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Little swimmer, the forming of a correct attitude from the beginning - ebook/pdf
Little swimmer, the forming of a correct attitude from the beginning - ebook/pdf
Autor: , Liczba stron: 77
Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-63017-22-4 Data wydania:
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The book “Little swimmer, the forming of a correct attitude from the beginning” is one of few books acquainting one with the subject of swimming for children, specifically games in water.This book is an excellent source of useful information for the parents of children up to 4 years old. The book contains information including: why it is worth going to the pool, what should one know before going with a child to a class at the pool, how to prepare the child at home, and also a range of useful holding techniques/games at the pool.Enjoy reading the book.

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little swimmer little swimmer shaping water behaviours of the forming of a correct attitude from the beginning our babies magdalena dabrowska agnieszka przybylska magdalena dabrowska agnieszka przybylska © Copyright by Ltd, 2011 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, without the written permission of the publisher. All forms of exercise may pose some risks, and before beginning any exercise or training programme, consult your physician. Editor and co-author: Co-author: Photos: Graphics: Layout: ISBN: 978-83-63017-22-4 Agnieszka Przybylska Magdalena Dąbrowska Andrzej Peszek Ewa Hajduk List of contents LittLe heroes .......................................................................... 6 Persons invoLved in the creation of the book ......... 8 introduction ......................................................................... 11 1. the chiLd in the water ....................... 14 the chiLd swims - why is this the naturaL sequence of events? .............................................................................. 15 why is it worth swimming? ............................................... 16 2. Lets go to the pooL! what we shouLd do/ know before the first visit? .......... 20 a visit to the doctor ........................................................... 22 when to go to the PooL? ................................................... 24 how to choose the schooL and the swimming PooL? ............................................................................................... 26 how to PrePare at home for a visit to the PooL? .... 28 what shouLd we know going to the PooL?.................. 30 List of things for the PooL ............................................. 33 the first visit to the PooL ................................................ 34 3. exercises in the bath ......................... 36 4. safety .................................................. 62 ////// 3 back to the stomach cheek to cheek on the back – “towing” by the shoulders stimulating the arms - stretching out arms to toys stimulating the legs lying on the water combinations ...................................................................... 124 transition from on the stomach to on the back and from the .................................................................................................... JumPing into the water and diving ............................. 126 jump into the water from the sitting position with transition in “goblet” hold jump into the water – parent’s hand under the rib cage jump on open hands standing jump diver exercises by the edge ...................................................... 142 5. finaLLy at the pooL! .............................72 entering the PooL ............................................................... 73 methods of hoLding the chiLd in the PooL ............... 78 PreParing the chiLd for going into the PooL .......... 80 hoLds and exercises for the chiLd being on its stomach .......................................................... 82 “goblet” child on the stomach laid over the shoulder of an adult sloping (angle: 45°) hold under the rib cage (so-called “carousel”) „island” on bent elbow lying on the palms of the parent – “waiter’s tray” “basket” hands stimulation – “crawl” hands stimulation - reaching for toys hands stimulation - splashing legs stimulation wetting one cheek and then the other cheek bubbles hoLds and exercises on the back ............................... 112 spring swimming to the edge getting out of the water leg kicking by the edge sitting on the edge and swinging the legs concLusion 4 ////// introduction ////// 5 LittLe heroes (in aLPhabeticaL order) amelia I am 8 months old. I have been swimming since I was 3 months old and I love it. I am also very talkative and active. When I am not asleep, I am always moving. I love to ride on my lion. Julka I am 2 years old; I started to go to the pool when I was only 3 months old. In my free time I sing and dance. I love oranges and mandarins. kornel I have been going to the swimming pool since I was 3 months old. I always enjoy it and it is great fun. When I was almost 5 months old, I had a fantastic time on the beach at Krynica Morska. Leon I am 4 months old and this is my first time swimming. I really enjoy long baths, rides in my buggy and naps. I am very chatty. mateusz I am 4 years old. I have been swimming since I was 6 months old and on my own since I was 3 years old. I am a happy kindergarten child, I like playing in the fresh air and skiing. dolly When our little heroes were sick or tired, I helped in presenting particular exercises and games. 