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Outline of Polish Labour Law System - ebook/pdf
Outline of Polish Labour Law System - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Wolters Kluwer Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-8092-554-0 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> prawo i podatki >> pracy i ubezpieczeń społecznych
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The book is a complete analysis of the institution of the Polish labour law. It covers issues regarding both individual and group working relationships, especially those which involve trade unions, worker's councils and European works councils. Topics referring to the job market and the role of the state in its regulation have also been touched upon.
This comprehensive analysis of the Polish labour law will allow the readers to fully familiarise themselves with regulations of labour law which are binding in Poland.
The book will be useful not only for the readers from abroad. A number of institutions of the Polish labour law are presented in great detail. Many cases introduce different views from judicial decisions and the most appropriate manner of interpreting the provisions. Owing to the above, this book will be of invaluable assistance to practitioners working in international corporations or for international clients.
The publication takes into account the current legal status and new regulations introduced to the Labour Code with respect to contracts for a fixed term and parental leaves.
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outline of polish labour law system edited by Krzysztof W. Baran Krzysztof W. Baran, Bolesław M. Ćwiertniak Dominika Dörre-Kolasa, Zbigniew Góral Mariusz Lekston, Krzysztof Walczak Mirosław Włodarczyk, Marcin Wujczyk WARSZAWA 2016 Publikacja została dofi nansowana przez Wydział Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego Recenzent Dr hab. Anna Musiała Wydawca Magdalena Stojek-Siwińska Redaktor prowadzący Joanna Maź Opracowanie redakcyjne Anna Sorówka-Łach Łamanie Violet Design Wioletta Kowalska Indeks rzeczowy Dominika Zielińska, Piotr Sekulski Ta książka jest wspólnym dziełem twórcy i wydawcy. Prosimy, byś przestrzegał przysługujących im praw. Książkę możesz udostępnić osobom bliskim lub osobiście znanym, ale nie publikuj jej w internecie. Jeśli cytujesz fragmenty, nie zmieniaj ich treści i koniecznie zaznacz, czyje to dzieło. A jeśli musisz skopiować część, rób to jedynie na użytek osobisty. SZANUJMY PRAWO I WŁASNOŚĆ Więcej na www.legalnakultura.pl POLSKA IZBA KSIĄŻKI © Copyright by Wolters Kluwer SA, 2016 ISBN: 978-83-264-8653-1 Dział Praw Autorskich 01-208 Warszawa, ul. Przyokopowa 33 tel. 22 535 82 19 e-mail: ksiazki@wolterskluwer.pl www.wolterskluwer.pl księgarnia internetowa www.profi nfo.pl ABOUT THE AUTHORS Krzysztof W. Baran – Professor and Head of the Chair of Labour Law and Social Pol- icy of  the Jagiellonian University in  Kraków. He  has a  broad expertise and tutoring experience in training human resources staff. He is the author and co-author of about 200 publications embracing several monographs, textbooks and commentaries, includ- ing commentaries to the Labour Code and collective labour law acts. Professor is also the editor-in-chief of the fundamental for the Polish labour law twelve-volume publica- tion on the Polish labour law system: “System prawa pracy”. Bolesław Maciej Ćwiertniak – Professor at the Institute of Administration and Law at Humanitas University in Sosnowiec. He is Secretary of Legal and Economic Studies Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences Branch in Katowice and the author and co-author of over 160 publications in the field of labour law and social policy, civil ser- vice, local government law. Dominika Dörre-Kolasa – Doctor of Law, lecturer at the Chair of Labour Law and Social Policy of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, legal advisor. She is a recognised expert in the field of protection of personal rights and the author of several publications on labour law, including those pertaining to the protection of personal data and per- sonal rights of employees, workplace monitoring, harassment and mobbing. Zbigniew Góral – Professor at the University of Łódź, Head of the Chair of Labour Law, former Vice-Chancellor and Dean of the Faculty of Law and Administration. He is the author of about 150 publications concerning labour law, civil service, unemployment, and collective labour law. Mariusz Lekston – Doctor of Law and Vice-Chancellor for Organizational, Legal and Human Resources Affairs at  Humanitas University in  Sosnowiec. He  represents the University with respect to labour law matters. He is Assistant Professor at the Institute of  Administration and Law at  Humanitas University and the author of  publications in the field of labour law, including those covering issues of employment of academic teachers and uniformed services. 6 About the authors Krzysztof Walczak – Professor at the Faculty of Management of the University of War- saw, partner and consultant in a legal firm. He is the author of over 150 publications in the field of Polish and European labour law and co-author of commentaries to the Labour Code and collective labour law acts. Mirosław Włodarczyk – Professor and Head of the Chair of the Law of Social Security and Social Policy at the University of Łódź, Supervisor of PhD studies at the Faculty of Law and Administration. He is the author of about 70 academic publications con- cerning the sources of labour law, subjects and content of the employment relationship, employment of young people and children, and regulation of the labour market. Marcin Wujczyk – Doctor of Law and Assistant Professor at the Chair of Labour Law and Social Policy at  the Jagiellonian University in  Kraków. Since 2013 he  has been a member of the European Committee of Social Rights of the Council of Europe. In the years 2014-2015 he conducted research on discrimination in employment as an aca- demic visitor at Oxford University. He holds the position of Secretary in Labour Law and Social Policy Studies at the Jagiellonian University. He is also a member of the Editorial Board of the European Journal of Social Security (EJSS) and a national cor- respondent for European Labour Law Cases. Since 2015 he has been a member of the Executive Committee of the International Labour and Employment Relations Associa- tion (ILERA). He is the author of a number of publications on individual and collective employment and labour law, including a  monograph “Wypowiedzenie zmieniające” concerning conditions for termination of an employment contract and the award-win- ning book on the employee’s right to privacy protection “Prawo pracownika do ochrony prywatności”. