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Fundamental Rights Protection in the European Union - ebook/pdf
Fundamental Rights Protection in the European Union - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 408
Wydawca: C. H. Beck Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-255-0606-3 Data wydania:
Lektor:
Kategoria: ebooki >> prawo i podatki >> europejskie
Porównaj ceny (książka, ebook, audiobook).

Expansion of the European Union and advancement of the process of European integration has necessitated strengthening of the protection of fundamental rights in the EU. Enactment of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU has became a milestone on this path. Provision included in the Constitutional  Treaty ( which was not passed) were important elements, adopted later by the Treaty of Lisbon.

 

Strengthening of the protection of fundamental rights is one of the most important  systemic reforms of the EU that are contained in this treaty. Particularly prominent parts are giving legal personality to the Charter  and creating a legal basis to admit the EU into the European Convention on Human Rights. These are fundamental topics of this book, while devoting special attention to the course discussion on this matter in Poland.

Znajdź podobne książki Ostatnio czytane w tej kategorii

Darmowy fragment publikacji:

ZARYS PRAWA Fundamental Rights Protection in the European Union Polecamy nasze publikacje z zakresu prawa europejskiego: A. Nowak-Far (red.) PRAWO ŒWIATOWEJ ORGANIZACJI HANDLU A UNIA EUROPEJSKA Akademia Prawa A. £azowski (red.) PRAWO UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ. TESTY. KAZUSY. TABLICE, wyd. 4 Podrêczniki Prawnicze B. KuŸniak ORGANIZACJE MIÊDZYNARODOWE. PYTANIA. TABLICE Æwiczenia Becka M. Fedorowicz, K. Nizio³ PRAWO FINANSOWE POLSKI I UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ Wyk³ady i Æwiczenia M. M. Kenig-Witkowska (red.) PRAWO INSTYTUCJONALNE UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ, wyd. 4 Podrêczniki Prawnicze A. £azowski, A. Zawidzka PRAWO MIÊDZYNARODOWE PUBLICZNE Podrêczniki Prawnicze E. Skibiñska PRAWO UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ Z WPROWADZENIEM Teksty Ustaw Becka PRAWO UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ Z WPROWADZENIEM, wyd. 10 Twoje Prawo www.sklep.beck.pl FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Editor JAN BARCZ Authors: JAN BARCZ, ADAM BODNAR, ANASTAZJA GAJDA, GÁBOR HALMAI, FILIP JASIÑSKI, ZDZIS£AW KÊDZIA, DAGMARA KORNOBIS-ROMANOWSKA, ZDENEK KÜHN, ADAM £AZOWSKI, HANNA MACHIÑSKA, CEZARY MIK, ESZTER POLGÁRI, RADOSLAV PROCHÁZKA, BALÁZS D. TÓTH, ROMAN WIERUSZEWSKI, ANDRZEJ WRÓBEL, ANNA WYROZUMSKA, MIROS£AW WYRZYKOWSKI J. Barcz (ed.), Fundamental Rights Protection in the European Union, Warsaw 2009 Proposal of quotation: Editing: Aleksandra Kalinowska Proofreading: Katarzyna Iwaniuk Translation of Chapters I, III, IV, V and VI – Karolina Podstawa Translation of Chapter II – Filip Jasiñski Translation of Chapter VII – Adam £azowski Book published as a part of the project supported by Niezale¿ny Instytut Prawa Miêdzynarodowego i Europejskiego Kolegium Prawa Akademii Leona KoŸmiñskiego © Wydawnictwo C. H. Beck 2009 Wydawnictwo C. H. Beck Sp. z o.o. ul. Bonifraterska 17, 00-203 Warszawa Typesetting: Studio Diament Printing and binding: Cyfrowe Centrum Druku, Bydgoszcz ISBN 978-83-255-0606-3 Authors PROFESSOR JAN BARCZ Head of the Chair of International Law and European Union Law, Kozmi(cid:276)ski Univer- sity of Warsaw, 1995–2000 Polish Ambas- sador in Vienna ADAM BODNAR, PH.D. Associated professor (adiunkt) in the Hu- man Rights Chair, Faculty of Law and Ad- ministration, Warsaw University; member of the board of the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, heading the legal division of the Foundation ANASTAZJA GAJDA, PH.D. Associated professor (adiunkt) in the Depart- ment of European Law Collegium of Socio- Economic, Warsaw School of Economics PROFESSOR GÁBOR HALMAI Director of the Institute for Political and Inter- national Studies at Eötvös Lóránd Univerity in budapest, director of the Hungarian Hu- man Rights Information and Documentation Centre (INDoK), editor in chief of the Cen- tre’s Human Rights quarterly – Fundamen- tum, member of the Executive Committee of the European Masters Program in Human Rights and Democratization in Venice, since 2007 a member of the Managemant board of the EU Fundamental Rights Agency FILIP JASI(cid:275)SKI, PH.D. First Secretary in the Permanent Represen- tation of Poland to the European Union in brussels; expert in the field of EU Area of Justice, Security and Freedom ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DAGMARA KoRNo bIS-RoMANoWSKA Chair of Public International and European Law, University of Wroclaw ASSISTANT PRoFESSoR ZDEN(cid:267)K KüHN Charles University Law School; Judge, Su- preme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic; ad hoc judge, European Court of Human Rights ADAM LAZoWSKI, PH.D. Senior lecturer in EU Law at School of Law University of Westminster (London) HANNA MACHI(cid:275)SKA, PH.D. Associated professor (adiunkt) at the Fa- culty of Law and Administration, Warsaw University; Director of the Information of- fice of the Council of Europe PRoFESSoR CEZARy MIK Director of the Institute of International Law, European Union Law and Interna- tional Relations and Head of the Chair of International and European Law at the Fa- culty of Law and Administration, Cardinal Stefan Wyszy(cid:276)ski University of Warsaw; Deputy President of the Legislative Coun- cil at the Prime Minister of Poland ESZTER POLGÁRI PH.D. Legal Studies Department of the Central European University, lecturer at Eötvös Ló- ránd University and academic supervisor in the open Society Justice Initiative’s Fel- lowship Program V Authors ASSISTANT PROFESSOR RADoSLAV PRoCHáZKA Department of Theory of Law, Faculty of Law, Trnava University; adviser at the Constututional Court of the Slovak Repu- blic PRoFESSoR ANDRZEJ WRóbEL Head of the Chair for European and Internatio- nal Law, Institute of Law Studies, Polish Aca- demy of Sciences, judge of the Polish Supreme Court, editor in chief of ‘Europejski Przegl(cid:261)d S(cid:261)dowy’ (‘European