Darmowy fragment publikacji:
shaping water behaviours of
the forming of a correct
attitude from the beginning
© Copyright by landie.pl Ltd, 2011
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other
means, without the written permission of the publisher.
All forms of exercise may pose some risks, and before beginning any
exercise or training programme, consult your physician.
Editor and co-author:
List of contents
LittLe heroes .......................................................................... 6
Persons invoLved in the creation of the book ......... 8
introduction ......................................................................... 11
1. the chiLd in the water ....................... 14
the chiLd swims - why is this the naturaL sequence
of events? .............................................................................. 15
why is it worth swimming? ............................................... 16
2. Lets go to the pooL! what we shouLd
do/ know before the first visit? .......... 20
a visit to the doctor ........................................................... 22
when to go to the PooL? ................................................... 24
how to choose the schooL and the swimming PooL?
how to PrePare at home for a visit to the PooL? .... 28
what shouLd we know going to the PooL?.................. 30
List of things for the PooL ............................................. 33
the first visit to the PooL ................................................ 34
3. exercises in the bath ......................... 36
4. safety .................................................. 62
to the stomach
cheek to cheek
on the back – “towing” by the shoulders
stimulating the arms - stretching out arms to toys
stimulating the legs
lying on the water
combinations ...................................................................... 124
transition from on the stomach to on the back and from the
JumPing into the water and diving ............................. 126
jump into the water from the sitting position with transition in
jump into the water – parent’s hand under the rib cage
jump on open hands
exercises by the edge ...................................................... 142
5. finaLLy at the pooL! .............................72
entering the PooL ............................................................... 73
methods of hoLding the chiLd in the PooL ............... 78
PreParing the chiLd for going into the PooL .......... 80
hoLds and exercises for the chiLd
being on its stomach .......................................................... 82
child on the stomach laid over the shoulder of an adult
sloping (angle: 45°)
hold under the rib cage (so-called “carousel”)
on bent elbow
lying on the palms of the parent – “waiter’s tray”
hands stimulation – “crawl”
hands stimulation - reaching for toys
hands stimulation - splashing
wetting one cheek and then the other cheek
hoLds and exercises on the back ............................... 112
swimming to the edge
getting out of the water
leg kicking by the edge
sitting on the edge and swinging the legs
4 ////// introduction
LittLe heroes (in aLPhabeticaL order)
I am 8 months old. I have been
swimming since I was 3 months
old and I love it. I am also very
talkative and active. When I am not
asleep, I am always moving. I love
to ride on my lion.
I am 2 years old; I started to go
to the pool when I was only 3
months old. In my free time I sing
and dance. I love oranges and
I have been going to the
swimming pool since I was 3
months old. I always enjoy it and it
is great fun. When I was almost 5
months old, I had a fantastic time
on the beach at Krynica Morska.
I am 4 months old and this is my first
time swimming. I really enjoy long
baths, rides in my buggy and naps.
I am very chatty.
I am 4 years old. I have been
swimming since I was 6 months
old and on my own since I was 3
years old. I am a happy kindergarten
child, I like playing in the fresh air
When our little heroes were sick
or tired, I helped in presenting
particular exercises and games.
6 ////// introduction
introPersons invoLved in the creation of the book
Rehabilitation and swimming are my
principal interests. At work I really
enjoy the contact with children, which
brings great satisfaction. During my
free time I relax by skiing or delight in
the sounds of the sea. I am a happy
mother of 4-year-old Mateusz.
More about my work on
– editor and co-author
I learnt to swim when I was 5
years old – since then swimming
has been my „summer” passion
(in the winter it is snowboard and
skiing) and I mainly swim front
crawl. According to the trainers and
instructors who I have met I have an
– author of the chapter on safety
I am a swimming teacher and a lecturer for the Polish
Volunteer Water Rescue Service. I love skiing in my free time.
more about the Polish Volunteer Water Rescue Service
Sport and photography are
what excite me. Obviously,
the connection is sports
photography. In winter I go
skiing, in summer I spend
my time swimming and
diving and I take my camera
bag everywhere - it weighs
a bit but it is worth having
– consulting on
teaching of swimming
At some stage of my life,
I was more swimming
than walking. I am the
former race swimmer,
participant of Olympics
and multiple winner of the
I have engaged in children’s
my daughter. Playing with her in the water gives me more pleasure than winning
swimming with the birth of
gold medals. Besides training of swimming, I work as a sport manager at Carolina
Medical Center. More on www.carolina.pl
iwona turant - President of PsPn (the Polish baby swimming
Co-author of „the little swimmers guidebook”, parts of which were used in
8 ////// introduction
The birth of a child is a wonderful experience for each mother
and father. As parents we try to ensure that our child has the best
conditions possible. We take care so that our child will be healthy
and happy. Many parents often forget or simply do not know that
even as a baby and a young child, the appropriate stimulation that
should be provided for better physical development.