6 ////// introduction ////// 7 intro Persons invoLved in the creation of the book magdalena dąbrowska – co-author Rehabilitation and swimming are my principal interests. At work I really enjoy the contact with children, which brings great satisfaction. During my free time I relax by skiing or delight in the sounds of the sea. I am a happy mother of 4-year-old Mateusz. More about my work on agnieszka Przybylska – editor and co-author I learnt to swim when I was 5 years old – since then swimming has been my „summer” passion (in the winter it is snowboard and skiing) and I mainly swim front crawl. According to the trainers and instructors who I have met I have an excellent technique. ewa Zieliński – author of the chapter on safety I am a swimming teacher and a lecturer for the Polish Volunteer Water Rescue Service. I love skiing in my free time. more about the Polish Volunteer Water Rescue Service andrzej Peszek – photos Sport and photography are what excite me. Obviously, the connection is sports photography. In winter I go skiing, in summer I spend my time swimming and diving and I take my camera bag everywhere - it weighs a bit but it is worth having to hand. see: Łukasz drzewiński – consulting on methodology of teaching of swimming At some stage of my life, I was more swimming than walking. I am the former race swimmer, participant of Olympics and multiple winner of the country championships. I have engaged in children’s my daughter. Playing with her in the water gives me more pleasure than winning swimming with the birth of gold medals. Besides training of swimming, I work as a sport manager at Carolina Medical Center. More on iwona turant - President of PsPn (the Polish baby swimming Co-author of „the little swimmers guidebook”, parts of which were used in association) this book. 8 ////// introduction ////// 9 intro introduction The birth of a child is a wonderful experience for each mother and father. As parents we try to ensure that our child has the best conditions possible. We take care so that our child will be healthy and happy. Many parents often forget or simply do not know that even as a baby and a young child, the appropriate stimulation that should be provided for better physical development. One of the easiest and safest ways to help the child’s physical development is to exercise in water and later on swimming. Of course, on the condition that those parents know how to do it. It should be remembered that in the case of small children up to 4 years old there is no question of swimming and only of exercises familiarising the child with the aquatic environment. Due to these exercises the child will develop good habits and behaviour in water. Our book is an excellent source of useful information for the parents of children that are younger than 4 years old, for the parents of a child about to start going to the swimming pool or of a child that already goes to the swimming pool. It is equally for parents who go to organised classes and also for those who for various reasons are unable to participate. This book would never have been completed without those with whom I had the pleasure of working with during its creation. Here I would like to thank Magda Dąbrowska from the Academy of Movement, who shared with me her great knowledge on the subject of exercises in water. I would also like to thank our little heroes and their parents. Thanks to them, particular exercises were performed with children and not with dolls, which undoubtedly provides better illustrations of the exercises. Wishing you pleasant classes Agnieszka Przybylska Mother of Julia, who began her adventure with swimming at 3 months old. 10 ////// introduction ////// 11 intro 12 ////// the chiLd in the water ////// 13 The child in the water the child in the water the chiLd swims - why is it the naturaL sequence of events? Swimming is an odd physical activity for a person. It is something for which we are completely unprepared and which we enjoy very much. First, our body is adapted to the vertical position, overcoming the force of gravity and with unrestricted access to air. Secondly, swimming is in the lying position, fully supporting the weight of our body and hindering breathing. How to reconcile this obvious contradiction with the phenomenon of people swimming in vast numbers? One explanation may be human „defiance” and inclination to accept challenges. The second, perhaps better, is that the „swimming instinct” lies deep in our subconscious mind. If one reverts to the time of pregnancy, it may be seen that the previously mentioned contradiction between swimming and our anatomy and physiology does not occur there. The child in the womb is in an aqueous environment unconcerned with gravity or breathing. Unfortunately, we quickly lose this natural „swimming ability” after birth. The quick return of the child to water that we encourage in our book is as it were a return to our sleeping natural abilities, all the easier for being the sooner begun. wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym 14 ////// the chiLd in the water ////// 15 The child in the water ✔ at the moment of contact with water and because of immersion of the rib cage upwards and downwards, initially breathing is accelerated, after a while it becomes longer and deeper progressively. Inhalation is improved and the muscles involved in breathing are strengthened, which leads to development of the rib cage, ✔ comparing a group of children that swim in relation to non-swimmers, the observations confirmed that the „swimmers” adapt better to new situations, have a higher level of self-assurance and independence, have a greater range of movements and more positive emotional behaviour (more frequently smiling, less tears) and also are typified by their greater emotional stability, achieving communication with peer group and more involvement in games, ✔ activities in water assist the rehabilitation of children with dysfunctional movement organs; integrate physically and also mentally handicapped children with non- handicapped children, ✔ swimming strengthens the bonds