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Legal English. Handbook and Workbook - ebook/pdf
Legal English. Handbook and Workbook - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron:
Wydawca: C. H. Beck Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-255-5583-2 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> prawo i podatki >> literatura obcojęzyczna
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Legal English. Textbook and Workbook will enable you to understand the language of the law in English; prepare the reader for TOLES examinations. The book is intended for law students who learn English as well as for practiotioners to use the book as a self-study material.

This third edition has been revised and updated.

Doskonała pomoc dla studentów wydziału prawa, optymalna dla prawników-praktyków do samodzielnej nauki.

Trzecie wydanie podręcznika zostało uzupełnione i zaktualizowane.

 

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Textbook chapter one test questions test questions 1. What possible meanings does an expression “common law” carry? 2. What are the basic characteristics of English law? 3. How does the Polish civil law system differ from the common law system? According to the context its meaning may differ. It may signify law which is common to the whole country – national law in contrast to local law. It is law based on judicial decision (case law) in contrast to the law made by Parliament (statute law). The expression distinguishes the common law legal systems based on precedents from civil law jurisdictions which are based on civil codes. It comprises the rules developed by the common law courts in con- trast to the rules developed by the court of equity. It is based on the common law tradition, e. g. a system of judge made law continuously developed over the years through the decisions of judges in cases decided by them. These decisions are called judicial precedents and they form an important preliminary source of law in the English legal system. English judges have an important role in developing case law; by judicial precedents as well as by interpreting Acts of Parliament they legislate. The judges are independent of both the government and the people appearing before them. They are free to make impartial decisions. Court procedure is accusatorial which means that judges do not inve­ stigate the cases but reach a decision based only on the evidence presented to them by the parties to the dispute. Such a system is called adversarial. In Poland the civil law system has been codified or systematic ally collected to form a consistent body of legal rules. Thus, it can be said that the rules of the common law system evolved inductively from decision to decisions involving similar facts, so that they are firmly grounded upon the actualities of litigation and the reality of human 5 Polish-english ajent – agent akcjonariusz – shareholder akt oskarżenia – indictment akta sądowe – brief akty prawne wykonawcze – subordinate legislation anomalia – anomaly anomalny – anomalous anons – notice anulować – quash apelacja – appeal apelować – appeal apolityczny – apolitical arbitraż – arbitration argument – case Bać się – apprehend Badawczy – inquisitorial Beneficjent – beneficiary Beneficjent majątku z testamentu – beneficiary Bezprawny (niezgodny z prawem) – unlawful Bezzwłocznie – forthwith Będący w zawieszeniu – dormant Bluźnierstwo – blasphemy Błędny – fallacious cichy – tacit cudzołóstwo – adultery cywilistyka – civil law czyn niedozwolony – tort czyn stanowiący przestępstwo – offence czynność – action dawać do zrozumienia – purport decyzja (sądu) – ruling, judgment delikt – delict, tort dochodzić (roszczeń) – enforce dochodzić sądownie – sue dogodny – fit dokonać – commit dokonać fuzji – fuse doniosły – material doraźnie – summarily doraźny – summary dowód – evidence droga prawna – litigation dwuznaczny – ambiguous, equivocal dyrektywy – guidelines działanie – action dziedzic – heir dzierżawa – land tenure, tenure by lease dzierżawca – tenant egzekwować – enforce formalny – procedural formułować – frame Głosowanie wyborcze – suffrage Grunt – land Grzywna – fine Gwałt – rape inscenizacja rozprawy sądowej – moot interes – bargain interpretować – construe, expound Jasny – express Jednogłośny – unanimous Jednomyślnie – in concert Jednomyślny – unanimous Kadencja – tenure Karygodny (zasługujący na karę) – culpable Kategoryczny – express Kierować – administer Kierować się – follow Glossary 163 Chapter four Klauzula – provision Kodyfikować – codify Kolegialnie – collegiate Kompetencje – competence Końcowy – eventual Korzyść w naturze – (in) kind Kradzież – theft Krajowy – domestic Kroki prawne – proceeding Krzywda – mischief Krzywdzący – detriment Krzywdzący (wyrządzający krzywdę) – prejudicial Kwestia – issue legalny – lawful, licit lekceważący – negligent lojalny – law-abiding Ława przysięgłych – jury Łączyć – amalgamate Łączyć się – fuse Majątek powierniczy – trust Mandat (nakaz karny, nakaz zapłacenia grzywny) – fine Mandat (pełnomocnictwo) – mandate Materiał dowodowy – evidence Milczący – tacit na podstawie – on the ground nabywca spadku – beneficiary nadać – grant nadużycie – abuse nadużywać – abuse najemca – tenant nakaz – mandate, writ nakaz sądowy – injunction należeć – adhere to nałożyć karę pieniężną – fine napadać – assault napaść – assault naprawiać (krzywdę) – redress naruszać (przepisy) – contravene naruszenie – infringment 164 naruszenie porządku – nuisance naruszenie prawa – delict następca – heir następować – ensue natychmiast – forthwith nieaktywny – dormant nieczynny – dormant niedbały – negligent niefachowy – lay niejasny – ambiguous nienormalny – anomalous nieprawidłowość – anomaly nieprawidłowy – anomalous nieumyślne spowodowanie śmierci – manslaughter nieważny – void niewierność małżeńska – adultery niewykonanie – backlog nowelizować – amend obawiać się – apprehend obciążać – charge oblat – offeree obowiązywać – bind obraza – infringment obstawać – adhere to obwieszczenie – notice obwiniać – accuse, charge obwinienie – charge obwiniony – the accused obywatel – national, subject odbierać (własność) – recover oddalać – dismiss odesłać do aresztu – remand in custody odosobniony – discrete odpowiedni – fit odpowiedzialność – liability odpowiedzialny – accountable, liable odrębny – discrete odróżniać – distinguish odrzucać – dismiss odrzucać (decyzję, postanowienia) – overrule odszkodowanie – damages odwołać (odnieść siê) – appeal Workbook chapter one froM tHe laW of contract exercise one Read the following sentences or short texts and put a preposition in each space. introduction contracts. 