One of the easiest and safest ways to help the child’s physical
development is to exercise in water and later on swimming. Of
course, on the condition that those parents know how to do it.
It should be remembered that in the case of small children up to
4 years old there is no question of swimming and only of exercises
familiarising the child with the aquatic environment. Due to these
exercises the child will develop good habits and behaviour in water.
Our book is an excellent source of useful information for the
parents of children that are younger than 4 years old, for the
parents of a child about to start going to the swimming pool or of
a child that already goes to the swimming pool. It is equally for
parents who go to organised classes and also for those who for
various reasons are unable to participate.
This book would never have been completed without those with
whom I had the pleasure of working with during its creation. Here
I would like to thank Magda Dąbrowska from the Academy of
Movement, who shared with me her great knowledge on the subject
of exercises in water. I would also like to thank our little heroes and
their parents. Thanks to them, particular exercises were performed
with children and not with dolls, which undoubtedly provides better
illustrations of the exercises.
Wishing you pleasant classes
Mother of Julia, who began her adventure with swimming at 3
10 ////// introduction
intro12 ////// the chiLd in the water
The child in the water
the child in
the chiLd swims - why is it the
naturaL sequence of events?
Swimming is an odd physical activity for a person. It
is something for which we are completely unprepared
and which we enjoy very much. First, our body is
adapted to the vertical position, overcoming the
force of gravity and with unrestricted access to air.
Secondly, swimming is in the lying position, fully
supporting the weight of our body and hindering
breathing. How to reconcile this obvious contradiction
with the phenomenon of people swimming in vast
numbers? One explanation may be human „defiance”
and inclination to accept challenges. The second,
perhaps better, is that the „swimming instinct” lies
deep in our subconscious mind. If one reverts to the
time of pregnancy, it may be seen that the previously
mentioned contradiction between swimming and
our anatomy and physiology does not occur there.
The child in the womb is in an aqueous environment
unconcerned with gravity or breathing. Unfortunately,
we quickly lose this natural „swimming ability” after
birth. The quick return of the child to water that we
encourage in our book is as it were a return to our
sleeping natural abilities, all the easier for being the
wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym
14 ////// the chiLd in the water
The child in the water✔ at the moment of contact with water and because of immersion of the rib cage
upwards and downwards, initially breathing is accelerated, after a while it becomes
longer and deeper progressively. Inhalation is improved and the muscles involved
in breathing are strengthened, which leads to development of the rib cage,
✔ comparing a group of children that swim in relation to non-swimmers, the
observations confirmed that the „swimmers” adapt better to new situations,
have a higher level of self-assurance and independence, have a greater range
of movements and more positive emotional behaviour (more frequently smiling,
less tears) and also are typified by their greater emotional stability, achieving
communication with peer group and more involvement in games,
✔ activities in water assist the rehabilitation of children with dysfunctional movement
organs; integrate physically and also mentally handicapped children with non-
✔ swimming strengthens the bonds between children and parents,
✔ regularly going to the swimming pool accustoms the child to physical activity,
✔ regularly going to the swimming pool increases a child’s resistance to infection,
✔ it is an excellent means of relaxation, physically as well as mentally,
are as follow:
why is it worth swimming?
As described above, games in water and learning to swim are in a sense a natural
continuation of the development of the child during pregnancy. The aqueous
environment, in which the baby is present in the mother’s womb, is its first natural
environment and, because of its unique characteristics, it perfectly stimulates the
development of the child in pregnancy. It is interesting that certain physiological
patterns, which the child acquires in the mother’s womb such as the ability to open
its hands, the child loses after birth, in order to regain them after a few months.
Movement of children is genetically programmed and together with the development
of the child to some extent the genetic programming process is liberated. The result
is that each of us develops the same regarding the acquisition of the ability to perform
particular movements while the experience of being in water has a very positive
influence on improving the quality of movement.
