html (accessed on 1st De - cember 2015). 317 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 317 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 317 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries We focus on the history of events, which today is heavily dominated by the study of processes of collective remembrance. A “make-believe life” was continuing under the duress of everyday terror for five years, which were filled by frontline fighting, parti- san warfare, the nightmare of waiting for death in concentration camps and eventual extermination. Different survival strategies were developed, while fear was mingled with envy and loyalty. The lifeworlds of the occupied and the occupiers – understood as social spaces surrounding individuals and subjectively perceived by them as the real world – created new contexts for the reception of reality. Only from this perspective can we move to collective memory: the forms and methods of recording (including repres- sion and forgetting) the German occupation of Poland within a Pol- ish-German comparative context. Our book neither summarizes nor closes the topic. We are of the opinion that the proposed approach to the occupation is still a research desideratum, which should not be limited to Polish his- toriography. Wishing to, at least partially, contribute to the intro- duction of the category of the occupation to the central narrative of the World War II, we have decided to prepare a publication containing texts of speeches, which were made at our all-day sym- posium during the 19th General Congress of Polish Historians, held in Szczecin on 19th September 2014. In addition, the publica- tion also contains texts by researchers who empirically deal with the German occupation, whom we have not managed to reach earlier. In our volume, we had planned some texts dealing with the educational system in the Warta Land (Kraj Warty), the situ- ation in Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk) and how the occupation has been described in Polish schoolbooks. Unfortunately, for reasons beyond our control, these texts couldn’t be published. 318 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 318 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 318 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries There are three spaces describing the history of events and the second degree history of the German occupation in Poland: everyday life, lifeworlds and memory. They are treated as the main research areas with high cognitive potential. The texts refer directly to the proposed categories. As we do not seek to limit the topic to only one of these spaces, we have decided against dividing the book into three chapters. It is subdivided into the history of events and second degree history, which will determine the order of the key texts. Among the authors are representatives of many humanistic disciplines from Poland and Germany, which allows for an inter- disciplinary and transnational approach to the German occupation of Poland during the World War II²⁵. 25 We standardized the rules of spelling the names of selected historical events, such as: warsaw uprising, warsaw ghetto uprising, World War I, World War II. Consistently, we write “Third Reich” in quotation marks, because this was not the official name of the German state; it was only an allusion to its ideological content. 319 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 319 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 319 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Robert Traba, The Need for New Research on the German Occupation of Poland during World War II This article attempts to reintroduce the subject of occupation into the global trend of research on World War II as an experience and analytical category that should be examined along with the Hol- ocaust, the crimes of the Wehrmacht, the war of attrition and the resistance movement. This study is primarily based on Polish- -German experience. The author argues that research on the Ger- man occupation suffered a double misfortune in Polish histori- ography. Firstly, despite its high substantial quality, it was used to legitimise power in communist Poland. Secondly, it was forced out of mainstream research after 1989 and, so far, has not recovered the appropriate scientific importance in the study of World War II. Over the last quarter century, Western European studies have been dominated by the Holocaust. The author focuses on the reception of historiography on eve- ryday occupation under German rule, its research and perception methods. The main narrative reflects on the research on the orga- nization of the occupying power, methods of subordination of the Polish society, daily life and the survival strategies adop- ted by residents of both the areas incorporated into the Reich and the occupied territories. Issues such as the activity of the resi- stance movement, extermination in concentration camps and the reception of occupation in literature and film are only mentio- ned in the background. The new impetus to analyse the problem of occupation – as reflected in the literature of the children and grandchildren of the witnesses of the war – indicates that this sub- ject will still be present in the years to come. 320 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 320 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 320 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Anna Czocher, The Mechanisms of Repression and Terror Structure in Everyday Life. The Example of Krakow 1939−1945 After settling down in the occupied Polish territories, Germany deprived local communities of their power and imposed on them a system of terror. The occupation had its own dynamics; it can be divided into two periods (1942 can be assumed to have been a turning point) both because of the terror structure and methods of repression used by the Germans, and because of their “recep- tion” by the occupied people. Each of the periods is discussed with respect to three areas: direct terror, understood as a direct use of violence and physical coercion; symbolic and terrorism, under- stood as a blow to the identity of the occupied community, and the “codification” of terror, which introduced new rules to various levels of everyday life. The analysis of these selected issues con- cerns terror directed against people of Polish nationality in Kra- kow, the city chosen by the occupier as the administrative centre of the occupied Polish territories. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 321 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 321 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 321 Summaries Jerzy Kochanowski, Civilian Survival Strategies in 1939−1945 This paper attempts to categorise and analyse civilian survival strategies during the German occupation. The scope of this arti- cle is limited to a part of Polish society (the intelligentsia), almost exclusively in the General Government (GG), and only marginally involves areas incorporated into the Reich. The analysis of news- papers and other sources suggests the following division of sur- vival strategies adopted by the intelligentsia: l. “creative strategies” (including work outside former professions, trade, setting up their own businesses); 2. “strategies of continuation and legalisation”, consisting of permanent employment in both Polish and German institutions; 3. “pre-emptive” strategies, consisting in finding and using loopholes in the occupation system and proper interpretation of rules, and 4. “partnership” and “dominance” strategies, which could be practically used only by landowners holding estates in the GG. This division can be seen as an invitation to a methodo- logically innovative, cross-sectional study of Polish society during World War II. 322 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 322 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 322 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Sylwia Grochowina, German Cultural Life in Toruń, 1939−1945 The inclusion of the western, northern and south-western territo- ries of Poland into the “Third Reich” in the autumn of 1939 was associated, among other things, with the absolute annihilation of Polish culture in these areas, which was part of the programme to destroy Polish national identity. In National Socialist terms, culture was treated as a factor leading to the possibly rapid and long-lasting fusion of these lands with the Reich. Therefore, after the total liquidation of Polish cultural life, the German authorities began to organise their own. This article analyses the image of Ger- man cultural life in the occupied city of Toruń, indicating some general regularities in the implementation of Nazi cultural policy. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 323 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 323 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 323 Summaries Aleksandra Paradowska, “Exceptional Tasks” in the “new German East.” The Nazi City Planning and Architecture in Wartheland as Part of the Occupation of Polish territories during World War II This article concerns the problem of the use of urban planning and architecture as one of the measures taken by German authorities to Germanise Polish territories, based on the example of Warthe- land. These areas were of particular importance for the introduc- tion of a new order, combined with, among other things, a broad programme of resettlement and extermination of the local popula- tion. Ultimately, Polish towns and villages were to gain a “genu- ine German” character testifying the integral membership of these areas to the “Third Reich”. Although German designers and plan- ners described the Polish lands as a tabula rasa, supposedly devoid of any order, in fact, they had to conform to existing solutions, and often copied Polish plans of the interwar period. The examples described in this paper clearly highlight the problems outlined above, and at the same time present issues that allow for the link- ing of Nazi policy and architecture in the whole empire. 324 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 324 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 324 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Robert Parzer, New Insights into the Study of Nazi Extermination of Mental Patients in Wartheland After German units attacked Poland on 1 September 1939, the killing of mental patients began almost immediately. This article challenges the long-held notion that these killings were steered by the Action T4 authorities in Berlin and explores the roles of different catego- ries of perpetrators: physicians, bureaucrats and executioners, who formed the Sonderkommando Lange that later ran the first death camp, Kulmhof. Finally, the paper discusses an innovative form of remembrance of the murdered patients of the Kochanowka hos- pital in Łódź. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 325 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 325 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 325 Summaries Joanna Krakowska, What Does Theatre Need War for? What Do Historians Need Theatre for? Images of War and Occupation in Polish Theatre after 1945 Theatre is a medium of history and also a public medium in which social tensions, political disputes and identity conflicts are concen- trated. The World War II is a topic that has allowed Polish theatre to reveal historical antagonisms and hot spots of public discourse. The theatre reaches for topics of war for three major purposes: ther- apeutic – to confront the trauma, concerning identity – to negoti- ate community, as well as deconstructive – to revise and redefine historical discourse. The analysis of the ways in which theatre has been dealing with this subject as well as the political effects and polemical receptions of these theatre pieces allow to effectively investigate how Polish public discourse about the war and occupa- tion has been evolving, from elevation through propaganda appro- priation, reclaiming and revision, to deconstruction. 