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE ONE GENERAL LABOUR LAW Chapter I The concept and subject-matter of labour law 1. Definitions of labour law 2. Classification of labour law 3. Characteristics of labour law 3.1. General notes 3.2. Uniformity and differentiation of labour law 3.3. Europeanisation of labour law Chapter II Labour law in the Polish legal system 1. General notes 2. Labour law and civil law 3. Labour law and social insurance law 4. Labour law and copyright law 5. Labour law and constitutional law 6. Labour law and administrative law 7. Labour law and criminal law 8. Labour law and international law Chapter III Functions of labour law 1. Overview of functions of labour law 2. Protective function of labour law 3. Organisational function of labour law 4. Irenic function of labour law 5. Redistributive function of labour law Chapter IV Interpretation of provisions of labour law 1. The concept and subject-matter of interpretation of labour laws 19 21 21 24 25 25 26 26 28 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 38 40 40 8 Table of contents 2. Types of interpretation of labour law provisions 3. Process of interpretation of labour laws 4. Loopholes in labour law Chapter V Principles of labour law 1. The concept and meaning of labour law principles in the Polish labour law doctrine 2. Systematisation of the principles of labour law 3. Functions of labour law principles 4. Characteristics of fundamental principles of labour law set out in the Labour Code 4.1. Principle of the right to work and the freedom of labour 4.2. Principle of freedom to enter employment relationship and to determine 4.3. Principle of respect by an employer of employee’s dignity and of other the terms of employment employee’s personal rights 4.4. Principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination in employment 4.5. Principle of the right to fair remuneration for work 4.6. Principle of the right to rest 4.7. Principle of provision by an employer of safe and healthy working conditions 4.8. Principle of meeting the vital, social and cultural needs of employees 4.9. Principle of facilitation of skills upgrading 4.10. Favourability principle (zasada uprzywilejowania pracownika) 4.11. Fundamental principles of collective labour law Chapter VI Overview of the history of the Polish labour law Chapter VII Equal treatment in employment 1. The concept of equal treatment 2. Principle of equal treatment in employment 3. Forms of discrimination 4. Harassment and sexual harassment 5. Justified differentiation 6. Consequences of breach of the principle of equal treatment in employment Chapter VIII Sources of labour law 1. The concept and hierarchy of sources of labour law 2. General sources of labour law 2.1. Constitution of the Republic of Poland 2.2. Acts/laws (ustawy) 2.3. Regulations (rozporządzenia) 3. Specific sources of labour law 3.1. Collective agreements 3.1.1. Legal nature of collective agreements 3.1.2. Personal scope of collective agreements 41 42 43 45 45 47 49 51 51 54 56 59 60 63 65 67 68 69 72 74 78 78 79 79 80 81 81 83 83 85 85 86 88 89 89 89 90 Table of contents 3.1.3. Material scope of collective agreements 3.1.4. Procedures for the conclusion of collective agreements 3.1.5. Registration of collective agreements 3.1.6. Entry into force of collective agreements 3.1.7. Transformations of collective agreements 3.1.8. Termination of collective agreements 3.1.9. Sectoral collective agreements (ponadzakładowe układy zbiorowe pracy) 3.1.10. Company-level collective agreements (zakładowe układy zbiorowe pracy) 3.2. Agreements in connection with transfer of business to a new employer 3.3. Agreement on suspension of provisions of labour law 3.4. Agreements on application of less favourable terms and conditions of employment 3.5. Teleworking agreements 3.6. Social agreements (porozumienia społeczne) 4. Internal regulations 4.1. Internal rules (regulaminy) 4.1.1. Wage rules (regulamin wynagradzania) 4.1.2. Work rules (regulamin pracy) 4.2. Statutes (statuty) 5. International labour law 5.1. International labour regulations 5.2. Labour law of the Council of Europe 5.3. Legal acts adopted in the European Union and their effect 5.4. Areas covered by European labour law TITLE TWO INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW Chapter IX Employment relationship 1. Concept and nature of employment relationship 1.1. Concepts of employment relationship 1.2. Characteristics of employment relationship 2. Labour law employment relationship (stosunek pracy) and other employment relationships (stosunki zatrudnienia) 2.1. The concepts of “self-employment” and “employment” 2.2. Types of non-employee employment (employment not between an employee and an employer) 2.3. Elements of the labour law employment relationship 3. Parties to the labour law employment relationship 3.1. General notes 3.2. Employee 3.3. The concept of an employer 3.4. Employer – a natural person 3.5. Employer – an organisational unit 3.6. Representation of an employer being an organisational unit 9 91 93 94 96 96 97 99 100 102 103 104 105 105 106 106 107 109 110 111 112 113 114 116 119 121 121 121 122 125 125 126 129 130 130 132 133 134 135 138 10 Table of contents Chapter X Contract of employment 1. Internal and external recruitment 2. Protection of personal data of job candidates and employees 3. Types of contracts of employment 3.1. Contract for a probationary period (umowa na okres próbny) 3.2. Contract for a fixed term (umowa na czas określony) 3.3. Contract of employment for an indefinite term (umowa o pracę na czas nieokreślony) 4. Telework 5. Contents of a contract of employment Chapter XI Transformations of an employment relationship 1. Change of an employment relationship 2. Agreement to amend the terms and conditions of employment (porozumienie zmieniające) 3. Notice of amendment of the terms and conditions of a contract of employment (wypowiedzenie zmieniające warunki umowy o pracę) 4. Assignment of an employee to other work 5. Temporary change of terms and conditions of a contract of employment resulting from specific regulations Chapter XII Termination of an employment relationship 1. Introduction 2. Agreement between the parties 3. Restrictions on termination of a contract of employment 3.1. General protection of sustainability of an employment relationship 3.2. Consultation (with a company trade union organisation) of the intention to terminate a contract for an indefinite term 3.3. Consultation (with a company trade union organisation) of the intention to terminate a contract of employment without notice 3.4. Special protection of sustainability of an employment relationship 3.5. Restrictions on termination of a contract of employment by reason of personal or family situation of an employee 3.5.1. Protection of the employment relationship during a pre-retirement period absence 3.5.2. Protection of the employment relationship during a period of excusable 3.5.3. Protection of the employment relationship of pregnant women or women during maternity leave 3.6. Restrictions on termination of a contract of employment based on the employee’s function 3.6.1. Special protection of sustainability of the employment relationship of employees performing trade union functions 140 140 140 142 142 143 144 144 145 147 147 150 152 162 166 168 168 169 169 169 170 172 173 173 173 174 175 176 176 Table of contents 3.6.2. Special protection of sustainability of the employment relationship 3.6.3. Special protection of sustainability of the employment relationship of members of workers’ council of a social labour inspector 4. Termination of a contract of employment upon notice 4.1. Notice of termination of a contract of employment as a unilateral declaration of will 4.2. Scope of application of a notice of termination as a method of termination of a contract of employment 4.3. Formal requirements 4.4. Notice periods for termination of a contract of employment 4.5. Reduction of a notice period 4.6. Job-search leave of absence (zwolnienie na poszukiwanie pracy) 5. Termination of a contract of employment without notice 5.1. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employer 5.1.1. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employer for reasons attributable to an employee 5.1.2. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employer for reasons not attributable to an employee 5.2. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employee 5.2.1. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employee for reasons not attributable to an employer 5.2.2. Termination of a contract of employment without notice by an employee for reasons attributable to an employer 6. Legal consequences of defective termination of a contract of employment 6.1. Legal consequences of defective termination of a contract of employment 6.2. Legal consequences of defective termination of a contract of employment 6.3. Legal consequences of defective termination of a contract of employment upon notice without notice by an employer without notice by an employee 7. Other cases of termination of a contract of employment by an employee 7.1. Termination of a contract of employment in connection with reinstatement 7.2. Termination of a contract of employment in connection with acquisition of an employee by a new employer 8. Expiration of a contract of employment 8.1. Death of an employee 8.2. Death of an employer 8.3. Employee’s absence from work caused by pre-trial detention 8.4. Claims in connection with expiration of an employment relationship Chapter XIII Transfer of an establishment to another employer 1. The concept of transfer of an establishment or a part of an establishment to another employer 2. Succession of obligations 11 184 185 185 185 188 189 193 196 198 199 200 200 203 205 205 206 207 207 210 212 213 213 215 215 215 215 215 216 217 217 218 12 Table of contents 3. Negotiations with an employees’ representation and information obligation in the absence of trade unions 4. Rights of employees Chapter XIV Employment of temporary agency workers 1. Introduction 2. Restrictions on temporary agency work 2.1. Material restrictions 2.2. Time restrictions of temporary agency work 2.3. Personal restrictions 2.3.1. User-employer 2.3.2. Temporary-work agency 3. Conclusion and content of a temporary work contract 4. Protection of a temporary agency worker against discrimination Chapter XV Non-contractual employment relationships 1. The concept and classification of non-contractual employment relationships 1.1. The concept and origins of non-contractual employment relationships 1.2. Classification of non-contractual employment relationships 2. Employment relationship by election (wybór) 2.1. The scope of employment relationships by election 2.2. Legal nature of an employment relationship by election 2.3. Establishment of an employment relationship by election 2.4. Admissibility of amendment of the terms and conditions of employment by election 2.5. Ending the employment relationship by election 2.6. Rights and obligations of elected employees 3. Employment relationship by appointment (powołanie) 3.1. The scope of employment relationships by appointment 3.2. Legal nature of the act of appointment 3.3. Establishment of an employment relationship by appointment 3.4. Admissibility of amendment of the terms and conditions of employment by appointment 3.5. Ending the employment relationship by appointment 3.6. Terms of employment relationship of appointed employees 4. Employment relationship by nomination (mianowanie) 4.1. The scope of employment relationships by nomination 4.2. Legal nature of the act of nomination 4.3. Establishment of an employment relationship by nomination 4.4. Amendment of the terms and conditions of employment by nomination 4.5. Ending the employment relationship of nominated employees 4.6. Terms of employment relationship of nominated employees 219 220 222 222 222 223 223 224 224 225 225 228 229 229 229 231 231 231 232 233 234 234 236 237 237 239 240 241 243 245 246 246 247 248 250 252 254 Table of contents Chapter XVI Rights and obligations of the parties to an employment relationship 1. Obligations of an employer 1.1. Information obligation 1.2. Obligation to properly organise work 1.3. Obligation to prevent discrimination 1.4. Obligation to ensure safe and healthy working conditions 1.5. Obligation to pay wages timely and properly 1.6. Obligation to facilitate upgrading of professional skills 1.7. Obligation to create an environment conducive to adaptation to proper performance of work 1.8. Obligation to meet social needs of employees 1.9. Obligation to apply objective and fair criteria of evaluating employees 1.10. Obligation to keep documentation and personnel files 1.11. Obligation to foster development of the rules of social coexistence in the workplace 1.12. Obligation to prevent mobbing 1.13. Obligation to issue an employment certificate (świadectwo pracy) 1.13.1. Contents of an employment certificate 1.13.2. Legal fictions in the employment certificate 1.13.3. Procedure for rectification of the employment certificate 2. Claim for compensation 3. Obligations of an employee 3.1. Obligation to perform work diligently and with due care 3.2. Obligation to comply with superiors’ instructions 3.3. Employee’s obligations relating to order at the workplace 3.4. Obligation to have regard for the welfare of the establishment 3.5. Obligation of secrecy 3.6. Obligation to comply with the rules of social coexistence Chapter XVII Non-compete obligation 1. General principles 2. Restrictions on competitive activity in the absence of non-compete agreement 3. Non-compete agreement during the term of employment relationship 4. Post-employment non-compete agreement Chapter XVIII Remuneration for work 1. Legal bases for wage setting 2. Prohibition of wage discrimination 3. Protection of remuneration for work 3.1. Rules of payment of remuneration 3.2. Restrictions on deductions from remuneration 4. Benefits in the case of non-performance of work 5. Benefits payable to an employee in connection with ending an employment relationship 6. Protection of employees’ claims in case of the employer’s insolvency 13 256 256 256 259 260 261 261 262 262 263 263 264 264 265 267 269 269 270 271 272 272 273 274 275 277 278 280 280 281 282 282 285 285 288 289 289 290 291 293 294 14 Table of contents Chapter XIX Working time 1. The concept of working time 2. Number of working hours 3. Rest period 4. Working time systems 5. Overtime work 6. Duty hours 7. Working time of managers 8. Work at night 9. Work on Sundays and on public holidays Chapter XX Leaves 1. Annual leave 1.1. Essential elements of the concept of annual leave 1.2. Acquisition of right to the annual leave 1.3. Amount of the annual leave 1.4. Rules for granting of leave 1.5. Deferral of the leave in unforeseen circumstances 1.6. Proportionate leave 1.7. Leave on demand 1.8. Termination of a contract of employment and the right to annual leave 2. Unpaid leave 3. Special leaves (zwolnienia okolicznościowe) Chapter XXI Liability for breach of order at the workplace and disciplinary liability 1. General notes 2. Liability for breach of order at the workplace (odpowiedzialność porządkowa) 2.1. Legal nature and conditions of liability for breach of order at the workplace 2.2. Infringements and penalties for breach of order at the workplace 2.3. Procedure for imposing penalties for breach of order at the workplace 2.4. Appeals procedure 2.5. Declaring the penalty null and void 3. Disciplinary liability (odpowiedzialność dyscyplinarna) 3.1. Personal scope and conditions of disciplinary liability 3.2. Types of disciplinary penalties 3.3. Disciplinary boards and disciplinary prosecutor 3.4. Disciplinary procedure and judicial review of disciplinary decisions 3.5. Deletion of penalty from files (zatarcie kary) 3.6. Minor infringements Chapter XXII Financial liability of employees 1. Legal nature and conditions of financial liability of employees 2. Financial liability for the damage caused by the employee unintentionally 296 296 297 298 298 302 304 305 306 307 309 309 309 310 310 312 313 315 315 316 316 317 319 319 319 319 320 321 324 325 326 326 327 328 328 329 330 331 331 335 Table of contents 3. Financial liability for the damage caused by the employee intentionally 4. Liability for damage caused to a third party 5. Responsibility for the entrusted property 