Benefits achieved through exercises with children at the pool even from the baby stage
✔ activities organised in water for babies and young children develop personality and
social competence of children through being in a peer group,
✔ water enables movement in three planes before the child is capable of moving
independently on land. Due to this, movement capability is developed and
✔ muscle tissues lying directly under the skin are intensively stimulated by the touch
of the parent and water (water flows around the whole body, the resistance of water
is felt). It causes the effect of relaxation and regulates muscular tension,
✔ in water less static muscular work is required (e.g. for overcoming gravity) so it
increases the possibilities for dynamic work. The bone is unburdened and the
muscles are strengthened,
✔ water reacts and corresponds to the movement of the child, but also moves and
affects the body of the child itself. The child must counteract changes in position
and thus improve its sense of balance,
✔ summer water (31-33° C) causes deeper breaths and stimulate the
16 ////// the chiLd in the water
The child in the water✔ children become more self-assured and confident through swimming.
From a medical point of view swimming has a beneficial effect on many of the systems of our body:
The bone-muscular-joint system - the aqueous environment relieves the body (reduces the influence
of gravity) and at the same time forms a greater resistance than on land, an even resistance to our
movements. This enables the performance of movements in a wide range and with light, even loading.
This assists the muscular development of children, widening the range of movements in the joints
and later maintains the bone-joint and muscular system in good physical condition. Swimming
and exercising in water have an excellent effect on the development and maintenance of muscular
symmetry and spinal symmetry.
The respiratory system - especially the manner of breathing in water: evenness, depth and
overcoming the additional resistance associated with the pressure of water on the rib cage are
excellent exercise for the respiratory muscles.
The circulation system – swimming is an aerobic yet enjoyable activity so it is an excellent exercise
for the heart and the circulation system. In addition, the stimulation associated with water
pressure and its temperature has a positive effect on circulation in the skin and veins.
The nervous system - swimming provides intensive stimulation equally for surface feeling (contact
of skin with water) and also for deeper so-called proprioceptive sensitivity, having an effect on
our working joints and muscles; it is an excellent exercise for the sense of equilibrium and finally
18 ////// the chiLd in the water
The child in the water
lets go to
what should one do know
before the first visit
The child should have positive, well planned first
experience with swimming. Before going to the swimming
pool we should do several things, not necessarily in the
order below (more will be said about particular aspects
further on in the book):
a. visit the doctor so that the child may be examined for an
opinion if there are any contra-indications to swimming,
b. consider whether the child is ready to go to the pool,
c. choose appropriate pool and/or swimming school,
d. prepare the child at home for the visit to the pool,
e. acquaint ourselves with the principles of participation in
classes at the pool and also find out what we should take
with us to the pool.
wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym
20 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the poolia visit to the doctor
Before we go with the child to the pool, it is necessary to
visit the doctor. The majority of swimming schools require
a doctor’s certificate confirming a lack of contra-indications
to participation in classes. If you are not going to go to an
organised class, but alone, or the school does not require
such a certificate, you should still visit the doctor. The doctor
should inform you if your child has reached a suitable stage of
development for going to swimming classes.
Generally, contra-indications to swimming are connected with
the following ailments:
✔ inflammation of the ears, eyes or nose,
✔ severe infection of the respiratory tract,
✔ severe infection of the digestive system,
✔ certain skin diseases,
✔ sensitivity to ozone or chlorine,
✔ recurrent and chronic urethral ailment,
✔ intensified stomach-oesophagus reflex,
✔ some chronic lung ailments,
✔ recurrent middle ear infection,
✔ congenital heart, lungs and urethral defects.
Contra-indications to going to the pool arise, if with regard to the condition of the child,
no additional stress should be applied to the child through intensified physical effort or
if it is vitally important to limit the risk of infection, because it might cause significant
deterioration of the health of the child.
In the case of some vaccinations, one should not take the child to the pool on the day of
injection. It is recommended to consult the doctor in these circumstances.
For sanitary reasons, the water in swimming pools is chlorinated or treated with ozone, which
may cause short-term reddening of the eyes of the child after swimming. Normally, this is not
a symptom of any allergy but initial reaction of the mucous membrane of the child to chemical
irritation. In order to avoid or diminish this effect one may try applying swimming glasses to a child
of 2 years and older and/or apply physiological salt eye drops to the child’s eyes.