between children and parents, ✔ regularly going to the swimming pool accustoms the child to physical activity, ✔ regularly going to the swimming pool increases a child’s resistance to infection, ✔ it is an excellent means of relaxation, physically as well as mentally, are as follow: why is it worth swimming? As described above, games in water and learning to swim are in a sense a natural continuation of the development of the child during pregnancy. The aqueous environment, in which the baby is present in the mother’s womb, is its first natural environment and, because of its unique characteristics, it perfectly stimulates the development of the child in pregnancy. It is interesting that certain physiological patterns, which the child acquires in the mother’s womb such as the ability to open its hands, the child loses after birth, in order to regain them after a few months. Movement of children is genetically programmed and together with the development of the child to some extent the genetic programming process is liberated. The result is that each of us develops the same regarding the acquisition of the ability to perform particular movements while the experience of being in water has a very positive influence on improving the quality of movement. Benefits achieved through exercises with children at the pool even from the baby stage ✔ activities organised in water for babies and young children develop personality and social competence of children through being in a peer group, ✔ water enables movement in three planes before the child is capable of moving independently on land. Due to this, movement capability is developed and coordination improves, ✔ muscle tissues lying directly under the skin are intensively stimulated by the touch of the parent and water (water flows around the whole body, the resistance of water is felt). It causes the effect of relaxation and regulates muscular tension, ✔ in water less static muscular work is required (e.g. for overcoming gravity) so it increases the possibilities for dynamic work. The bone is unburdened and the muscles are strengthened, ✔ water reacts and corresponds to the movement of the child, but also moves and affects the body of the child itself. The child must counteract changes in position and thus improve its sense of balance, ✔ summer water (31-33° C) causes deeper breaths and stimulate the circulation system, 16 ////// the chiLd in the water ////// 17 The child in the water ✔ children become more self-assured and confident through swimming. From a medical point of view swimming has a beneficial effect on many of the systems of our body: The bone-muscular-joint system - the aqueous environment relieves the body (reduces the influence of gravity) and at the same time forms a greater resistance than on land, an even resistance to our movements. This enables the performance of movements in a wide range and with light, even loading. This assists the muscular development of children, widening the range of movements in the joints and later maintains the bone-joint and muscular system in good physical condition. Swimming and exercising in water have an excellent effect on the development and maintenance of muscular symmetry and spinal symmetry. The respiratory system - especially the manner of breathing in water: evenness, depth and overcoming the additional resistance associated with the pressure of water on the rib cage are excellent exercise for the respiratory muscles. The circulation system – swimming is an aerobic yet enjoyable activity so it is an excellent exercise for the heart and the circulation system. In addition, the stimulation associated with water pressure and its temperature has a positive effect on circulation in the skin and veins. The nervous system - swimming provides intensive stimulation equally for surface feeling (contact of skin with water) and also for deeper so-called proprioceptive sensitivity, having an effect on our working joints and muscles; it is an excellent exercise for the sense of equilibrium and finally wonderful relaxation. 18 ////// the chiLd in the water ////// 19 The child in the water lets go to the pooli what should one do know i before the first visit The child should have positive, well planned first experience with swimming. Before going to the swimming pool we should do several things, not necessarily in the order below (more will be said about particular aspects further on in the book): a. visit the doctor so that the child may be examined for an opinion if there are any contra-indications to swimming, b. consider whether the child is ready to go to the pool, c. choose appropriate pool and/or swimming school, d. prepare the child at home for the visit to the pool, e. acquaint ourselves with the principles of participation in classes at the pool and also find out what we should take with us to the pool. wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym 20 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 21 We go to the pooli a visit to the doctor Before we go with the child to the pool, it is necessary to visit the doctor. The majority of swimming schools require a doctor’s certificate confirming a lack of contra-indications to participation in classes. If you are not going to go to an organised class, but alone, or the school does not require such a certificate, you should still visit the doctor. The doctor should inform you if your child has reached a suitable stage of development for going to swimming classes. Generally, contra-indications to swimming are connected with the following ailments: ✔ inflammation of the ears, eyes or nose, ✔ severe infection of the respiratory tract, ✔ severe infection of the digestive system, ✔ certain skin diseases, ✔ sensitivity to ozone or chlorine, ✔ recurrent and chronic urethral ailment, ✔ intensified stomach-oesophagus