5.1. Financial liability for the damage caused by the employee to the entrusted property 5.2. Mitigation of liability for the entrusted property 5.3. Joint liability of employees for the entrusted property 6. Limitation of claims Chapter XXIII General protection of labour 1. Introduction 2. Basic obligations of an employer in respect of the occupational health and safety (OHS) 2.1. Responsibility for health and safety at work 2.2. Obligation to cooperate with other employers 2.3. Training obligation 2.4. Obligation to familiarise the employees with OHS rules and regulations 2.5. Obligations in respect of preventive health care of employees 2.5.1. Obligation to inform of occupational risk 2.5.2. Obligation to prevent occupational diseases and other work-related diseases 2.5.3. Obligation to perform preventive medical examinations 2.6. Obligation to provide employees with supportive drinks and meals 2.7. Obligation to provide employees with appropriate hygiene and sanitary facilities and necessary personal hygiene and sanitary products 2.8. Other obligations of the employer 3. Rights and obligations of employees in respect of occupational health and safety 3.1. Right to refrain from work 3.2. Obligation to comply with OHS rules and regulations 4. Labour protection bodies 4.1. OHS service 4.2. Occupational health and safety commission 4.3. Consultations on occupational health and safety 5. Compensation for property lost or damaged in connection with an accident at work Chapter XXIV Protection of parenthood 1. Introduction 2. Prohibition on the employment of women in work which is particularly arduous or harmful to health 3. Principles of employment of pregnant workers 4. Leaves connected with raising children 5. Rights of employees raising children 6. Special protection of sustainability of employment relationship 15 336 337 338 338 341 343 345 346 346 347 347 347 348 348 348 348 349 350 351 351 352 352 352 353 355 355 356 356 357 358 358 359 360 361 364 365 16 Table of contents Chapter XXV Employment and protection of work of young people and children 1. Employment of adolescents 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Contract of employment for vocational preparation (umowa o pracę w celu przygotowania zawodowego) 1.3. Protection of health of young workers 1.4. Employment of adolescents under a contract of employment for performing light-duty work 2. Employment of children below 16 years of age TITLE THREE COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW Chapter XXVI Freedom of association 1. Introduction 2. Freedom of association in trade unions and employers’ organisations 2.1. Freedom of association in trade unions 2.2. Freedom of association in employers’ organisations 2.3. Models of organisation of workers’ and employers’ movement 3. Independence of trade unions and employers’ organisations 4. Self-governance of trade unions and employers’ organisations Chapter XXVII Legal status of trade unions 1. Establishment of trade unions 2. Registration of trade unions 3. Functions of trade unions 4. Powers of trade unions Chapter XXVIII Employers’ organisations 1. Establishment of employers’ organisations 2. Registration of employers’ organisations 3. Functions and powers of employers’ organisations Chapter XXIX Employee participation 1. Introduction 2. Ad hoc representatives 3. Workers’ councils 4. European Works Council 5. Other forms of employee participation Chapter XXX Social dialogue 1. The concept of social dialogue 367 367 367 369 371 372 373 377 379 379 380 380 382 383 385 388 393 393 394 396 398 405 405 406 407 409 409 409 410 413 415 416 416 Table of contents 2. Council of Social Dialogue (Rada Dialogu Społecznego) 2.1. Competences of the Council of Social Dialogue 3. Voivodeship (provincial) councils of social dialogue (wojewódzkie rady dialogu społecznego) 4. Social dialogue in the law-making process 5. Social dialogue on the labour market 6. Social dialogue in matters relating to occupational health and safety 7. Participation of representatives of social partners in supervision of public institutions as a form of social dialogue 8. Social dialogue in the establishment Chapter XXXI Collective labour disputes 1. Introduction 2. The subject-matter of a collective labour dispute 3. Parties to a collective labour dispute 4. Initiation of a collective labour dispute 5. Methods of resolving collective labour disputes 6. Irenic methods of resolving collective labour disputes 6.1. Conciliation 6.2. Mediation 6.3. Arbitration 7.1. Strike 7. Non-irenic methods of resolving collective labour disputes 7.1.1. Right to strike 7.1.2. Restrictions of the right to strike 7.1.3. Principles of organisation of a strike 7.2. Other industrial actions 7.3. Lockout TITLE FOUR PROCEDURAL LABOUR LAW Chapter XXXII Legal protection of labour relations 1. Models of legal protection in labour relations 2. Out-of-court legal protection bodies 3. Labour courts 3.1. Organisation of labour courts 3.2. Powers of labour courts 3.2.1. Introduction 3.2.2. Matters involving claims arising from employment relationship 3.2.3. Matters involving employment-related claims 3.2.4. Matters involving claims arising from other legal relationships to which provisions of labour law apply under separate laws 3.2.5. Actions for compensation against an employer in the event of accidents at work and occupational diseases 17 417 418 420 421 421 422 422 424 425 425 426 428 430 430 431 431 433 434 436 436 436 437 439 443 444 447 449 449 450 452 452 453 453 453 454 456 457 18 Table of contents 3.2.6. Actions to establish existence or non-existence of a legal relationship or rights under an employment relationship Chapter XXXIII Labour inspection 1. Introduction 2. National Labour Inspectorate (Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy, PIP) 3. Social labour inspection 4. Other supervisory and control bodies Chapter XXXIV Limitation of claims and final deadlines 1. Introduction 2. Limitation of claims (przedawnienie roszczeń) 3. Final deadlines (terminy zawite) Chapter XXXV Accidents at work and occupational diseases – an overview 1. Introduction 2. Accidents at work 3. An accident equivalent to an accident at work 4. Procedure for determining circumstances and causes of accidents at work 5. Occupational diseases 6. Benefits in respect of accidents at work and occupational diseases Index 457 459 459 460 463 464 466 466 467 474 476 476 477 480 481 481 483 485 TITLE ONE GENERAL LABOUR LAW Chapter I THE CONCEPT AND SUBJECT-MATTER OF LABOUR LAW 1. Definitions of labour law Definitions of  basic concepts relevant to certain fields of  study are of  major impor- tance both in empirical sciences and in practical application of the law. In the Polish literature on the subject, the term of “labour law” appeared rather late, during the in- terwar period, although in a rather limited scope. The terms used more frequently at that time were: “workers’ law”, “industrial law”, “workers’ and industrial law”, “factory legislation” or similar. The term “labour law” became popular at the end of the interwar period and definitely prevailed after the World War II. It became a legal term even later, under the Act of 26 June 1974 – Labour Code (usta- wa z dnia 26 czerwca 1974 – Kodeks pracy).1 In several legal acts of the interwar period, the set of norms governing the material scope of employment relationships (e.g. relating to industrial workers) was called “provisions on the contracts of employment”2 and after the war the legal texts used the term “labour legislation”3 without giving legal definitions of those terms. Therefore, by reference to the latter, it is possible to distinguish between scholarly definitions and legal (normative) definitions of labour law. Initially, the legal doctrine defined labour law as a set of norms determining the em- ployee status (called status definitions). Soon such definitions were considered too “narrow” and not corresponding with the scope of the labour law as a branch. At that time, definitions of labour law as a separate branch of the legal system of the Republic of Poland, governing employment relations and other social relations directly linked to employment relations, became more popular. 