REMEMBER – do not take the child to the swimming pool directly after an illness. After some
illnesses e.g. following a bladder infection, a longer interval is required before swimming, therefore
after a sickness it is always worth consulting a doctor.
IMPORTANT - Dysfunction of motor organs is not a contra-indication to participation in classes.
22 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the pooliwhen to go to the PooL?
The best age to go to the pool for the first time is at
3 months old. This is because of the development
of the child. A correctly developing child already
supports its own head. Furthermore, in the third
month of life the baby’s spine straightens, which
means that the child is not so hunched over as in
the earlier months. The change occurring at this
time in the joints of the child is also important,
the joints become rounded, which enables the
safe performance of exercises, in the full range
It would be best if we began the swimming pool
adventure not later than at 8 months old. Up to this
time the majority of children are not frightened of
strangers, which may help in familiarising oneself
not only with water, but also with other children,
their carers and with instructors.
Apart from the physical aspect, which determines
the possibility of going to the pool, the child’s
psychological attitude is also important when visiting
the pool. Children who are not used to e.g. having
water poured on their head may have a problem with
accepting this during classes. Therefore, it is very
important that at 4-8 weeks before the first visit to
the pool, we begin to prepare our child for the water
(more on this subject later in the book).
Remember, it is not only the attitude of our child that
is significant. We also must be certain that we wish
to go to the pool. If going to the pool is stressful for
us, our child will sense it. In that case we should
think if somebody else should go with the child
to the pool, or wait until going to the pool will not
24 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the poolihow to choose the schooL and the swimming PooL?
The increase in the number of firms teaching swimming to babies and children up to 4
years old has made the choice of the appropriate school more complicated.
Going to classes, we must analyse two aspects: the choice of a school and also the choice
of a swimming pool. In small towns there may be no choice. In large towns the choice is
greater, therefore it is worth choosing the best solution.
Here are several simple indicators for choosing the appropriate school. Find out:
✔ if the instructor/instructors giving the classes have special training for conducting
classes with babies/small children,
✔ how long do the classes last? It is recommended that classes do not last longer than
30 minutes. Also it is important to know how much time we have before and afterwards
✔ at what times are the classes held? Set the time of going to the pool to the daily rhythm
of the child,
✔ what children will be going to the classes? It is important that they would be of
a similar age. That situation is ideal because the exercises carried out during the class
will be best adapted to the movement potential of your child,
✔ how many participants are there in a group?
Apart from the choice of a school, the choice of the appropriate swimming pool is
important as well. In choosing the pool the following factors should be considered:
✔ water temperature. Water in the pool should be at 32-33°C for children up to 6 months
old and 31-32 °C for children from 7 to 12 months. If the water temperature in the pool
is lower, then children of 7-8 months may go to a pool with a water temperature of 29-
30°C, on the condition that we cover the child in protective foam. Water temperature
can have a significant effect on your child. Too high a temperature may cause
overloading of the circulation and respiratory system. Too low a temperature may
✔ water quality. Water in the pool should be properly treated,
✔ changing room equipment. Being at the pool with a baby, it is important that the
changing room should have a baby changing table and a chair or playpen, where we
can place the child while changing. Alternatively, we must take our own baby carrier to
✔ pool depth. Classes with children are held in shallow pools. The best depth is 1-1.1
metres. If we cannot find a pool with exactly those depth measurements, then we may
extend the range to 0.7-1.4 m.
✔ family changing room. An expedition with a small child to the swimming pool is not
simple; therefore, to make it easier we could go with a family member or friend. In
a situation where the companion is of the opposite sex, it is important that we can be in
the changing room together.
✔ air temperature at the pool (ideally should be 2 degrees higher than the
✔ check if there is a place where it is possible to sit down with the child, where it is
possible to eat, have something to drink or simply have a rest after the lesson.
26 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the poolihow to PrePare at home
for a visit to the PooL?
A baby may begin preparation for
going to the swimming pool when it
is 4-8 weeks old. Such preparation
should be in an environment
familiar to the child, which is at
home. “Swimming” at home is
intended to familiarise the child with
water, to accustom it to the sound
of water and the general noise as
well as to changed conditions of
the surroundings. Familiarising the
child with splashing, water pouring
over the face and also submersion
or diving will ensure that the baby
does not have problems playing in the
water at the pool. The list of example
games in the bath is in the section
“Exercises in the bath”.