Judicial Review‘) BALÁZS D. TÓTH D.PH. Counsellor at the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Hungary, editor of the Hungarian Human Rights Quarterly – Fun- damentum PRoFESSoR RoMAN WIERUSZEWSKI Head of the Poznan Human Rights Centre; Institute of Law Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, former member and vice cha- irman of the UN Human Rights Commit- tee, ad hoc judge of the European Court of Human Rights PRoFESSoR ANNA WyRoZUMSKA Head of the Department of European Consti- tutional Law at Lodz University; ad hoc judge in Hutten Czapska case of the European Court of Human Rights; conciliator and member of the bureau of the oSCE Court of Conciliation and Arbitration; president of the Polish Group of the International Law Association. PRoFESSoR MIRoSłAW WyRZyKoWSKI Faculty of Law and Administration, War- saw University; Judge of the Constitutional Tribunal of Poland VI Contents Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Introduction (Jan Barcz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Political and legal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Starting point – provsions of the TEU and TFEU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. The Charter of Fundamental Rights in the course of discussion concerning ratification of the Lisbon Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. The structure of the research project and main research issues . . . . . Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part I. The Charter of Fundamental Rights. Significance for the Protection of Individual Rights in the EU Chapter I. Introduction: limits of power and limits of interpretation (Mirosław Wyrzykowski) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 1. The parliamentary mandate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 2. Typology of argumentation which justifies negation of Charter’s provisions and Polish accession to Protocol No. 7 on Application of the Charter to Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 3. The attempt to explain the essence and function of the Polish-British § 4. Arguments against the Charter in the light of the Constitution of RP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol in the light of Declaration No. 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter II. Charter of Fundamental Rights: structure, scope of regulation and present practical meaning (Filip Jasi(cid:276)ski) . . . . . . . . . . . § 5. Opening remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 6. The course of works on the concept and contents of the CFR . . . . . . I. The beginnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. First tests of cataloguing of the fundamental rights . . . . . . . . . . III. Effects of works of the I European Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. From the Constitutional Treaty of the Lisbon Treaty . . . . . . . . § 7. Structure and scope of regulation of CFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Addressees of CFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Relation of CFR with ECHR in the light of Article 52.3 of CFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Specific category: modern rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 8. Practical meaning of CFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Legislative and interpretative importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Diplomatic and institutional significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 8 10 12 25 25 28 34 36 39 39 40 40 41 42 44 45 47 49 49 50 52 55 VII Contents § 9. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Chapter III. The Charter of Fundamental Rights: determinants of Protective Standards (Cezary Mik) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 10. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 11. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU of 2007 – general remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 12. Normative forms of fundamental rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Introductory remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Rights, freedoms and principles – the significance § 13. The ChFR’s fundamental rights v fundamental rights as general § 14. Principles of enjoyment of fundamental rights and their protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Enjoyment of fundamental rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Rules concerning the Protection of Fundamental Rights . . . . . . of categorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. The normative structure of rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. The normative structure of principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 15. Obligations for Poland inferred from the ChFR in the light of protective standards determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . principles of law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 60 62 64 64 65 68 72 73 75 75 75 77 80 80 of the European Union to Poland and the United Kingdom . . . . . . Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter IV. Incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights into the EU Law: status of the charter, scope of its binding force and application, interpretation problems and the Polish position (Anna Wyrozumska) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 16. The status of the Charter of Fundamental Rights in the EU law . . . . § 17. The scope of application of the Charter of Fundamental § 18. Protocol on the Application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights § 19. Polish declarations on the Charter of Fundamental Rights 98 § 20. The Czech Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 § 21. Reasons of binding Poland with the Protocol on application of the Charter and some of its further consequences . . . . . . . . . . . 101 I. Morality and decency problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 II. Social standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 III. Property claims connected with the Second World War . . . . . 110 § 22. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 and the Polish-British Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 89 Chapter V. Provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights in the light of the 1997 Constitution of RP and international agreements which are binding upon Poland (Roman Wieruszewski) . . . . 114 § 23. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 § 24. Title I of the Charter – Dignity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 I. Dignity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 II. Right to life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 VIII Contents III. Right to integrity of a person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 IV. Prohibition of torture, and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 V. Prohibition of slavery and forced labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 § 25. Title II of the Charter – Freedoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 I. Right to liberty and security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 II. Right for private and family life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 III. Protection of personal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 IV. Right to marry and right to found a family . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 V. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion . . . . . . . . . . . 122 VI. Freedom of expression and information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 VII. Freedom of assembly and of association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 VIII. Freedom of the arts and sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 IX. Right to education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 X. Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 XI. Freedom to conduct a business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 XII. Right to property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 XIII. Right to asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 XIV. Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 § 26. Title III of the Charter – Equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 I. Equality before the law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 II. Non-discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 III. Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 IV. Equality between women and men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 V. The rights of the child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 VI. The rights of the elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 VII. Integration of persons with disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 § 27. Title IV of the Charter – Solidarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 I. Workers’ rights to information and consultation within the undertaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 II. Right to collective bargaining and actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 III. Right of access to placement services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 IV. Protection in the event of unfair dismissal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 V. Unfair and unjust working conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 VI. Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 VII. Family and professional life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 VIII. Social security and social assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 IX. Health care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 X. Access to services of general economic interest . . . . . . . . . . 136 XI. Environmental protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 XII. Consumer protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 § 28. Title V of the Charter – Citizen Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 I. Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 IX Contents II. Right to vote and to stand as candidate at municipal elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 III. Right to good administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 IV. Right of access to documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 V. European Ombudsman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 VI. Right to petition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 VII. Freedom of movement and of residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 VIII. Diplomatic and consular protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 § 29. Title VI of the Charter – Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 I. Right to an effective remedy and to access to an impartial court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 II. Presumption of innocence and right to defence . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 III. Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 IV. Right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same criminal offence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 § 30. Title VII – General provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 I. Field of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 II. Scope and interpretation of rights and principles . . . . . . . . . . . 142 III. Level of protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 IV. Prohibition of abuse of rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 § 31. Final remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 § 32. Introduction – outline of the EU fundamental rights protection § 33. Classification of substantial provisions of the ChFR from the perspective of their normative character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 I. General comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 II. Right and freedoms which may be directly applied . . . . . . . . . 149 III. Rights and freedoms which refer to the European Chapter VI. The Charter of Fundamental Rights: Differentiated Legal Character of Charter’s Provisions, Their Consequences for Individuals, Courts and Legislator (Adam Bodnar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 legislator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 I. General comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 II. Invoking by an individual directly applicable ChFR or national law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 IV. Principles (‘The Union recognises and respects’) . . . . . . . . . . 