1 Consolidated text: Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] of 2014, item 1502 as amended. 2 Regulation of the President of the Republic of Poland of 27 June 1934 – Commercial Code (Rozporzą- dzenie Prezydenta RP z dnia 27 czerwca 1934 – Kodeks handlowy; Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 57, item 502 as amended). 3 See, for example, Article XII § 1 of the Act on implementation of the Civil Code. B.M. Ćwiertniak 22 Chapter I. The concept and subject-matter of labour law Therefore, the literature developed a specific “standard” method of defining and the re- lated definitions of labour law which may be called “standard” definitions4. Both types of the definitions have certain functional elements called ontological, sys- temic and subject-matter: 1) the first one assumes existence of labour law (as a specific set of legal norms), 2) the second treats such set of norms as a separate, independent branch of a given legal system, and 3) the third makes reference to the set of legal norms (“subject-matter of labour law”). Since the  time of  codification of  the  labour law, our legal system has used the  legal definition of “labour law”. It should be understood as: “(…) provisions of the Labour Code and provisions of other laws (ustawy) and implementing acts (akty wykonawcze) regarding the rights and obligations of workers and employers, as well as provisions of  collective agreements (układy zbiorowe) and other collective arrangements (poro- zumienia zbiorowe) based on laws, internal rules (regulaminy) and statutes (statuty) concerning the  rights and obligations of  parties to an  employment relationship”. It should be noted that consecutive paragraphs of the abovementioned article establish a specific hierarchy of sources of labour law. Definitions of labour law assume for an element the subject-matter of a given branch of law. It is rightly pointed out that no such social relations exist which would gener- ally be “uniform in nature” and grouping, systematisation and classification of such relations are logical measures based on a stated convention. Through “arbitrary con- vention” lawyers have determined also the subject-matter of labour law and agreed that this branch of law governs all social relations relating to subordinated work of people. Quite commonly, those relations were called labour law relations. Although the previ- ously mentioned definitions of labour law give an impression of uniformity of opinions on these matters, the subject-matter of labour law still remains very controversial and the views on the labour law still vary in terms of time and space. As noted earlier, such “social employment relations” must be defined formally, through “arbitrary conven- tion”. In this regard, a reference can be made to general remarks of legal academics according to which “in the absence of appropriately general criteria” the subject-matter of labour law should be distinguished “not through a classic definition by genus and dif- ferentia specifica but through specification of its component parts”. Each author of such definition, having specified the  “employment relationships”, to further determine the subject-matter of labour law must list and indicate those groups of social relations which he considers “practically related to work”. A relatively broader consensus was achieved in relation to the concept of “employment relationship”. It is assumed that such relationship should be an obligation relationship 4 However, some handbooks still use definitions which refer to the employee status. B.M. Ćwiertniak 1. Definitions of labour law 23 and have a  homogeneous structure. And the  scope of  “employment relationships” should be determined by the already defined criteria which distinguish them from oth- er obligation relationships, such as: continuity of  work, remuneration, performance, subordination of an employee and risk of the employer associated with the work pro- cess. However, it is still pointed out that such criteria do not ensure precise delimitation of those relationships. In this context, the legal nature of specific relations was often determined by case-law which developed, under the same legal provisions (Articles 2, 3, 22 of the Labour Code), the variable scope of that concept. Even more discussions and scholarly disputes, causing far-reaching consequences in the practice of law enforcement authorities, arise from removal of those areas of social relations which should be considered “directly” and “intrinsically” linked to employment relationships. This applies both to specification of  the  groups (types) of  social rela- tions which should be a part of the subject-matter of labour law and to determination of the scope of social relations which should be included in each of those groups. Those relations were presented in our literature on the subject in different ways: 1) by placing them on the time axis and comparing their duration to the duration of an employment relationship, 2) by taking into account both the subject-matter and the method of legal regulation of the relationships included in the labour law (see section 2 of this chapter). Historically older is the first one, where the following relationships are distinguished besides the employment relationship: 1) relationships preceding the employment relationship, 2) relationships established along with the employment relationship and concurrent with the employment relationship or even exceeding its term, 3) relationships resulting from the already terminated employment relationship. The relationships preceding the employment relationship include mainly: job match- ing, job counselling, vocational training (nauka zawodu), apprenticeship (przyuczenie do określonej pracy), legal relations connected with the conclusion of employment rela- tionships (such as competitions, preliminary contracts); it is questionable whether some new types of social relationships, such as relationships related to internship or volun- teering, should be included in this group. The  second group includes relations connected with the  collective rights (of groups of workers, e.g. benefits from the company social benefits fund or, as argued by some scholars, occupational pension schemes), employee co-management relationships, relationships involving establishment of  and participation in  professional organisa- tions (employers’ organisations, workers’ organisations, mainly trade unions). This group includes also relations within individual and collective labour disputes. Some legal scholars include in this category also legal relations concerning supervision over B.M. Ćwiertniak 24 Chapter I. The concept and subject-matter of labour law employment relationships. Also social insurance relationships, until their recognition as the subject-matter of social insurance law treated as a separate branch of law, were considered “parallel” to employment relationships and after termination of  the  lat- ter they were considered post-employment relationships (e.g.  retirement or accident insurance). Although the  social insurance law was distinguished as a  separate branch of  law, there are still many labour law institutions governing social relations after the end of an employment relationship: entitlements of former employees (or members of their families) to various types of material benefits and severance payments (such as death allowance, retirement or pension allowance, termination payment for reasons not related to an  employee), compensations (for example, as a  result of  the  incorrect termination of an employment relationship or under a non-compete agreement fol- lowing the term of the employment), cash equivalents in lieu (e.g. for unused leave), benefits from the  Guaranteed Employee Benefits Fund (Fundusz Gwarantowanych Świadczeń Pracowniczych) or entitlement to obtain certain documents (e.g. employ- ment certificate). 