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Język angielski. Matura bez problemu - ebook/pdf
Język angielski. Matura bez problemu - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Handybooks Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-60238-18-9 Data wydania:
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MATURA BEZ PROBLEMU to książka ćwiczeniowa adresowana do uczniów szkół średnich, liceów oraz techników, przygotowujących się do egzaminu maturalnego
pisemnego na poziomie podstawowym oraz zaawansowanym. Zadania zostały skonstruowane tak, aby umożliwić uczniowi zapoznanie się z charakterystyką ćwiczeń występujących na egzaminie, wyrobienie określonych nawyków językowych oraz opanowanie materiału o jak najszerszym wymaganym zakresie. Zadania koncentrują się na opanowaniu umiejętności czytania dłuższych tekstów
ze zrozumieniem, utrwaleniu zdolności rozpoznawania i stosowania struktur gramatyczno-leksykalnych, stosowania parafrazy oraz tłumaczenia zdań z języka polskiego na angielski. Wśród wspomnianych struktur uczeń odnajdzie zadania sprawdzające znajomość słownictwa, takie jak test luk sterowanych, test luk otwartych, słowotwórstwo oraz szereg ćwiczeń wzmacniających znajomość wyrażeń przyimkowych, czasowników złożonych, kolokacji, zwrotów i idiomów.

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##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== MATURA BEZ PROBLEMU Zadania ułatwiające przygotowanie do egzaminu pisemnego ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== ISBN 978-83-60238-18-9 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== WSTĘP MATURA BEZ PROBLEMU to książka ćwiczeniowa adresowana do uczniów szkół średnich, liceów oraz techników, przygotowujących się do egzaminu maturalnego pisemnego na poziomie podstawowym oraz zaawansowanym. Oprócz maturzystów z książki mogą z powodzeniem skorzystać osoby, których dążeniem jest utrwalenie materiału gramatyczno-leksykalnego na wysokim poziomie zaawansowania. Atutem niniejszej pozycji jest niezwykle obszerny zakres praktycznych zadań odzwierciedlających te, z jakimi maturzysta będzie musiał poradzić sobie podczas egzaminu. Zadania zostały skonstruowane tak, aby umożliwić uczniowi zapoznanie się z charakterystyką poszczególnych ćwiczeń, wyrobienie określonych nawyków językowych oraz opanowanie materiału o jak najszerszym wymaganym zakresie. Zadania pogrupowane zostały zgodnie z typologią formularza egzaminacyjnego i koncentrują się na opanowaniu umiejętności czytania dłuższych tekstów ze zrozumieniem oraz utrwaleniu zdolności rozpoznawania i stosowania struktur gramatyczno-leksykalnych. Wśród wspomnianych struktur uczeń odnajdzie zadania sprawdzające znajomość słownictwa, takie jak test luk sterowanych, test luk otwartych, słowotwórstwo oraz szereg ćwiczeń wzmacniających znajomość wyrażeń przyimkowych, czasowników złożonych, kolokacji, zwrotów i idiomów. Zadania odnoszące się do form gramatycznych powinny ułatwić zrozumienie zasad transformacji zdań - parafrazy, dzięki którym uczeń nabywa swobody stylistycznej oraz umiejętność wyrażenia myśli na kilka sposobów. Ćwiczenia translacyjne pomogą w utrwaleniu pojęć gramatycznych i leksykalnych oraz w nabyciu płynności w ‘przenoszeniu’ myśli z języka polskiego na angielski. Zapraszamy do rozwiązywania zadań i życzymy powodzenia na egzaminie. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 3 - ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== SPIS TREŚCI Zadania tekstowe Rozpoznawanie struktur gramatyczno-leksykalnych Test luk sterowanych Stosowanie struktur gramatyczno-leksykalnych Słowotwórstwo Transformacje - parafraza Test luk otwartych Tłumaczenie zdań na język angielski KLUCZ Odpowiedzi do zadań 7 55 56 85 106 124 149 158 181 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 5 - ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== MATURA MATURA Zadania tekstowe Rozumienie tekstu czytanego Zadanie sprawdzające umiejętność rozumienia czytanego tekstu stanowi część egzaminu pisemnego na poziomie podstawowym oraz zaawansowanym. Teksty stosowane w ćwiczeniach przyjmują różne formy. Mogą to być teksty literackie, publicystyczne, historyczne lub informacyjne. Zwykle charakteryzują się one bogatą treścią leksykalną, stylistyczną oraz merytoryczną. Celem takich zadań jest określenie stopnia zaawansowania oraz zdolności rozumienia treści pisanej, rozpoznania struktur gramatycznych oraz wykorzystania informacji zawartej w artykule. Zadania tekstowe mają formę zamkniętą: prawda/fałsz, wielokrotny wybór oraz przyporządkowanie. W naszych zadaniach uczeń odnajdzie praktyczne ćwiczenia przygotowujące do rozwiązywania zadań powyższego typu. Różnią się one nieco formą od typowych zadań egzaminacyjnych, ponieważ zostały tak skonstruowane, aby zapoznać ucznia z formą określonego zadania, a jednocześnie ułatwić skupienie uwagi na wyborze poprawnej odpowiedzi. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 7 - TEKST 1 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. There is a spark of innovation in all of us. It is one of those things about being human. We all have bright ideas some time or another finding something new or how to do things better. There are those who have enough determination to carry their idea through right to the end. However, all innovators, as we call them, experience successes and failures along the way. 1. Most innovators achieve great successes. Take the example of Branco Bobic - famous for inventing a device for putting out oil wells after the Gulf War. Branco has lost his home, business and life savings when he failed to attract manufacturers attention. He has learned the hard way just as many others have. 2. Branco Bobic became a millionaire after selling his invention to oil producers. Trevor Boylis, for instance, invented the clockwork radio which he designed for use in Africa where batteries are expensive or simply hard to obtain. No producers had agreed to buy his patent until his appearance on TV. 3. Investors only bought Trevor Boylis’ clockwork radio when he showed it on television. Iris Whyte has designed a plastic potty which is equipped with a moisture-activated device that speaks to an infant being toilet-trained. This novelty is supposed to help teach the child. So far, Iris has not been successful in selling her innovative idea. 4. Iris Whyte has designed an innovative product for little children who still cannot use the toilet. Another serious inventor, Joshua Silver, has had an idea for cheap, comfortable spectacles for poor people in developing countries. Although his invention might contribute to a considerable improvement in the quality of life for billions of people, there is nobody willing to put the device into production. So, he still manufactures his spectacles himself in his garage. 5. Joshua Silver’s invention has helped billions of poor people with eyesight problems. All these individuals have had to learn what persistence and patience mean. Even if they have not quite made it, they are convinced success is not far away. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 8 - TEKST 2 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. There are several characteristics that shopping addiction shares with other types of addiction. As with other addictions, shopping addicts typically become preoccupied with spending and devote a lot of time and money to the activity. 1. Many kinds of addictions are like addiction to shopping. Actual cash spending is important to the process of shopping addiction while window shopping does not constitute an addiction. 2. The money that a shopping addict spends does not matter in the process of compulsive shopping. Shopping addiction is highly ritualized and follows a typically addictive pattern of thinking about shopping, planning shopping trips, and the shopping act itself, often described as pleasurable, ecstatic even, and as providing relief from negative feelings. Finally, the shopper often crashes with feelings of disappointment, particularly with him or herself. 3. A shopping addict does not achieve much pleasure from going on a shopping spree. Compulsive shoppers use shopping as a way of escaping negative feelings, such as depression, anxiety, boredom, self-critical thoughts, and anger. Unfortunately, the escape is short-lived. The purchases are often considered useless, and compulsive shoppers will then begin to plan the next spending spree. 4. For many addicts shopping considers a long-term solution to their mental problems. Most addicts shop alone, although some shop with others who enjoy it as it may lead to embarrassment to shop with people who don’t share this type of enthusiasm for shopping. 5. Most shopping addicts avoid going shopping with people who are not so keen on shopping. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 9 - TEKST 3 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. According to recent data about 21 percent of adult smokers used e-cigarettes in 2015, which is more than double the rate in 2016. 1. In 2016 twice as many smokers used e-cigarettes as in the previous year. E-cigarettes are battery-powered cartridges filled with a nicotine liquid that, when heated, creates an inhalable mist. Little is known about the long-term health effects of the products. Yet, complaints of injury linked to e-cigarettes from burns and nicotine toxicity to respiratory and cardiovascular problems have jumped over the past year as the devices become more popular. 2. Although the side-effects of the use of e-cigarettes are still unknown more and more users express their satisfaction with them. The complaints from the public included trouble breathing, headache, sore throat cough, dizziness, nose bleeds, chest pain or other cardiovascular problems and allergic reactions such as itchiness and swelling of the lips. However, the health problems were not necessarily caused by e-cigarettes. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may lead to dropping the smoking habit, but definitive data are not available. 3. Officials are sure that certain side-effects of e-cigarettes may discourage people from smoking at all. Still, the findings from the preliminary studies have become tough evidence in the campaign around the devices, which allow users to inhale nicotine without the damaging tar produced by conventional cigarettes. Public health officials claim that the devices may encourage nonsmokers, particularly young people, to try conventional cigarettes whereas e-cigarette advocates have argued that they simply provide a safer alternative for smokers. 4. Young people may want to pick up smoking traditional cigarettes after trying the e-cigarettes. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 10 - TEKST 4 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. Immunizations can save a child’s life. Because of advances in medical science, children can be protected against more diseases than ever before. Some diseases that once injured or killed thousands of children, have been eliminated completely and others are close to extinction – mainly due to safe and effective vaccines. 1. Progress in vaccination has helped eradicate illnesses which were once impossible to cure. One example of the great impact that vaccines can have is the elimination of polio. In many countries, polio was once most-feared disease, causing death and paralysis, but today, thanks to vaccination, there are no more reports of polio in civilized countries. 2. In some developed countries cases of polio can still be dangerous and cause death to patients who are not vaccinated. Vaccination is very safe and effective. Vaccines are only given to children after a long and careful review by scientists, doctors, and healthcare professionals. Vaccines will involve some discomfort and may cause pain, redness, or tenderness at the site of injection but this is minimal compared to the pain, discomfort, and trauma of the diseases these vaccines prevent. 3. Certain discomforts and side-effects of a vaccination procedure may be more acute than the results of a disease. Serious side effects following vaccination, such as severe allergic reaction, are very rare. The disease prevention benefits of getting vaccines are much greater than the possible side effects for almost all children. It is important that children who are able to get vaccinated are fully immunized. This not only protects whole families, but also helps prevent the spread of diseases to other family members or friends. 4. Vaccination gives protection against diseases not only to vaccinated children, but also to other society members. Some diseases that can be prevented by vaccination result in prolonged disabilities and can take a financial toll because of lost time at work, medical bills or long-term disability care. In result, getting vaccinated against these diseases is a good investment and usually covered by insurance. 5. As an effect of vaccination, some patients may develop disabilities that require a lot of money to be cured. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 11 - TEKST 5 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. Many teens enjoy keeping in touch with their friends on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter, but researchers say that using such sites to excess can be unhealthy and has even been linked to depression. 1. Researchers are sure that spending too much time on Facebook or Twitter can be the direct cause of depression in many users. A new report describes a phenomenon known as Facebook depression in which children and teenagers spend an exaggerated amount of time on social networking sites, and then develop symptoms of depression. The phenomenon is not common, and most children benefit from the site because they are able to maintain ties with friends and feel a connection with their society. 2. Facebook depression does not occur very often as most users know how to take a proper advantage of the site. But heavy use of Facebook, as well as other risks of the online world can have serious effects, so it s critical for parents to stay involved in their children s lives. As kids have increasingly open lines of communication with their peers online, it is extremely important that parents maintain control over their kids so they can have a sense of what is going on in their social lives, both online and offline. 3. It is parents’ role to supervise the activities that their children get involved in while on the Internet. Relationships with friends become critical in adolescent years. While Facebook allows teens to engage with friends, that interaction could also turn to envy. Kids become very competitive and want to be chosen. Facebook allows adolescents to see their friends successes, as well as the number of friendships those friends have, which sets up a jealousy thing where kids might feel worse because their friends seem to have a better time and more attractive life than they do. 4. Facebook opens a good opportunity for teenagers to compete about their achievements and the competition makes their contacts easier. For the most part, depression and loneliness are associated with those extremely heavy users of the Internet who let the amount of time they spend online interfere with their offline connections. One way to potentially prevent children from entering this type of depression is to make sure they engage in a variety of activities. Kids who have a balanced life, who do schoolwork and after- school activities, who are in teams or clubs, have a lower chance of becoming depressed. 5. Children who spend too much time on offline activities are as likely to develop depression as extreme Internet users. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 12 - TEKST 6 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. In times past, and in times of food shortage, farmers grew crops that they knew performed well on their soil, and which gave them good prices. Nowadays, the first part of the food chain, agriculture, is governed by the end user of the food chain - the consumer. Retailers compete for market share offering a good variety of food products at attractive prices to numerous customers. 