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Legal English Basics - ebook/pdf
Legal English Basics - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 267
Wydawca: C. H. Beck Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-255-8965-3 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> prawo i podatki
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Podręcznik Legal English Basics powstał głównie z myślą o osobach, które władają językiem angielskim na poziomie B1 i chciałyby rozpocząć swoją przygodę z prawniczym językiem angielskim. Książka jest efektem wielu lat pracy dydaktycznej Autorki i stanowi odpowiedź na indywidualne potrzeby uczniów, zgłaszane przez nich podczas zajęć. Koncepcja książki zakłada wieloaspektowe podejście do procesu nauki. Oznacza to, że w trakcie kursu młodzi prawnicy mogą nauczyć się nie tylko:

ale również nabyć podstawowe w późniejszej pracy zawodowej umiejętności komunikacyjne, niezbędne między innymi do:

Książka zawiera 10 rozdziałów tematycznych o zwiększającym się stopniu trudności. Zaczynając od łatwiejszych zagadnień (System of Law, Legal Professions, Courts)  powoli zmierzając do bardziej wymagających (Torts, Property Law, Contract Law, Company Law, Intellectual Property, Labour Law, Criminal Law).

Podręcznik może być wykorzystywany na kursach językowych w firmach, na uczelniach wyższych oraz w szkołach językowych.

Znajdź podobne książki Ostatnio czytane w tej kategorii

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UnIt 1 sYsteM oF LAW Unit 1 LET’S GET STARTED: DISCUSSION Every country has its law of the land (domestic law), namely the law that all of its citizens must obey. Have a look at the questions below. Are you able to answer them? Write down the answers or discuss them with your friend. Over to you! ▷ What is law? ▷ Where does law come from? ▷ Who makes law? ▷ What is the fundamental legal act? ▷ What kinds of persons or bodies govern your country? ▷ Do all of them have the same rights and obligations? Why? Why not? READING 1: DEFINITION OF LAW AND THE LAWMAKING PROCESS Before an Act of law enters into force, a special law-making process needs to be followed. Although this procedure differs among countries, there are some stages of the process that are common to all. Now, read the following text on the law-making process. Were your answers to the above questions correct? Take a close look at the words in bold and try to memorise them. What is law? Law is a set of rules (laws) that govern the behaviour of every citizen of a given country. Law must be obeyed by everyone it applies to. This means that all the people in a given country must follow the rules set out by their domestic law. Who makes law? Laws are passed, which means made, by parliament (like in most European countries, or congress, like in the US) which is called a law-making body. Law-making bodies usually consist of two houses: the lower house (the House of Commons in the UK, the House of Representatives in the US, or the sejm in Poland) and the upper house (the senate in the US and Poland, and the House of Lords in the UK). Parliament is composed of MPs (Members of Parliament) and Senators (in Poland) and congress is composed of congressmen or congresswomen. Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 11 Unit 1 How are laws made? First of all, someone has to come up with an idea for a new law. This can only be done by individuals or bodies who enjoy a right of initiative, which means the power to propose a new law, and may include an MP, a cabinet of government ministers, the president or a group of citizens. When someone wants to make a law, they start by drawing up a bill, which is a draft of the proposed law. Once a bill is prepared, it is introduced to parliament. The bill has to be debated and voted on by both houses of parliament. Both houses of parliament must reach an agreement on the final wording of the bill before it can become a law. If they both vote in favour of the bill becoming law, the bill is sent to the president who can choose whether or not to sign the bill (or to the monarch who grants the Royal Assent). If the president signs the bill, it becomes a law and is called an Act of Parliament. If the president decides not to sign the bill into law, which means that the president exercised his or her right to veto, then the bill is sent back to parliament, which may bypass the veto with a (usually) two-thirds vote in both houses. The bill would then become a law. A new law enters into force when it is published publicly. The same procedure takes place if a change to an existing law, called an amendment, is proposed. LISTENING 1: HOW DOES A BILL BECOME A LAW? PRACTICE 1 Go to the following website: www.LegalEnglishBasics.pl and play TRACK 1. Listen to the description of how a bill becomes a law in the UK. Write down the answers or speak out! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1. What is a bill? 2. Who must approve a bill before it becomes a law? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. Who can propose a bill? 4. Who examines a proposed bill in detail? 5. How are changes to a bill or a law called? 6. What happens if most of the MPs and Lords vote against the bill? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7. What happens if the Houses of Parliament cannot agree on the final wording of the bill? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8. What is the final part of the bill’s journey into a law? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Unit 1 USE OF LANGUAGE 1: DESCRIBING PROCESSES PRACTICE 2 Now try to recall the stages of the legislative process. If you find it helpful, take a quick look at the reading text again and listen to the listening again. Put these steps into the right order (the first step is already marked) and explain how a bill becomes a law. The bill begins as an idea 1 The bill becomes law The bill is amended The bill is looked at in detail The bill is discussed and debated The bill is introduced The bill is proposed The bill is referred to the upper house of parliament The bill is sent to the president/monarch for approval The bill is voted on Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 13 PRACTICE 3 Now, let’s think of other types of processes. Think of any process that takes place at your school or workplace. Can you describe it? Your turn! You may use examples and/or ideas given below. Example: Unit 1 Buying equipment for the company First, a list of required equipment is prepared by employees from all the departments. Then, the list is analysed by the heads of departments. Next, the list is corrected and some equipment is deleted or added to the list as the heads of departments think is best. Later, the list is sent to the finance department. After that, the cost of the equipment is calculated and it is approved or denied. Finally, if the cost is approved, the equipment is bought and delivered to the department that asked for it. OTHER IDEAS 1. Getting to university 2. Organising a conference 3. Getting approval to go on a training course PRACTICE 4 You have just described the processes that take place at your company or school. However, at companies, not only processes are performed, but also various tasks are carried out by specific departments. Let’s take a look at the tasks carried out in a typical company. Read the tasks below and decide which department they are performed by – match the task with the appropriate department: 1. Administrative support is provided by the… a. Sales Department 2. All contracts and documents are checked by the… b. Marketing Department 3. All employment matters are handled by the… c. IT Department 4. New products are invented by the… d. Administration Department 5. Problems with computers are solved by the… e. Legal Department 14 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics Unit 1 6. The business is promoted by the… f. HR Department 7. The company’s products are sold by the… g. Finance Department 8 The funds and accounting of the company is managed by the… h. R D Department PRACTICE 5 Think of different tasks that are performed at your workplace or school. Which department or person are they performed by? Do you think it is ok that work is divided between different departments? Discuss or write down your answer. Over to you! READING 2: FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF LAW AND THE SEPARATION OF POWERS The existence of every democratic country and its citizens is based on certain fundamental rules, usually contained in a national constitution. The following text talks about such rules. Read it through 2–3 times, take a close look at the words in bold and try to memorise them. FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF LAW AND SEPARATION OF POWERS Most countries in the world have built their system of law on the basis of the fundamental rules contained in their constitutions. A constitution sets out the rules that govern a given country, define the basic rights and obligations of its citizens and government agencies, and provide for the separation of powers between them. The separation of powers means that the power to govern the country is separated into legislative, executive and judicial branches. This is a system of checks and balances that means each branch of government has some influence over the actions of the other branches. This ensures that no one branch ever gains too much power. The legislative branch makes laws. It is vested in parliament (congress) and several government agencies (e.g. the Council of Ministers (called the cabinet)). The executive branch makes sure that laws are obeyed. The president is the head of the executive branch and is supported by government agencies. The president leads the country and commands the national army. The judicial branch decides on the meaning of (interprets) laws, how to apply them, and whether a law breaks the rules of the constitution. Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 15 Now cover the text and try to say what you remembered about the constitution and the separation of powers. Try to use as many of the words in bold as you can. Unit 1 PRACTICE YOUR VOCABULARY 1: PEOPLE WITH POWER PRACTICE 6 Complete the table below with the right person/body or activity belonging to one of the three branches of power: Cabinet | Enforces Laws | Interprets Laws | Judge | Legislator | President | Lower House of Parliament | Makes Laws | Supreme Court | Upper House of Parliament WHO? WHAT DO THEY DO? Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch SPEAKING 1: WHY IS IT A GOOD IDEA TO HAVE THREE BRANCHES OF POWER? PRACTICE 7 Make a list of people who perform important tasks at your company or school. They may include: President Finance Director Sales Director HR Director COMPANY Managers Minister of Education Principal SCHOOL Teachers Marketing Director Junior Employees Cafeteria workers Students 16 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics What do they do? How do they work together to make your company or school successful? Do you think that different branches of government work in a similar way to make your country work well? Discuss with your speaking partner. USE OF LANGUAGE 2: EXPRESS YOUR OPINION – AGREEING AND DISAGREEING PRACTICE 8 In Practice 7 above, you expressed your opinion on the importance of the separation of powers. Did you agree with all the ideas expressed by others? To express agreement or disagreement, you may need some useful phrases that appear in the conversation below – read it and try to memorise the highlighted phrases. Allison: Tom, have you heard about the latest bill on employment? Tom: Well, I know parliament is debating some amendments to the employment law, but I don’t know any details. Why? Unit 1 Allison: Oh, it’s just that they want to add 5 more hours to our working week. I think it’s a terrible idea! Five hours a week?! It doesn’t sound right. But why? Tom: Allison: The politicians of the leading party believe that we work too little and that it is bad for our employers. Can you believe it?! I totally disagree. I work really hard. If you ask me, it is my employer who does nothing. I couldn’t agree more! In my opinion all the team work very hard. But I can’t agree that our boss does nothing. He comes here early every morning and leaves late in the afternoon. Tom: Allison: I  guess you’re right. But if they make us work such long hours, when will we have the time to rest? You have a point there. Even now I have very little time for myself. Tom: Allison: Tell me about it! In my opinion we should work 5 hours less not more. Tom: Allison: If they pass these amendments, we should all go on strike. Tom: Allison: You’re absolutely right. Oh, gosh! It’s nearly 5 o’clock?! This lunch break took Exactly! And organise a protest in front of Parliament. Absolutely! too much time. We should get back to work. I suppose you’re right. Tom: Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 17 Unit 1 PRACTICE 9 Take a look again at the highlighted phrases that help express opinions, agreement and disagreement. Match each phrase with its function: EXPRESSING OPINION EXPRESSING AGREEMENT EXPRESSING DISAGREEMENT 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ SPEAKING 2: WHAT’S YOUR OPINION? PRACTICE 10 Choose one of these statements and build a dialogue with your partner using the phrases highlighted in the conversation above: More Flexibility for Constitutional Amendments Time to Start Paying for Schools Children to Start School at the Age of 5 Compulsory Voting Soon toBecome Reality More Emphasis on English at Schools Referendum as a Decision-making Tool Referendum as a Decision-making Tool Retirement Age to be 5 Years Later Higher Taxes to Cover the Budget Shortage Higher Taxes to Cover the Budget Shortage B A N O N O U T D O O R P U B S A F T E R 10 P M B A N O N O U T D O O R P U B S A F T E R 10 P M Separation of Powers Obsolete? 18 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics PRACTICE YOUR VOCABULARY 2: TEST YOURSELF! PRACTICE 11 Complete the sentences below with the following words: Act of Parliament | amendment | apply | break laws | draft | draw up | govern | government agencies | judicial branch | legal act | obey | passed | right of initiative | separation of powers | set out | upper | veto | wording Unit 1 1. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is responsible for the interpretation of laws in force. 2. A  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of a document is the first proposal of such document, which may be changed before it becomes the final version. 3. A bill that becomes law is called an  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 4. All of us must _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the laws in force, otherwise we may get into trouble. 5. Each ministry is responsible for a number of  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ tasked with applying the laws and carrying out the activities decided on by parliament and the government. 6. Domestic laws _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to all the citizens of a given country. 7. If anyone would like to change the existing law, such a change is called an  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 8. If you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , you may go to prison. 9. Law is a system of rules that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ our behaviour. 10. Lawyers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ various documents for their clients. 11. Our fundamental rights and obligations are _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the constitution. 12. Parliament is a law-making body, which means it has a  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and may make new laws and amend the existing laws. 13. The senate is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ house of parliament. 14. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of legal acts must be clear and should not permit any misunderstandings. 