2. Classification of labour law The doctrine classifies labour law as a branch for scientific, didactic and practical pur- poses. It is reflected also in legislative works (for example, an idea to regulate individual and collective labour laws in two codes). Former divisions, derived from foreign litera- ture, classify the labour law into: 1) contractual (relating to the status and obligations of parties to an employment rela- tionship) and protective (governing e.g. the rules of protection of women, young people, working time, safety and health, supervision of working conditions), 2) material (including the labour law within the meaning mentioned above), formal (including procedures for resolution of disputes and conflicts), institutional (relat- ing to the structure and powers of bodies administering the work and employers’ and employees’ organisations), insurance labour law (today considered the  sub- ject-matter of social insurance) or 3) individual and collective labour law. In the 1990s, a division of labour law into: 1) general, 2) individual, 3) collective and 4) procedural has become more common in our literature. The present handbook is based generally on this latter system. B.M. Ćwiertniak 3. Characteristics of labour law 25 3. Characteristics of labour law 3.1. General notes Both foreign and domestic literature points out that labour law as a  branch of  law should have certain characteristics or “specific” features which are either absent or not so strongly visible in other branches of law. Dynamics and expansion of  labour law are traditionally considered the  characteris- tics relating to the labour law development processes. It is pointed out that this branch of law was distinguished and undergone intensive development during a relatively short period. Sometimes, this phenomenon is presented at two levels: personal and mater- ial. As regards the first level (personal), labour law evolves – from a relatively limited group of factory workers, through sales and office employees, farmers and a significant number of persons employed in public administration – to extend its regulations to the majority of employment relationships. Expansion of labour law as a branch of law is visible not only in the relations which have not been previously regulated but is also reflected by the fact that it “replaces” regula- tions of other branches of law, in particular administrative law (for example, in the field of employment in administration, management and supervision of work). In this re- gard, particularly active is a doctrine of labour law, strongly penetrating the so-referred non-employee employment relationships (niepracownicze stosunki zatrudnienia). This does not mean that in the process of transformation of labour law its “area”, as a branch of law, is continually increasing; it has been highlighted, for example, that social in- surance law was distinguished from labour law to form an independent branch of law. On  the  other hand, attention is  drawn to the  current tendencies to liberalisation or even deregulation of labour law: due to changes in economic and social conditions, and in particular because of dominance of neo-liberal or even liberal ideology influencing the labour law-making processes, certain legal instruments are either limited in scope or even liquidated (mainly those relating to stabilisation of wage entitlement, social en- titlements or sustainability of employment relationship). Therefore, labour law is also subject to deregulation, and it “withdraws” from regulation of certain aspects of social relations. It would be inappropriate to discuss now the axiology on which labour law regulations should be based. The values mentioned above may be derived from different ethical or- ders. During the period of the Polish People’s Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) reference was made to the Marxist axiology, and nowadays it is either the social ethics of the Church or universal human rights and freedoms. B.M. Ćwiertniak 26 Chapter I. The concept and subject-matter of labour law 3.2. Uniformity and differentiation of labour law Uniformity of labour law is usually defined as homogeneity of legal regulations, equal treatment of  all persons working in  similar conditions (which should be based on the  principle of  equality in  employment relations). Examples include: equalisation (in the Labour Code) of rights of white collar and blue collar workers, equalisation of legal situation of employees in public and private undertakings, employees employed by natu- ral persons under the act referred to as the great amendment of the Labour Code of 1996, and introduction of provisions on equality and non-discrimination in employment. Differentiation means different regulation of  one and the  same issue in  relation to particular categories of employed persons. Differentiation should mean justified dif- ferentiation, otherwise it implies privileges or unjustified privileges. Most often, the criteria of differentiation are divided into personal and material ones. As regards the first category, the justified criteria mean usually differentiation of legal situation of young employees, women, employees with disabilities or – in the case of women – pregnant and breastfeeding women. As regards the material criteria, a justified differentiation in legal regulations is the dif- ferentiation based on profession or characteristics of work (such as harmful and difficult working conditions). Formerly, explicit reference was made also to their value and use- fulness to the community (for example, of mining industry, metallurgy, at shipyards). The differentiation of legal situation of employees was considered “objectively” justified by the size of the employer. These assessments change over time, they are influenced by ideological, political and economic considerations and often also by tradition. Despite the fact that today the so- cial “importance” of a profession or work is not directly declared to be the basis for differentiation, such criteria are still applied indirectly. An example of revaluation as to the reasonableness of a separate regulation of employment relationships of differ- ent professional groups (for example, postmen, railwaymen) is abandonment of their regulation by separate, profession-specific laws. Other examples include separation of  regulations governing employment relationships in  local and regional authorities and employment relationships of civil servants from the previous scope of regulations governing employment of public officials and subjecting them to separate laws govern- ing employment of specific categories of employees. 