1. In modern times the influence of customers on the prices of products is greater than in the past. In earlier times, people grew much of their own food, producing sufficient for their own and their family s needs. These days, people rely increasingly on others to grow and process food. This has led to the development of the food industry, the largest industry in the world. 2. The growth of the food industry has been stimulated by rising demand on food from the people who cannot produce it for themselves. In the United Kingdom, for example, the food and drink sector has an annual value of 80 billion pounds. In many developed countries, food processing accounts for some 10 to 15 per cent of all manufactured products. With increasing prosperity and standards of living in many developed countries, people devote a lower percentage of their total income to purchasing food. 3. In a number of prosperous countries the more people earn, the more they spend on food. A hundred years ago, when British consumers lived, on average, for about 50 years, half of their income was spent on food. Now, with our higher standard of living, life expectancy exceeds 70 years, and only 20 per cent of household income is spent on food purchases. An increasing amount of foods being bought are manufactured or prepared. 4. These days people live longer than a century ago because they tend to spend more money on good food products. Less well-off people, aware of the essential energy provided by food, spend a higher proportion of their scarce income on food. People with higher incomes, on the other hand, may see food more in terms of enjoyment and look for greater quality, with regard to product ingredients, and greater variety, sometimes alternating between dieting and overeating. 5. Wealthier consumers are less likely to consider food merely as a source of energy. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 13 - TEKST 7 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. Standing in a modern supermarket and observing people doing shopping, it may appear unbelievable that anyone today could have a deficiency of vitamins and minerals. But appearances can be dangerously misleading. 1. The amount and kinds of food that people buy and consume these days does not stand for their intake of vitamins and minerals. Consider, for instance, that about 25 percent of all the calories we average modern people consume come from added sugar, which contains nothing but calories. We may safely cross out one-fourth of our diet as a potential source of vitamins and minerals. 2. Only a quarter part of the modern day diet consists of products that provide people with the necessary elements. If we exclude those who never drink at all, those remaining take in, on average, some 20 to 25 percent of all calories from alcohol. Alcoholic beverages contain at best only traces of vitamins and minerals. So between the sugar and the alcohol, an average person is now getting approximately half of their daily calorie quota from sources that are hardly nutritious. 3. Only about a half of food products that people consume provide them with beneficial nutrients. Even more calories in a typical modern diet come from processed fats, cooking fats, salad oils as well as oils added to baked goods. Such fats which contain only minimum amount of vitamins may constitute another 15 to 30 percent of daily calories. 4. A variety of oils and fats added to food products make a substantial and healthy component as well as a required source of calorie. Ironically, the same food technology that has given us the opportunity to eat like kings has also made it possible for us to waste two-thirds of our daily diets on food that could not keep a mouse alive. Still, most of us know that vitamins and minerals play an increasingly important role in how we feel and perform. 5. A major part of food products that people consume these days do not represent a reliable source of a nutritious diet. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 14 - TEKST 8 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. Evolution has a sense of humor. Given enough time and enough mutation, competition, selection, pressure and hybridization the forces of nature can turn a lizard into a Chicken From Hell. Scientists have just discovered a freakish, birdlike species of dinosaur - 3 metres long, over 200 kilo, with a beak, no teeth, a bony crest on top of its head, murderous claws, strong fighter arms, tall legs, a thin tail and feathers sprouting all over the body. Officially, it’s a member of a group of dinosaurs called oviraptorosaurs, unofficially nicknamed the Chicken From Hell. 1. According to scientists the new type of dinosaur that they have discovered is really strange and cannot be compared to any dinosaur found before. This dino-bird is not literally a chicken, or even a bird. It’s definitely a dinosaur, and it lived at the end of the Cretaceous period, from about 68 million to 66 million years ago. ‘It would look like a really absurd, stretched-out chicken and it would have been a cross between a chicken and a lizard,’ say the paleontologists who excavated the fossils. 2. The paleontologists were surprised to discover a dinosaur that would have looked like two species combined together. The fossils of three specimens of the new dinosaur were found in a sedimentary rock layer known as the Hell Creek in North and South Dakota. The formation inspired the nickname. But there’s also the matter of appearance: It’s a disturbing beast. It looks like it could stomp you, rip you to pieces or simply peck you to death. 