155 V. Programmatic and aspirational provisions (‘The Union law-making process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 § 35. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 provisions in front of national and Community courts . . . . . . . 162 III. Due regard for ChFR provisions in the course of national policies should ensure’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 VI. Rights connected with the Union citizenship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 § 34. Value of the ChFR for individuals, courts and the Polish X Contents Chapter VII. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights – Limits and Potential (Adam Łazowski) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 § 36. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 § 37. The genesis of the Agency of Fundamental Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 § 38. The legal framework – Regulation 168/2007/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 II. The aims and mandate of the Agency for Fundamental Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 III. The territorial mandate of the Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 IV. Tasks and working methods of the Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 § 39. Multiannual programme for 2007–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 § 40. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Part II. The Consequences of the EU Accession to the ECHR for Strengthening of Individual’s Protection in the EU and for Strengthening of the European Human Rights Protection System Introduction (Andrzej Wróbel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Chapter VIII. Significance of the ECHR Provisions for the Protection of Fundamental Rights as General Principles of the EU law (Cezary Mik) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 § 41. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 § 42. ECHR protection system – general features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 § 43. Evolution of correlation between fundamental rights as general § 44. Factors determining position of the ECHR with reference § 45. Scope, measures and aims of using the ECHR in the sphere of fundamental rights protection as the general principles of law . . . . 217 § 46. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 to fundamental rights as general principles of the EU law . . . . . . . . 212 principles of law and the ECHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Chapter IX. Relationship Between the European Convention on Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights After the European Union’s Accession to the Convention (Zdzisław K(cid:266)dzia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 § 47. Diagnosis of the current situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 § 48. Complementarity of incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights into the Treaty law and the EU’s accession to the ECHR . . . 229 § 49. The substantial relationship between the ChFR and the ECHR . . . . 233 § 50. The relationship between the ChFR and the ECHR as sources of law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 I. National law perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 II. The Union law perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 III. The ECHR Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 § 51. The consequences of the EU accession as an international § 52. Influence of the EU’s accession to the ECHR on human rights protection in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 organization to the ECHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 XI Contents Chapter X. Accession of the EU to the ECHR – Institutional and Legal Relationship of the European Union and the Council of Europe (Hanna Machi(cid:276)ska) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 § 53. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 § 54. The course of the debate on the EC/EU accession to the ECHR . . . 250 § 55. Treaty basis for the EU accession to the ECHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 § 56. Towards coherence of human rights protection in Europe . . . . . . . . 259 § 57. Institutional relations between the EC/EU with the Council of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 § 58. Final remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Chapter XI. The Accession oh the EU to the ECHR and Incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights into the law of the EU in the Context of Fundamental Rights Protection Enforcement in the Third Pillar of the EU (Anastazja Gajda) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 § 59. Individual Rights Protection in the Third Pillar of the EU . . . . . . . . 268 § 60. Fundamental Rights Enforcement in the Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters on the basis of the Lisbon Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 § 61. The influence of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the EU’s accession to the ECHR on Criminal Law of the EU in the light of the Lisbon Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 § 62. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 of Lisbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 § 63. Strengthening individuals’ rights protection in the Treaty § 64. Exercising competences in the field of fundamental rights protection in the European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 § 65. Effective protection of individuals’ rights in the EU . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Chapter XII. Strengthening of an Individuals’ Status in the EU after the EU’s Accession to the ECHR – Consequences for the Legislator and National Courts – Practical Results (Dagmara Kornobis-Romanowska) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 § 66. Liability for infringement of the ECHR as the result of the EU law application as a necessary element of fundamental rights protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 § 67. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 I. Coherence of individuals’ rights in the ECHR and the ChFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 II. The right to an effective judicial protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Part III. Country Reports Chapter XIII. Country report for the Hungary (Gábor Halmai, Eszter Polgári, Balázs D. Tóth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 of Fundamental Rights into the EU law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 I. Political consensus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 II. Expert debates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 § 68. Assessment of the proposal of incorporating the Charter XII Contents I. The Hungarian ‘Europe Clause’ and the Domestic of the Czech constitutional order? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 § 69. Assessment of the proposal of the EU accession to the ECHR . . . . 331 § 70. Main problems resulting from the incorporation of the Charter into the EU law in the light of the national law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 treaties on human rights in Czech law, and the Constitutional Court’s jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Constitutional Review of the EU law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 II. Welfare rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 III. Nullum crimen sine lege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 IV. Hate speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 V. Positive Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Chapter XIV. Country report for the Czech Republic (Zden(cid:415)k K(cid:294)hn) . . . . 356 § 71. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 § 72. Will the Charter of Fundamental Rights become part of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 § 74. The EU Charter and the scholarly discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 § 75. Political discourse and the Charter of Fundamental Rights . . . . . . . 374 § 76. The Referral of the Reform Treaty by the Senate to the Constitutional Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 § 77. Conclusions: The EU Charter as a scapegoat? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 § 73. The potential conflicts between the Charter and the national constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 in Czech law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Court’s jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 I. The current position of the CCC with respect to constitutional review of the EU law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 IV. The Charter as a persuasive source of Czech national constitutional law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 II. Conflicts between the Charter and the national Bill I. The Czech constitutional order, the status of international II. Euro-Amendment of the Constitution and the Constitutional III. The status of the Charter of Fundamental Rights Chapter XV. Country report for the Slovak Republic (Radoslav Procházka) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 § 78. Assessment of legalization of the Charter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 I. Political stances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 II. Academic discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 III. Media coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 § 79. Assessment of accession to the Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 I. Public arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 II. Academic arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 § 80. Expected difficulties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 § 81. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 XIII Abbreviations ACP (states) .............. African, Caribbean and Pacific states AFSJ .......................... Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Benelux ..................... Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg CCC ........................... Czech Constitutional Court CEE ........................... Central and Eastern Europe CEPS ......................... Centre for European Policy Studies CFI ............................ Court of First Instance CFR ........................... Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union CFSP ......................... Common Foreign and Security Policy CIS ............................ Community of Independent States CJTF .......................... Combined Joint Task Forces CMLRev .................... Common Market Law Review CoEU ......................... Council of the European Union COM .......................... Document of the European Commission CoR ........................... Committee of Regions COREPER ................. Committee of Permanent Representatives CTP ............................ Common Trade Policy DG ............................. Directorate General Doc. ........................... Document number EAEC ......................... European Atomic Energy Community ECom ......................... European Commission EC .............................. European Community or European Communities (depen- ding on the context) ECB ........................... European Central Bank ECHR ........................ European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights ECJ ............................ European Court of Justice (Court of Justice of the Euro- and Fundamental Freedoms pean Communities) ed./eds ....................... editor/editors ECRev ....................... European Court Review ECR ........................... European Court Reports ECSC ......................... European Coal and Steel Community ECtHR ....................... European Court for Human Rights EEA ........................... European Economic Area EESC ......................... European Economic and Social Committee EFTA ......................... European Free Trade Association EIB ............................ European Investment Bank ELRev ....................... European Law Review XV Abbreviations EMU .......................... Economic and Monetary Union ENP ........................... European Neighbourhood Policy EP .............................. European Parliament ESCB ......................... European System of Central Banks ESDP ......................... European Security and Defence Policy ESF ............................ European Social Fund ETUC ........................ European Trade Union Confederation EU ............................. European Union EUMC ....................... European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia esp. ............................. especially FRA ........................... European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights FRG ........................... Federal Republic of Germany GOs ........................... Governmental Organizations HRC .......................... Human Rights Committee HRLJ ......................... Human Rights Law Journal i.a. ............................. inter alia i.e. .............................. that is ICCPR ....................... International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICESCR ..................... International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights IGC ............................ Intergovernmental Conference ILO ............................ International Labour Organisation ITF ............................. International Transport Worker’s Federation IGC ............................ Intergovernmental Conference (było) loc. cit. ....................... loco citato MEP ........................... Member of European Parliament MP ............................. Member of Parliament NBP ........................... National Bank of Poland NGOs ........................ Non-Governmental Organizations no. .............................. Number OJ .............................. Official Journal of the European Communities or of the European Union (depending on the context) op. cit. ........................ opus citatum p. ................................ page number/s PCA ........................... Partnership and Cooperation Agreement PCT ........................... Polish Constitutional Tribunal QMV ......................... Qualified Majority Voting Res. ............................ Resolution RP .............................. Republic of Poland SAA ........................... Stabilisation and Association Agreements SAC ........................... Czech Supreme Administrative Court SEA ........................... Single European Act SIS ............................. Schengen Information System TEAEC ...................... Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Commu- TECSC ...................... Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Commu- nity nity XVI Abbreviations TEEC ......................... Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community TEC ........................... Treaty Establishing the European Community TEU ........................... Treaty on European Union TFEU ......................... Treaty on Functioning of the European Union UN ............................. United Nations Organisation Vol. ............................ Volume number WEU .......................... Western European Union XVII Introduction I. Political and legal conditions The materials published in this book have been gathered as a result of an aca- demic project entitled: ‘Strengthening of the Protection of Fundamental Rights on the Basis of the Treaty of Lisbon. Conclusions for Poland and Other States of the Visegrad Group. This project was supported by the Trust for Civil Society in Cen- tral Eastern Europe’. Objectives for this project were set in summer 2007, and therefore at a time when the 2007 Intergovernmental Conference was conducted whose agenda was adopted at the European Council Meeting of 21–23 June 2007. As the mandate of the Conference in the form negotiated by the Member States was very detailed1, it was obvious that one of essential, new objectives of the Re- form Treaty (the future Treaty of Lisbon) was strengthening of the European Un- ion democratic legitimacy, with inclusion of significant reinforcement and con- solidation of fundamental rights protection system. This was to be expressed by means of accession of the Union (already as a uniform international organization) to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and by granting binding character to the Charter of Fundamental Rights – hitherto the document of political character. Yet, the Charter was not to be incor- porated into the text of the Treaties which were to constitute the Union (as it was proposed in the Constitutional Treaty in the case of which the Charter constituted second part thereof). On the contrary, within the scope of ‘deconstitutionalisation’ of the Union’s reform, the Charter of Fundamental Rights was to ‘have the same legal value as the Treaties’ (Article 6(1) of the TEU as worded by the Treaty of Lisbon), and thus was to be incorporated into the primary law of the (EU). As we know, this is what happened. The Reform Treaty (the Treaty of Lisbon) which was signed on 13 December 20072 introduced necessary provisions to the new Treaty on European Union (TEU). Proposals within this field included in the Treaty of Lisbon, undoubtedly, confront the European Union and its Member States with a number of issues, le- gal and political in nature. The solutions thus suggested lead, on the one hand, 1 Annex I to the Presidency Conclusions adopted during the Meeting of the European Council on 21–23 June 2007, Presidency Conclusions Brussels, 23 June 2007, 11177/07, p. 19. See Traktat reformuj(cid:261)cy Uni(cid:266) Europejsk(cid:261). Mandat Konferencji Mi(cid:266)dzyrz(cid:261)dowej: analiza prawno-polityczna. Wnioski dla Polski [Reform Treaty of the European Union. Intergovernmental Conference Mandate – legal and political analysis], Kozminski Law School Papers 2007, No. 5. F.C. Mayer, Die Rückkehr der Europäischen Verfassung? Ein Leitfaden zum Reformvertrag, Zeitschrift für ausländi- sches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 2007, No. 4. 2 OJ 2007 C 306/1. Jan Barcz 1
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