326 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 326 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 326 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Florian Peters, The Daily Life of the German Occupation Offi cials in Poland in Micro-historical Terms on the Basis of Private Photographs This chapter elucidates the value of private photography as a his- torical source of knowledge on everyday life under the German occupation of Poland during the World War II. In order to bridge the gap between the vast body of research on the Holocaust and war crime perpetrators and the study of social and cultural history of life under occupation, it proposes a micro-historical inquiry into the perceptions of everyday life by German civilian officials work- ing for the occupation authorities. Exemplifying the fruitfulness of such an approach as well as the methodological challenges it implies, the chapter presents findings based on a collection of ama- teur photographs taken by a German post official working in Ger- man-occupied Warsaw throughout the war. The analysis of this material offers significant insights into the grey zone between per- petrators and victims, where active support of the criminal German occupation regime did not necessarily presuppose positive engage- ment with Nazi ideology, but rather originated from everyday con- formism. Private photography is thus considered especially useful for tackling the low profile of consciousness in German society for the participation of “ordinary Germans” in establishing and sus- taining German rule over large parts of Europe during the war. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 327 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 327 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 327 Summaries Michał Łuczewski, The Reception of Occupation Expressed by Emotions The author describes the emotions of a local community during the Nazi occupation (under German rule) and Communist occupa- tion (under Russian rule), using the example of a mountain village, Żmiąca. Referring to Znaniecki’s theory and symbolic interaction- ism, the author constructs a theory of emotions, one which explains their formation when an event/phenomenon does not meet social expectations at the following levels: force (a phenomenon is more active than we expected), assessment (a phenomenon is more posi- tive/negative than we expected) and scope (a phenomenon is con- nected with more objects and in a deeper way than we expected). In addition, this analysis takes into account the relationship of emo- tions with their embodiments, metaphors and rationality. This allows for an explanation of why the greatest excitement in Żmiąca occurred after the end of World War II. 328 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 328 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 328 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Isabel Röskau-Rydel, “The Most Beautiful Years?” The Occupation of Krakow and the Krakow District in the Memory of the Germans The study outlines the different perception of the German occu- pation of the City and District of Krakow by individual Germans who lived there for shorter or longer periods during that time. Included are quotations from the Memoirs of Ralf Dahrendorf, who in the summer of 1940 was evacuated with his Berlin second- ary school to Zakopane as part of the Children’s Evacuation Pro- gramme. More extensive memories of the occupation come from the Roman Catholic paediatrician, Josef Ströder, who in 1942 was posted from Würzburg to Krakow as Director of the Children’s Hospital, and worked there in close association with Polish pae- diatricians. Practically unknown are assessments of teachers, both women and men, who were transferred to the General Government to ensure the provision of classes in schools for German pupils. This study cites memories of male and female teachers who describe the occupation, mostly without further reflections, as the “best time” of their lives. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 329 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 329 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 329 Summaries Stephan Scholz, Albums of the Nation? History Textbooks of the Federal Republic of Germany as the Visual Media of Modern History Over the last few decades, German history textbooks have emerged increasingly as visual media. Today, they are not only “autobi- ographies of the nation” (Wolfgang Jacobmeyer) but also photo albums of the nation. They represent the visual memory especially of the twentieth century and shape it at the same time. With regards to technical, cultural and educational changes, the essay reconstructs the development of the use of historic photo- graphs in history textbooks. It analyses photographic usage, inten- tional effects and possible receptions, in order to answer the ques- tion of how the use of photographs produces and conveys historical meaning. 330 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 330 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 330 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 Summaries Katarzyna Woniak, The German Occupation of Poland in German School Textbooks This article attempts to investigate the scale, form and content of texts devoted to occupation in selected German secondary- school textbooks. The focus has been placed on the analysis of facts, the number of details presented in such descriptions and the degree of contextualisation. Moreover, there is a question of how the occu- pation is described from a national perspective and whether these descriptions include any external interpretations. The fundamen- tal narrative on the World War II focuses on the Holocaust and the functioning of German society in the face of dictatorship. The German occupation is presented only briefly in textbooks. There is no reflection on the dimension of German terror against the occupied population and the most important responses to this terror, such as the characteristics of the underground state and the warsaw uprising. Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 331 Fikcyjna rzeczywistosc a5.indb 331 2016-06-29 13:56:26 2016-06-29 13:56:26 331
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