reflex, ✔ some chronic lung ailments, ✔ recurrent middle ear infection, ✔ congenital heart, lungs and urethral defects. Contra-indications to going to the pool arise, if with regard to the condition of the child, no additional stress should be applied to the child through intensified physical effort or if it is vitally important to limit the risk of infection, because it might cause significant deterioration of the health of the child. In the case of some vaccinations, one should not take the child to the pool on the day of injection. It is recommended to consult the doctor in these circumstances. For sanitary reasons, the water in swimming pools is chlorinated or treated with ozone, which may cause short-term reddening of the eyes of the child after swimming. Normally, this is not a symptom of any allergy but initial reaction of the mucous membrane of the child to chemical irritation. In order to avoid or diminish this effect one may try applying swimming glasses to a child of 2 years and older and/or apply physiological salt eye drops to the child’s eyes. REMEMBER – do not take the child to the swimming pool directly after an illness. After some illnesses e.g. following a bladder infection, a longer interval is required before swimming, therefore after a sickness it is always worth consulting a doctor. IMPORTANT - Dysfunction of motor organs is not a contra-indication to participation in classes. 22 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 23 We go to the pooli when to go to the PooL? The best age to go to the pool for the first time is at 3 months old. This is because of the development of the child. A correctly developing child already supports its own head. Furthermore, in the third month of life the baby’s spine straightens, which means that the child is not so hunched over as in the earlier months. The change occurring at this time in the joints of the child is also important, the joints become rounded, which enables the safe performance of exercises, in the full range of movement. It would be best if we began the swimming pool adventure not later than at 8 months old. Up to this time the majority of children are not frightened of strangers, which may help in familiarising oneself not only with water, but also with other children, their carers and with instructors. Apart from the physical aspect, which determines the possibility of going to the pool, the child’s psychological attitude is also important when visiting the pool. Children who are not used to e.g. having water poured on their head may have a problem with accepting this during classes. Therefore, it is very important that at 4-8 weeks before the first visit to the pool, we begin to prepare our child for the water (more on this subject later in the book). Remember, it is not only the attitude of our child that is significant. We also must be certain that we wish to go to the pool. If going to the pool is stressful for us, our child will sense it. In that case we should think if somebody else should go with the child to the pool, or wait until going to the pool will not worry us. 24 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 25 We go to the pooli how to choose the schooL and the swimming PooL? The increase in the number of firms teaching swimming to babies and children up to 4 years old has made the choice of the appropriate school more complicated. Going to classes, we must analyse two aspects: the choice of a school and also the choice of a swimming pool. In small towns there may be no choice. In large towns the choice is greater, therefore it is worth choosing the best solution. Here are several simple indicators for choosing the appropriate school. Find out: ✔ if the instructor/instructors giving the classes have special training for conducting classes with babies/small children, ✔ how long do the classes last? It is recommended that classes do not last longer than 30 minutes. Also it is important to know how much time we have before and afterwards ✔ at what times are the classes held? Set the time of going to the pool to the daily rhythm for changing, of the child, ✔ what children will be going to the classes? It is important that they would be of a similar age. That situation is ideal because the exercises carried out during the class will be best adapted to the movement potential of your child, ✔ how many participants are there in a group? Apart from the choice of a school, the choice of the appropriate swimming pool is important as well. In choosing the pool the following factors should be considered: ✔ water temperature. Water in the pool should be at 32-33°C for children up to 6 months old and 31-32 °C for children from 7 to 12 months. If the water temperature in the pool is lower, then children of 7-8 months may go to a pool with a water temperature of 29- 30°C, on the condition that we cover the child in protective foam. Water temperature can have a significant effect on your child. Too high a temperature may cause overloading of the circulation and respiratory system. Too low a temperature may cause chilling. ✔ water quality. Water in the pool should be properly treated, ✔ changing room equipment. Being at the pool with a baby, it is important that the the pool, changing room should have a baby changing table and a chair or playpen, where we can place the child while changing. Alternatively, we must take our own baby carrier to ✔ pool depth. Classes with children are held in shallow pools. The best depth is 1-1.1 metres. If we cannot find a pool with exactly those depth measurements, then we may extend the range to 0.7-1.4 m. ✔ family changing room. An expedition with a small child to the swimming pool is not simple; therefore, to make it easier we could go with a family member or friend. In a situation where the companion is of the opposite sex, it is important that we can be in the changing room together. ✔ air temperature at the pool (ideally should be 2 degrees higher than the water temperature), ✔ check if there is a place where it is possible to sit down with the child, where it is possible to eat, have something to drink or simply have a rest after the lesson. 