3. The nickname of the Chicken From Hell derives from the scary body features of the new dinosaur. It’s a big animal, the biggest oviraptorosaur species found in North America. The creature brings to mind a huge flightless bird, such as an ostrich or emu. The weird crest on its head, which resembles half a dinner plate turned vertically, looks like that of a cassowary. The new dinosaur is loaded with biological accessories and adaptations, as if evolution had been inspired by a Swiss Army knife. 4. Scientist have figured out that the new dinosaur would have been a fierce creature that attacked its prey from air. In The Origin of Species Charles Darwin wrote of the ’grandeur of natural selection, through which endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved’ — but he never saw this animal from a nightmare. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 15 - TEKST 9 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. Conventional antibiotics are overprescribed and overconsumed. Doctors carelessly prescribe antibiotics for viral infections, which is useless since antibiotics are only effective for breaking up bacterial infections. To make matters worse, over-prescription and over-consumption make future infections harder to fight, since antibiotics reduce the good bacteria in the intestines. 1. Patients who are regularly treated with antibiotics are less predisposed to suffer from infections in future. As this disturbing trend continues, scientists are rediscovering the reasons why raw honey is one of the best natural antibiotics around to this day. The unique property of honey lies in its ability to fight infection on multiple levels, making it more difficult for bacteria to develop resistance. 2. More and more types of bacteria are resistant to antibiotics, including the substances contained in raw honey. A 2013 report sounds the alarm, reporting that over 2 million people contract antibiotic-resistant infections each year. Conventional antibiotics are making users sicker in the long run, more vulnerable and more prone to infection. 3. Overdoses of conventional antibiotics weaken patients immunity and they are likely to be laid down with infections more often. Honey uses a combination of weapons, including polyphenols, hydrogen peroxide and an osmotic effect. Honey is practically an all-round fighter, using multiple methods to kill bacteria. One of those is its osmosis effect. This effect comes from honey s high-sugar concentration. In this process, water is drawn from the bacteria cells, leaving the pathogens no option but to dehydrate and die off. 4. The osmosis effect kills bacteria by means of feeding them with too much water. Honey possesses properties that stop the formation of biofilms. These are bacteria communities which contain diseases. Honey stops the bacteria from communicating and spreading. Without this communication mode, the bacteria cannot release the toxins that cause disease. 5. Bacteria stop producing toxins if their ways of communication within their colonies are prevented by honey. Honey is so powerful for destroying bacteria that it should be the first method of treatment when treating a bacterial illness. Doctors should prescribe honey first, since it attacks bacteria from multiple angles. Prescribed antibiotics should be the alternative therapy or the last resort. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 16 - TEKST 10 Przeczytaj tekst. Po każdym akapicie zdecyduj, czy zdania podane poniżej wyrażają prawdę - ‘true’, czy fałsz - ‘false’. The game of solving difficult puzzles has always filled people with the feeling of a profound excitement. No wonder, then, that the fascination of treasure hunting has invariably been associated with the possibility of realizing the most improbable dreams. 1. There are people for whom seeking for artefacts of historical value is an occupation that gives a lot of pleasure and a sense of adventure. According to what psychologists claim, there is a little boy in every treasure hunter. Yet, the chase of hidden valuables has recently become a serious venture with amateur and professional seekers equipped with highly sophisticated devices like metal detectors, radars, sonars or underwater cameras. 2. Different kinds of quipment are used by treasure hunters depending on whether they are amateur or professional seekers. What raises the adrenaline level in these treasure-obsessed fanatics are legends, myths, old maps and other variety of clues promising immeasurable fortunes buried beneath the earth s surface or drowned in the ancient galleys. For many treasure hunters the struggle of hint searching is even more stimulating than digging out a treasure trove composed of golden or silver objects, jewellery and other priceless artefacts. 3. Most treasure hunters achieve the greatest level of satisfaction only after finding a great number of valuables. The job is, however, extremely strenuous as even the most puzzling clues must be thoroughly analysed. Failures and misinterpretations are not rare, either. Yet, even the most unlikely clue or the smallest find is enough to reinforce the hunter s self-confidence and passion. 