IMPORTANT! If it is compulsory to wear a swimming cap at the pool to which you
will go, accustom the child to wearing a cap and also to the sight of you in a cap.
We may actually prepare our child from birth, because it is then that we start to
bathe the child. In the beginning we bathe the child in a small baby bath, from 4-8
weeks we change it for a large bath (obviously, if we have one). To better prepare
the child to go to the pool, we reduce the water temperature in which we bathe it to
28 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the pooli
what shouLd we know going to the PooL?
What should we know before we go to the pool?:
a. familiarise yourself with rules in force at the pool which you have chosen.
Particularly important information for you is:
✔ is it compulsory to wear swimming caps?
✔ may an accompanying person come into the changing room or enter the pool with us? If
so, then on what basis and how should they be dressed? What are the charges?
✔ what clothing must be worn while swimming? This particularly applies to men. At the
majority of pools one may not go in wearing shorts.
b. acquaint yourself with the layout of rooms at the pool so that you do not make a mistake on your
first visit. Problems with finding changing rooms, showers and the entrance to the pool may be
stressful for you and also for the child.
c. do not apply cream or oil to the child before going to the swimming pool. There would be a risk of
the child slipping in your hands. It also contaminates the water in the pool.
d. the last feed before entering the pool should be given to the baby at least 30 minutes before the
class. Children who are breastfed are an exception.
e. choose a suitable time for participating in classes - arrange the visit to the pool according to the
rhythm of the child. If your child sleeps at different times, on the day of the visit to the pool put it to
bed earlier, so that it will not be sleepy during the class.
f. bathe yourself and the child before and after the class under the shower!
Additional useful information:
a. Going to the pool with a child does not require that you know how to swim. The class takes place
in shallow water. Remember only, if a visit to the pool is very stressful for you, it might be worth
considering that the child goes to the pool with somebody else because your stress will be passed to
b. Sometimes a child has a bad day, is teething or simply is feeling grumpy. Think then whether it is
worth taking the child to a class. A visit to the pool should be enjoyable.
c. During classes the parent/carer performs the exercises with the child - NOT THE INSTRUCTOR.
d. One does not eat in the changing rooms.
e. Put on the bathing costume and nappies at the pool - NOT AT HOME.
30 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the pooliof slippers),
List of things for the PooL
The list of things necessary to take the pool is long; therefore, going to the pool for the first time it is worth
writing down everything. Before we go, we should check that we have everything:
✔ a swimming costume for you,
✔ nappies for the child for swimming or a swimming costume if it already no longer uses nappies,
✔ normal nappies if the child uses them,
✔ goggles for an older child,
✔ slippers for the parent,
✔ slippers for the walking child (if it is winter, and the child has tights, it is worth having two pairs
✔ a towel for the parent,
✔ a towel for the child - better two, or a towel and dressing gown,
✔ baby carrier - for as much as one may take to the pool,
✔ cosmetics – soap, shampoo for the parent, soap, baby oil, cream for the child,
✔ a dryer - if there are no dryers at the pool,
✔ swimming caps - if they are required,
✔ bags for wet things - for convenience,
✔ second set of things for the child – just in case,
✔ food, drink - for afterwards,
✔ a toy, little book, so that the child has something to occupy them with when you are changing,
✔ a swimming pool pass.