26 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 27 We go to the pooli how to PrePare at home for a visit to the PooL? A baby may begin preparation for going to the swimming pool when it is 4-8 weeks old. Such preparation should be in an environment familiar to the child, which is at home. “Swimming” at home is intended to familiarise the child with water, to accustom it to the sound of water and the general noise as well as to changed conditions of the surroundings. Familiarising the child with splashing, water pouring over the face and also submersion or diving will ensure that the baby does not have problems playing in the water at the pool. The list of example games in the bath is in the section “Exercises in the bath”. IMPORTANT! If it is compulsory to wear a swimming cap at the pool to which you will go, accustom the child to wearing a cap and also to the sight of you in a cap. We may actually prepare our child from birth, because it is then that we start to bathe the child. In the beginning we bathe the child in a small baby bath, from 4-8 weeks we change it for a large bath (obviously, if we have one). To better prepare the child to go to the pool, we reduce the water temperature in which we bathe it to 34-35°C. 28 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 29 We go to the pooli what shouLd we know going to the PooL? What should we know before we go to the pool?: a. familiarise yourself with rules in force at the pool which you have chosen. Particularly important information for you is: ✔ is it compulsory to wear swimming caps? ✔ may an accompanying person come into the changing room or enter the pool with us? If so, then on what basis and how should they be dressed? What are the charges? ✔ what clothing must be worn while swimming? This particularly applies to men. At the majority of pools one may not go in wearing shorts. b. acquaint yourself with the layout of rooms at the pool so that you do not make a mistake on your first visit. Problems with finding changing rooms, showers and the entrance to the pool may be stressful for you and also for the child. c. do not apply cream or oil to the child before going to the swimming pool. There would be a risk of the child slipping in your hands. It also contaminates the water in the pool. d. the last feed before entering the pool should be given to the baby at least 30 minutes before the class. Children who are breastfed are an exception. e. choose a suitable time for participating in classes - arrange the visit to the pool according to the rhythm of the child. If your child sleeps at different times, on the day of the visit to the pool put it to bed earlier, so that it will not be sleepy during the class. f. bathe yourself and the child before and after the class under the shower! Additional useful information: a. Going to the pool with a child does not require that you know how to swim. The class takes place in shallow water. Remember only, if a visit to the pool is very stressful for you, it might be worth considering that the child goes to the pool with somebody else because your stress will be passed to b. Sometimes a child has a bad day, is teething or simply is feeling grumpy. Think then whether it is the child. worth taking the child to a class. A visit to the pool should be enjoyable. c. During classes the parent/carer performs the exercises with the child - NOT THE INSTRUCTOR. d. One does not eat in the changing rooms. e. Put on the bathing costume and nappies at the pool - NOT AT HOME. 30 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 31 We go to the pooli of slippers), List of things for the PooL The list of things necessary to take the pool is long; therefore, going to the pool for the first time it is worth writing down everything. Before we go, we should check that we have everything: ✔ a swimming costume for you, ✔ nappies for the child for swimming or a swimming costume if it already no longer uses nappies, ✔ normal nappies if the child uses them, ✔ goggles for an older child, ✔ slippers for the parent, ✔ slippers for the walking child (if it is winter, and the child has tights, it is worth having two pairs ✔ a towel for the parent, ✔ a towel for the child - better two, or a towel and dressing gown, ✔ baby carrier - for as much as one may take to the pool, ✔ cosmetics – soap, shampoo for the parent, soap, baby oil, cream for the child, ✔ a dryer - if there are no dryers at the pool, ✔ swimming caps - if they are required, ✔ bags for wet things - for convenience, ✔ second set of things for the child – just in case, ✔ food, drink - for afterwards, ✔ a toy, little book, so that the child has something to occupy them with when you are changing, ✔ a swimming pool pass. 32 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 33 We go to the pooli the first visit to the PooL The first visit to the pool is often stressful. Normally more stressful for the parent than the child. To make things easier, here is an example of a visit to the pool: 1. leave outer clothing in a changing room, 2. change yourself and the child into swimming costumes. While changing, it is convenient to strap the child into the baby carrier or, if it sits, put it into a baby chair (if available in the changing room). REMEMBER - never leave the child on a changing mat without an adult by its side. Children who still have not moved may do so for the first time just when you are not beside them, 3. take off jewellery and watches. Do not place the locker key on your wrist, 4. slippers are worn in the swimming pool