4. Lack of clues, mysteries that cannot be solved or failed searches usually cause disappointment and discourage hunters from further search. Indeed, the delight in treasure finding doesn t always depend on acquiring tremendous amounts of valuables. Whatever is detected, be it a rusty sundial or a marble statue, brings fulfilment and reward after a long and exhausting search. 5. Even finds of minor value can be a profound gratification to treasure seekers, though most of them aim at discovering something unique. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 17 - TEKST 11 Przeczytaj tekst, z którego usunięto zdania. Wybierz takie, które w najbardziej logiczny sposób uzupełnią kontekst artykułu. The knowledge and eloquence that people gain through travelling is usually perceived as the best fulfilment in life. ............ (1) Most beginner travellers find it hard to cope with hardships of their first-time experience and they tend to give up before even reaching their destination. It is the inquisitive human nature that impels people to seek thrilling experiences and to set out on an exploration trip. Those who travel frequently and to diverse places benefit from establishing new relationships and acquiring a better knowledge about other cultures and lifestyles. However, there is a grain of truth in the assumption that people are prone to cherishing cliches and unfounded prejudices about other nations and their characteristics. ............ (2) Sometimes, it is only the first-hand encounter that can help change the approach towards the so-called inferior communities . Although most travellers hope to make friends abroad and make a positive impression, they usually commit blunders that prevent friendly relations. This direct contact with a different civilization enables travellers to drop their baseless assumptions and get acquainted with the real concept of life in all four corners of the globe. Beyond question, travelling facilitates friendship and makes it easier for many individuals to acknowledge the true value of different traditions and customs. Discomforts of travelling alone can also put a considerable strain on the tourist. Yet, it does not always mean enjoyment. ............ (3) It may also involve coming close with the atrocities of real existence as well as becoming aware of the challenges and hardships that other people have to struggle with. Hence, a true voyage is the one with a good deal of experience to reminisce about, ............ (4) very often combined with exposure to abhorrent sights and incredible ordeals. as long as the traveller copes with the difficulties that occur along the way. The learning to be complete, thus, requires an ability to observe and analyse the surroundings, both their glamour and brutality. ............ (5) And it is the passion for experiencing something new, more thrilling and more educative that pushes the traveller toward yet another venture. The local residents, driven by poverty, may even want to take advantage of travellers visiting their local sites. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 18 - TEKST 12 Przeczytaj tekst, z którego usunięto zdania. Wybierz takie, które w najbardziej logiczny sposób uzupełnią kontekst artykułu. Many people associate doing physical exercise with a painful torturing of the body. ............ (1) Physical exercise may not give as required an effect as other forms of active relaxation. There s usually something we come up with that is of bigger importance than putting one s muscles through their paces. Unless we are forced to go in for a physical training, we are inclined to treat it as something of a lower priority than staying in front of the TV set, spending time in a pub sipping alcoholic beverages or consuming excessive quantities of fattening confectionery in a cafe. ............ (2) And experts are terrified with the fact that consumption of unhealthy and high-calorie snacks has been increasing. We need to be considerably motivated to take up a body workout and build our physical fitness. What usually repels individuals from committing themselves to strenuous exercise is the fear of fatigue, discomfort or even the inhibitions of being outdone by true fitness zealots. However, getting fit is fully a matter of common sense. ............ (3) Different forms of exercise may be of great benefit to the human body increasing its strength, flexibility and endurance. In most cases preferences result from the patterns of behaviour that were established during childhood years. When supported by a nutritious diet, much better performance of the heart and the lungs improves the blood circulation. ............ (4) Disfunctions of the cardiovascular system among professional sportsmen are not as rare as one may think, though. This, in turn, makes an individual more resistant to stressful situations as well as more immune to infections and diseases. In the first place, self-discipline that is requisite for proceeding with such physical effort ought to be attained to ensure that the intention of becoming healthier and more vigorous isn t suppressed by any trivial obstacles. ............ (5) And not for one moment ought one to forget that desired and satisfying effects will only come in time. Ultimately, dissatisfaction with one’s figure or physical condition is known to account for depression and low self-esteem. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== - 19 -
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