32 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the poolithe first visit to the PooL
The first visit to the pool is often stressful. Normally more stressful for the parent than the
child. To make things easier, here is an example of a visit to the pool:
1. leave outer clothing in a changing room,
2. change yourself and the child into swimming costumes. While changing, it is convenient
to strap the child into the baby carrier or, if it sits, put it into a baby chair (if available in the
changing room). REMEMBER - never leave the child on a changing mat without an adult by
its side. Children who still have not moved may do so for the first time just when you are not
3. take off jewellery and watches. Do not place the locker key on your wrist,
4. slippers are worn in the swimming pool complex. If the child already walks, buy it a pair of
slippers for the pool,
5. if required, put a cap on and put one on the child,
6. before going to the pool, wash yourself and the child. Going into the pool without first
washing may cause the transfer to the water of microorganisms, which may be harmful to
your health and the health of other pool users,
7. do NOT enter the pool with the child using the ladder. Normally classes with children are
organised in the shallow end, where entry is easy. If there is no shallow end, ask somebody
to help you - first enter the pool yourself and ask your helper to pass the child to you. The
method of leaving the pool is presented later in the book in section IV.1.,
8. during the class the child may not have a dummy in its mouth,
9. after leaving the pool, we do not remove the nappies from the child anywhere in the
vicinity of the pool. In the event that the child has soiled nappies, everything would flow into
10. REMEMBER - after leaving the water, carefully wash yourself and the child. Then rub the
appropriate cream onto the child - the swimming pool may dry out the skin,
11. dry your head and the child’s head with a towel. Wipe the child’s ears with the towel,
12. in the changing room or after leaving the changing room, dry the child and yourself
thoroughly with the head of the dryer. It is best to wait 20-30 minutes before leaving the
swimming pool complex - especially in winter.
34 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
34 ////// we go to the pooL! what shouLd one do/know before the first visit?
We go to the pooli
in the bath
wąsko w wymiarze poprzecznym
Preparing the child for classes in the water may begin from the first bath.
Proper preparation should take place 4-8 weeks before the first classes.
Preparing the child for classes, parents may perform exercises in various configurations:
✔ in a small bath independently,
✔ in a small bath with help of a third person,
✔ in a large bath together with the child,
✔ in a large bath together with the child with help of a third person,
✔ independent exercises of the child in a large bath.
Various toys may be used for playing in the bath - typical toys for the bath are: balls, watering can,
foam puzzle or special bath markers for use after the bath.
36 ////// exercises in the bath
Exercises in the bath famiLiarising the chiLd with water
Familiarising the child with water should begin
slowly with wetting the legs then the stomach
and the back. If the child is independent i.e. sits
and better still stands, we may let it define the
rate of wetting. The child will sit in the water
itself when it is ready.
getting into the water with the
child, if possible ask a partner to
pass the child to you when you
are already sitting steadily in the
bath. if this is not possible, ca-
refully get into the bath with the
child, taking care not to wet it.
when sitting, hold the child in
such a manner so that only its
toes touch the water . . .
we hold the child securely.
…and then slowly wet a larger
part of the child’s legs.
slowly wet the child, giving it time
to relax. begin immersion with the
legs and next wet its back .
remember! Placing the child in
water, we must support it firmly
and securely. if we are afraid that
the child is a bit too slippery in
the bath, we should buy a special
mat for the bottom of the bath.
38 ////// exercises in the bath
a child during stressful moments
becomes tense. allow the child
to become accustomed to the
new situation, to relax before we
begin to really acquaint the child
an older child that is at least
sitting, we seat on the edge of
the bath, so that it may freely
kick the water. obviously, we
hold the child securely the
Exercises in the bath pouring water over the chiLd
To wet the child, we do not completely immerse it at once. We begin by slowly pouring
water over the child. A baby is not accustomed to intensive contact with water, at the
beginning of the bath we may pour water from the palm of the hand and if the child is
afraid, sprinkle it with drops of water. The intensity of pouring water over the child should
depend upon the muscular tension of the child among other things. We pour water over
the child in such a way that it sees the source of water and is able to stretch out its hands.
If a child is older we may use a watering can, a mug or other container.
Pouring water over the child, we begin from the feet and finish at its head.
we may „sprinkle” the child … pour water with an open palm … or a watering can.
we begin pouring with the
legs, then we pour water on
and then on the head .
when we pour water on
the head, the child reacts
by closing its eyes .
40 ////// exercises in the bath
we may pour water on the child in various positions, equally when it lies
on its stomach. we may pour water on its back using the “goblet” grip,
which is moving the palms of our hands under the head of the child;
for stability the thumbs must be directed upwards and wrists must be
together. in this position we need the help of a partner to pour water on
it. we can do
with its back
Exercises in the bathor facing us - then we see the face of the child and its reaction,
which is safer, particularly at the beginning.
if we wish to vary the child’s exercises, we may place the child on our
forearm and with our palm grasp a further arm of the child (“carousel
grip”). we give delicate back support, because at this age a baby is still
not completely developed.
we also pour water on older children; we may encourage them to pour
water over themselves with a watering can or even with a shower.
42 ////// exercises in the bath
Exercises in the bath
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