19 Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 15. The bill _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by a two-thirds majority vote. 16. The constitution is the fundamental _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in democratic countries. 17. The division of powers in a country into legislative, executive and judicial is called Unit 1 the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 18. The president has a right of  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; this means that the president may formally refuse to sign an act that (s)he disagrees with. PRACTICE 12 Decide whether these statements are TRUE or FALSE. If you think that a statement is false, explain why: 1. All laws are set out in the constitution. 2. Laws passed by parliament are called Acts of Parliament. 3. A group of MPs is a law-making body. 4. The senate is the lower house of parliament. 5. Only persons or bodies which have a right of initiative may propose new laws or amendments to the existing laws. 6. A bill is a draft amendment to an existing law. 7. The president always has a final say in the legislative process. 8. A bill becomes a law and enters into force when it is approved by both houses of parliament and the president. 9. Fundamental rights and obligations of citizens are set out in the constitution. 10. Parliament is a government agency. 11. Executive power is vested in the police. 12. Judges interpret laws. 13. The separation of powers provides for a system of checks and balances. 14. The judicial branch is vested with the power to propose changes to law. 15. The president exercises executive power on his/her own. T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 20 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics WRITING: ANSWERING TO ADVERTISEMENTS AND APPLYING FOR INTERNSHIPS PRACTICE 13 You have just found the following advertisement for an internship in a nationwide daily newspaper. Write an email application. A sample answer is given below. In your answer, use the expressions in bold that appear in the sample answer. Unit 1 Global Trading Law Firm specialises in commercial law and assists its clients in all aspects of domestic and international transactions. The firm’s main office in located in Glasgow. The firm is currently looking for an intern to its contracting department. The internship will take place in the summer of 2018 and will last three months. The successful candidate will be responsible for legal research, drafting, and assistance to senior lawyers, and participation in all aspects of legal transactions accordingly to the intern’s knowledge and skills. Applicants should be final-year law students or recent graduates and should be fluent in English and Spanish. Anyone interested in applying for this internship should send their resume, cover letter and letter of recommendation to Ms Anne Bailey at anne.bailey@gtlf.com by 31 March 2018. Sample Answer: Dear Ms Bailey, I am writing in response to the advertisement of an internship in your contracting department dated 20 February 2018 which was published in News Daily. I am a final-year student of law at New York University majoring in commercial law. I have chosen this area of expertise because I am very interested in all legal aspects of commercial transactions, including contract negotiation and drafting as well as legal research. Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 21 Unit 1 I would appreciate an opportunity to develop my knowledge and gain some practical experience in working with senior commercial lawyers and participating in all stages of legal transactions. In addition to fluent English and Spanish, I also speak German. Please find attached my resume and two letters of recommendation from my academic tutors. Should you require any further information or documents, do not hesitate to contact me. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Applicant EMAIL APPLICATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics Unit 1 GLOSSARY: act of parliament amendment apply bill break laws bypass cabinet checks and balances citizen congress constitution council of ministers domestic law draft draw up executive branch fundamental rules govern ustawa zmiana, poprawka, nowelizacja mieć zastosowanie projekt ustawy law law-making body legal act legislative branch łamać przepisy prawa obejść rząd mechanizmy kontroli i równowagi obywatel Kongres Konstytucja lower house monarch MP (Member of Parliament) obey obligation parliament pass Rada Ministrów president prawo organ prawodawczy (ustawodawczy) akt prawny władza ustawodawcza niższa izba Monarcha poseł przestrzegać obowiązek Parlament podejmować, uchwalać Prezydent prawo krajowe projekt, sporządzić projekt sporządzić, przygotować (dokument) władza wykonawcza fundamentalne zasady rządzić, regulować provide for right of initiative right ustanawiać inicjatywa ustawodawcza prawo (do czegoś) royal assent sankcja królewska senate senator Senat senator Legal English Basics • Małgorzata Cyganik 23 Unit 1 government agency House of Commons House of Lords House of Representatives interpret judicial branch władza państwowa Izba Gmin Izba Lordów Izba Reprezentantów separation of powers set out upper house veto interpretować władza sądownicza vote wording podział władzy określić, ustanowić izba wyższa weto, zawetować głos, głosować brzmienie, treść 24 Małgorzata Cyganik • Legal English Basics
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