3.3. Europeanisation of labour law In the last decade, attention was drawn, although in a different context, to other specifics of the Polish labour law. A commonly discussed issue is the Europeanisation of Polish labour law associated with Poland’s accession to the European Union. Therefore, the B.M. Ćwiertniak 3. Characteristics of labour law 27 national legal system, both in general and its particular legal constructs, have been sub- ject to evaluation in terms of their compliance with European labour laws (European social law). This has involved a long-standing process of alignment of the Polish labour law with the standards prescribed by the mentioned European regulations, in particu- lar in a form of subsequent new laws and, often very “profound”, amendments of the Labour Code, including what is referred to as the European amendment, aimed at im- plementation in the national system of the standards set out in 30 directives enacted by the EEC bodies or the European Communities.5 5 See Article 3 of the Act of 20 April 2004 on amendment or repeal of certain laws in connection with the membership of the Republic of Poland in the European Union (ustawa z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 o zmianie i uchyleniu niektórych ustaw w związku z uzyskaniem przez Rzeczpospolitą Polską członkostwa w Unii Europej- skiej; Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 96, item 959). B.M. Ćwiertniak Chapter II LABOUR LAW IN THE POLISH LEGAL SYSTEM 1. General notes The determining of the position of labour law in the Polish legal system consists in de- fining its place within the legal system and its relation to other branches of law. Given the  generally accepted division of  the  legal system into two main branches of the private law and the public law, the opinions presented in the literature should be accepted, according to which labour law includes elements of both of those legal sys- tems. Where there is an area of non-prohibited activities, certain elements of the private law can be found; on the other hand, the norms governing state interference in the em- ployment relationships in a form of orders and prohibitions relating to legal protection of work are characteristic of the public law. When a legal system is treated as a set of branches distinguished on the basis of various criteria and the labour law is regarded as a separate branch, to determine the position of the latter in the system it is necessary to identify relations and interlinks between the labour law and other branches of law. The fact is that labour law is interdisciplinary and crosses with other branches classified either within the private or public law. Tak- ing into account the subject-matter of labour law and the functional relations between the subject-matter of labour law and other social relations, it is essential to determine its relation to: civil law, social insurance law, copyright law, constitutional law, administra- tive law, criminal law and international law. 2. Labour law and civil law Although it is  a  generally accepted argument that labour law is  separate from civ- il law, it seems reasonable to emphasize the  genetic relation of  these two branches of law. It is because the labour law developed from a “civil stem” and it refers mainly to the relation of a contract of employment with locatio conductio operarum. The formal M. Lekston 3. Labour law and social insurance law 29 separation of labour law from civil law is considered to have taken place on the date of entry into force of the Civil Code (1 January 1965), because according to Article XII § 1 of the provisions implementing the Civil Code (Kodeks cywilny),6 it did not breach the labour legislation. The independence of labour law as a branch of law was eventually confirmed by the enactment of the Labour Code in 19747. The relations between labour law and civil law may be found in a number of areas. In particular, they can be seen in a non-peremptory method of legal regulation characteristic of civil law, applicable also in labour law, which assumes autonomy of the parties to an employment relation- ship and no direct coercion from the state. An essential characteristic of the mentioned method is the predominance of ius dispositivum regulations (for example, Article 25 §  2 of  the  Labour Code). The  genetic relationship between labour law and civil law is observed also in many constructs of labour law that are derived from civil law (for example, employment relationship, contract of employment) and were model concepts for many other civil law concepts (like financial liability of employees). The existence of normative relations between the two branches of law is also confirmed by Article 8 of the Labour Code, which is the literal transposition of Article 5 of the Civil Code and its concept of abuse of rights into labour law. Above all, the normative relation between labour law and civil law stems from a reference included in Article 300 of the Labour Code under which the Civil Code becomes a specific, statutory source of labour law. According to the mentioned provision of the Labour Code, in matters not regulated by the provisions of labour law, provisions of the Civil Code shall apply respectively to the employment relationship if not contrary to the principles of labour law. Therefore, the provisions of the Civil Code may be applied when there is a loophole in the labour law in force. It may be argued that through Article 300 of the Labour Code the legisla- ture suggests a very strong link between civil law and labour law regulations. 3. Labour law and social insurance law In the literature, social insurance law is treated as a part of social security law, which is a separate branch of law according to the accepted subject-matter criterion, i.e. legal relationships. The relation between social insurance law and labour law results mainly from the fact that the insurance relationship is a consequence of the employment relationship. Es- tablishment of  an  employment relationship within the  meaning of  the  provisions of labour law and under terms and conditions specified therein implies, ex lege, estab- lishment of an insurance relationship leading to certain registration and cost-related 6 Act of 23 April 1964 on the implementation of the Civil Code (ustawa z dnia 23 kwietnia 1964 – Przepisy wprowadzające kodeks cywilny; Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 16, item 94 as amended). 7 Act of 26 June 1974 – Labour Code (ustawa z dnia 26 czerwca 1974 – Kodeks pracy; Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 24, item 41 as amended). M. Lekston 30 Chapter II. Labour law in the Polish legal system obligations of an employer. Such a close link between those relationships was the basis for an assumption that social insurance law should be qualified as part of the labour law system. However, worth noting are arguments presented in the doctrine which empha- size the differences justifying the distinction between the purpose of the employment relationships and insurance relationships, different positions of parties to those rela- tionships, a different personal scope as well as different nature of disputes and position in the disputes with regard to labour law and civil law. 4. Labour law and copyright law The copyright law governs certain aspects relating to work as a result of individual cre- ative activity, as well as rights of an author and the principles for granting a licence to use the work. The  main part of  copyright law includes provisions governing moral and econom- ic rights. The relation between labour law and copyright law refers to the latter (i.e. economic rights), connected to the employee’s work, including scientific work. Norms of copyright law create a construct of acquisition by the employer of economic rights to a work within the limits defined by the purpose of a contract of employment and in compliance with a mutual intent of the parties. Importantly, for the mentioned con- struct to be effective it is necessary that the work is created as a result of performance of the employee’s duties of a creative nature, arising from the employment relationship. 