1. A contract may be defined as an agreement between two or more parties that is binding …………… law. This means that the agreement generates rights and obligations that may be enforced …………… the courts. The normal method of enforcement is an action…………… damages …………… breach of contract, though in some cases the court may compel per- formance by the parties …………… default. 2. The traditional classification of contracts is ............... contracts ............... deed and simple 3. Contracts by deed are of ancient origin and derive their validity ............... the form in which they are made. They must be ............... writing and must be signed, witnessed and delivered. Promises made by deed do not need to be supported ............... consideration in order to be enforceable. 4. All other contracts may be classified as simple (or “parol”) contracts, whether they are 5. 6. 7. made ............... writing, orally or ............... conduct. In bilateral contracts a promise by one party is exchanged ............... a promise by the other. In unilateral contracts one party promises to do something ............... return ............... an act of the other party, as opposed to a promise, e. g. where A promises a reward ............... anyone who will find his lost wallet. There are three basic elements ............... the formation of valid simple contracts. First, the parties must have reached agreement; secondly they must intend to be legally bound; and thirdly, both parties must have provided valuable consideration. 8. The parties must have legal capacity to contract and, in some cases, there must be compli- ance ............... certain formalities. 9. A contract consists ............... various terms, both express and implied. A term may be inserted ............... a contract to exclude or restrict one party’s liability. 173 Chapter one 10. A contract may be invalidated by a mistake, or by illegality, and where the contract has been induced by misrepresentation, duress or undue influence, the innocent party may have the right to set it ................ 11. As a general rule, third parties have no rights ............... a contract. offer and acceptance 1. An offer may be defined as a statement of willingness to contract ............... specific terms made ............... the intention that, if accepted, it shall become a binding contract. An offer may be express or implied ............... conduct. 2. A genuine offer must be distinguished ............... “an invitation to treat”, i. e. where a party is merely inviting offers, which he is then free to accept or reject. 3. Advertisements of goods ............... sale are normally construed as invitations to treat. 4. The courts have held that an invitation to tender will not normally amount ............... an 5. 6. 7. 8. offer to contract ............... the party submitting the most favourable tender. In an auction, the auctioneer’s request ............... bids is an invitation to treat and each bid is an offer. Section 57 (2) of the Sale of Goods Act states, “a sale by auction is complete when the auc- tioneer announces its completion ............... the fall of the hammer, or in other customary manner”. ............... the law of contract, shops are not bound to sell goods ............... the price indicated and the customer cannot demand to buy a particular item ............... display. In transactions involving land, it is sometimes more difficult to distinguish an offer from what are merely steps ............... negotiation. 9. A council, ............... pursuance of a policy of selling council houses, wrote to a tenant, stat- ing that they “may be prepared to sell the house” to him ............... a stated price. 10. The tenant submitted a formal application but the transaction was broken ...... ...... that point by a change of a council’s policy. 11. Acceptance may be defined as an unconditional assent, communicated by the offeree ............... the offeror, ............... all the terms of the offer, made ............... the intention of accepting. Whether an acceptance has ............... fact occurred is ascertained ............... the behaviour of the parties, including any correspondence that has passed ............... them. 12. A contract will not be binding unless the parties have expressed themselves ............... reasonable certainty. 14. 13. The introduction of new terms is referred to as a “counter-offer” and its effect ............... law is to bring ............... an end the original offer. It was held there was no contract; the counter-offer of £ 950 had impliedly rejected the original offer which was no longer capable ............... acceptance. 15. An invitation to tender is usually, but not invariably, an invitation to treat. Where this is the case, the tender constitutes an offer; however, the “acceptance” of a tender does not always result ............... a contract. 174
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