complex. If the child already walks, buy it a pair of slippers for the pool, 5. if required, put a cap on and put one on the child, 6. before going to the pool, wash yourself and the child. Going into the pool without first washing may cause the transfer to the water of microorganisms, which may be harmful to your health and the health of other pool users, 7. do NOT enter the pool with the child using the ladder. Normally classes with children are organised in the shallow end, where entry is easy. If there is no shallow end, ask somebody to help you - first enter the pool yourself and ask your helper to pass the child to you. The method of leaving the pool is presented later in the book in section IV.1., 8. during the class the child may not have a dummy in its mouth, 9. after leaving the pool, we do not remove the nappies from the child anywhere in the vicinity of the pool. In the event that the child has soiled nappies, everything would flow into the water, 10. REMEMBER - after leaving the water, carefully wash yourself and the child. Then rub the appropriate cream onto the child - the swimming pool may dry out the skin, 11. dry your head and the child’s head with a towel. Wipe the child’s ears with the towel, 12. in the changing room or after leaving the changing room, dry the child and yourself thoroughly with the head of the dryer. It is best to wait 20-30 minutes before leaving the swimming pool complex - especially in winter. 34 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? 34 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit? ////// 35 We go to the pooli exercises in the bath wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym Preparing the child for classes in the water may begin from the first bath. Proper preparation should take place 4-8 weeks before the first classes. Preparing the child for classes, parents may perform exercises in various configurations: ✔ in a small bath independently, ✔ in a small bath with help of a third person, ✔ in a large bath together with the child, ✔ in a large bath together with the child with help of a third person, ✔ independent exercises of the child in a large bath. Various toys may be used for playing in the bath - typical toys for the bath are: balls, watering can, foam puzzle or special bath markers for use after the bath. 36 ////// exercises in the bath Exercises in the bath famiLiarising the chiLd with water Familiarising the child with water should begin slowly with wetting the legs then the stomach and the back. If the child is independent i.e. sits and better still stands, we may let it define the rate of wetting. The child will sit in the water itself when it is ready. getting into the water with the child, if possible ask a partner to pass the child to you when you are already sitting steadily in the bath. if this is not possible, ca- refully get into the bath with the child, taking care not to wet it. when sitting, hold the child in such a manner so that only its toes touch the water . . . we hold the child securely. …and then slowly wet a larger part of the child’s legs. slowly wet the child, giving it time to relax. begin immersion with the legs and next wet its back . remember! Placing the child in water, we must support it firmly and securely. if we are afraid that the child is a bit too slippery in the bath, we should buy a special mat for the bottom of the bath. 38 ////// exercises in the bath a child during stressful moments becomes tense. allow the child to become accustomed to the new situation, to relax before we begin to really acquaint the child with water. an older child that is at least sitting, we seat on the edge of the bath, so that it may freely kick the water. obviously, we hold the child securely the whole time. Exercises in the bath pouring water over the chiLd To wet the child, we do not completely immerse it at once. We begin by slowly pouring water over the child. A baby is not accustomed to intensive contact with water, at the beginning of the bath we may pour water from the palm of the hand and if the child is afraid, sprinkle it with drops of water. The intensity of pouring water over the child should depend upon the muscular tension of the child among other things. We pour water over the child in such a way that it sees the source of water and is able to stretch out its hands. If a child is older we may use a watering can, a mug or other container. Pouring water over the child, we begin from the feet and finish at its head. we may „sprinkle” the child … pour water with an open palm … or a watering can. we begin pouring with the legs, then we pour water on the stomach… and then on the head . when we pour water on the head, the child reacts by closing its eyes . 40 ////// exercises in the bath we may pour water on the child in various positions, equally when it lies on its stomach. we may pour water on its back using the “goblet” grip, which is moving the palms of our hands under the head of the child; for stability the thumbs must be directed upwards and wrists must be together. in this position we need the help of a partner to pour water on the child. also bathing with the child, we may pour water over it. we can do this, holding the child with its back to us. Exercises in the bath or facing us - then we see the face of the child and its reaction, which is safer, particularly at the beginning. if we wish to vary the child’s exercises, we may place the child on our forearm and with our palm grasp a further arm of the child (“carousel grip”). we give delicate back support, because at this age a baby is still not completely developed. we also pour water on older children; we may encourage them to pour water over themselves with a watering can or even with a shower. 42 ////// exercises in the bath Exercises in the bath
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