5. Labour law and constitutional law Constitutional law, governing the  political and socio-economic system of  a  state, does not regulate a specific area of social relations but lays down the foundations for different branches of  law, and this is  where its links with labour law may be seen. It is generally accepted that this relation should be viewed mainly with regard to consti- tutional principles underlying both the collective and individual labour law, developing the fundamental principles of labour law expressed in the Labour Code. In this sense, the Constitution of the Republic of Poland provides for: state supervision of compliance with labour laws (Article 24), right to equal treatment (Article 33), freedom of labour (Article 65 (1) and (5)), right to the minimum remuneration (Article 65 (4)), right to healthy and safe working conditions (Article 66 (1)), and right to rest (Article 66 (2)). As  regards collective labour law, these principles include: right of  coalition (Arti- cle 59 (1)), right to bargain collectively, right to resolve labour disputes (Article 59 (2)), and principle of social dialogue (Article 20). There are also such regulations in  the  Polish Constitution which are not reflected in the principles of labour law but are explicitly regulated therein, such as the chapter M. Lekston 7. Labour law and criminal law 31 of the Labour Code on rights of employees relating to parenthood for which a specific ba- sis are family rights specified in Article 71 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. 6. Labour law and administrative law To describe a relation between labour law and administrative law, it is necessary – for the sake of clarity of concepts – to adopt a broad approach to administrative law as a set of provisions and norms governing the organisation and operations of public ad- ministration as well as behaviour of entities in matters not regulated by the provisions of other branches of law, assuming that in administrative law, as part of public law, pub- lic interest is of key importance. Therefore, this branch is basically far from labour law since the provisions of the latter generally put an emphasis on the protection of an em- ployee and protection of  an  individual interest. However, such argument must be accompanied by an observation that there are many close relations between the norms of  administrative law and those of  labour law, such as provisions relating to service relationships, protection of  work or unemployment. As  regards service relationships (stosunki służbowe), a particular mention must be made of those relationships which are based on nomination (mianowanie) since the act of nomination itself is the best exam- ple of interlinks between the analysed branches of law. There is an argument presented in the literature according to which there are no grounds de lege lata for uniform and general treatment of the instrument of appointment as an administrative act or a labour law act since it is not a uniform legal construct, as confirmed by the analysis of sepa- rate laws governing employment of specific categories of employees (called pragmatyki). As regards the right to protection of work, attention should be drawn in particular to the forms of state supervision of compliance with labour laws, which originate in ad- ministrative law. 7. Labour law and criminal law Relations between labour law and public law may also be identified by reference to criminal law, and in  particular to the  provisions including criminal-law sanctions. As regards the Labour Code regulations, these are provisions governing liability of em- ployees for breach of order at the workplace, and as regards non-Code regulations, also provisions on disciplinary liability since all of them use the penalty concept. The  relation between labour law and criminal law is  reflected also in  penalisation which applies both in individual and in collective labour law. Regardless of the offences defined in the Criminal Code8 (Chapter XXVIII: Offences against employed persons), 8 Act of 6 June 1997 – Criminal Code (ustawa z dnia 6 czerwca 1997 – Kodeks karny; Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 88, item 553 as amended). M. Lekston 32 Chapter II. Labour law in the Polish legal system the labour law acts other than the Labour Code also define certain offences in relation to this branch of law and are thus a part of non-Code material criminal law. The exam- ples include: Article 12 of the Act of 4 March 1994 on the company social benefits fund (ustawa z dnia 4 marca 1994 o zakładowym funduszu świadczeń socjalnych),9 Article 27 of the Act of 9 July 2003 on employment of temporary agency workers (ustawa z dnia 9  lipca 2003 o  zatrudnianiu pracowników tymczasowych)10 or Article  39 of  the  Act of 23 May 1991 on resolution of collective labour disputes (ustawa z dnia 23 maja 1991 o rozwiązywaniu sporów zbiorowych).11 8. Labour law and international law In so far as international law is considered to be a set of legal norms governing mutual relations between states, between states and other actors, as well as between other ac- tors of international law, it must be recognised that it differs from other, conventionally separated branches of law. As regards relations between labour law and international law, reference should be made to the impact of the international law on the domestic labour law order. Accord- ing to Article  87 (1) of  the  Constitution of  the  Republic of  Poland, an  international agreement shall be one of sources of generally applicable law, and according to Arti- cle  91 of  the  Constitution, a  ratified international agreement, after its promulgation in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, shall constitute a part of domestic le- gal order and shall be applied directly, unless its application is dependent on enactment of an act. It is also necessary to refer to the standards adopted within the United Nations system, and in particular to the activity of the International Labour Organisation. In the context of interlinks between labour law and external laws, seen also in terms of an impact of that law on the Polish labour law system, also European laws and labour laws of the Council of Europe should be taken into account. 9 Consolidated text: Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] of 2015, item 111. 10 Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] no. 166, item 1608 as amended. 11 Consolidated text: Journal of Laws [Dz.U.] of 2015, item 295. M. Lekston Chapter III FUNCTIONS OF LABOUR LAW 1. Overview of functions of labour law The  functions of  labour law may be understood in  different ways. In  a  broad (so- ciological) sense, those include any social effects of  legal norms, also atypical or pathological. In a narrow sense, a function of law means a planned, useful impact of  legal norms on the  social environment. Labour law academics do not have sci- entific instruments which could allow them to empirically and comprehensively identify the socio-economic consequences of practical application of labour law pro- visions in economic relations. Such research is the domain of the sociology of law. Therefore, this handbook focuses exclusively on legal and teleological understanding of the functions of labour law relating to the effects and consequences specified by the legislator for the positive law. Separation of  labour law as an  autonomous branch of  law originated from the  need to protect fundamental interests of  employees as a  weaker party to an  employment relationship (protective function). However, at the  beginning of
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