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“Palaea Historica”. The Second Slavonic Translation: Commentary and Text - ebook/pdf
“Palaea Historica”. The Second Slavonic Translation: Commentary and Text - ebook/pdf
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The so-called Byzantine “Palaea Historica” is a text that functioned in the literature and culture of the Byzantine-Slavic commonwealth. As a collection of stories on “Old Testament” themes, which are basically of biblical origin, it preserves some pre-Christian narrations coming from the Hebrew tradition, as well as some Early Christian apocrypha. Moreover, it represents different interpretations of the Bible. An important component of the “Palaea Historica” are the poetic fragments – excerpts from the “Book of Psalms” and from some liturgical poetry by St. John of Damascus, St. Cosmas of Maiuma, and St. Andrew of Crete. Although firstly thought to be a part of a bigger whole, the edition of the source text accepted the form of an independent title. In this volume, the presented critical edition of the second Slavonic translation of the “Palaea Historica” is preceded by an introduction, which discusses the origins and characteristics of the literary relic as well as the history of its reception amongst the Slavs.

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Series Ceranea volume 3 University of Łódź, Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-East Europe Ceraneum Agata Kawecka, Andrzej Kompa, Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow, Georgi Minczew Ivan Petrov, Małgorzata Skowronek Editorial Board PL 90-237 Łódź, 32/38 Matejki St., room 319, www.ceraneum.uni.lodz.pl, s.ceranea@uni.lodz.pl Office and website Translated from the Polish by Yvonne Loske Reviewer Jan Stradomski Marek Majer (Harvard University), Anna Maciejewska (University of Łódź) Cooperation Initiating editor Urszula Dzieciątkowska Indices Małgorzata Skowronek Typesetting and layout Munda – Maciej Torz Technical corrections Leonora Wojciechowska Cover design Katarzyna Turkowska Cover image: scene from the Life of Moses (1595–1596). Sucevita Monastery (Romania) Church of Resurrection, Room of the Tombs. Photo by Margarita Kuyumdzhieva © Copyright by Małgorzata Skowronek, Łódź 2016 © Copyright for this edition by Uniwersytet Łódzki, Łódź 2016 Publication financially supported by the Dean of the Faculty of Philology, University of Łódź The editing process of this publication has been conducted beyond the Łódź University Press Published by Łódź University Press First edtition. W.07313.16.0.M Publisher’s sheets 10.3; printing sheets 12.75 ISBN 978-83-8088-082-5 e-ISBN 978-83-8088-083-2 Table of contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Source texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. On the 2nd Slavic translation of the Palaea Historica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The original text and its dating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slavic translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Copies of the PH II. Textological notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of titles of the chapters in the PH II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Edition of the text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criteria for the edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of the edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. PH II. The text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 9 9 13 21 23 24 26 29 31 37 49 49 51 59 Index of citations and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Index of proper names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 List of illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 5 Preface This book is the result of my research on the Slavic texts of the Palaea Histori- ca. Although firstly thought to be a part of a bigger whole, the edition of the source text accepted the form of an independent title. I would, therefore, like to express my gratitude to everyone, people and institutes, whose support and help, especially in acquiring source material, allowed me to prepare this edition of the relic text. I wish to thank the staff at the Library of the Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Belgrade, the staff of the Manuscripts Department at the National Li- brary of Serbia in Belgrade, the staff of the Manuscripts, Old Printed Books, Rare and Precious Editions Department at the National Historical Museum in Sofia, Fr. Archimandrite Policarp Chiţulescu from the Library of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Bucharest, the directory of the Collection of Manu- scripts, Rare and Precious Editions at the Romanian Academy Library in Bucha- rest, and Professor Anna-Maria Totomanova at the Sofia University Saint Clement of Ohrid. A heartfelt thank you is reserved for Professor Georgi Minczew and Doctor Ivan Petrov from the Department of Slavic Philology at the University of Łódź for their valuable remarks concerning the edition and commentary of the Palaea Historica, and not only. Their kind criticism has greatly influenced the final form of this work. Łódź, December 8th, 2015 Saint Clement of Ohrid Day MS 7 Abbreviations PH – Palaea Historica PGr – Palaea Historica, Greek text PH I – Palaea Historica, 1st Slavic translation PH II – Palaea Historica, 2nd Slavic translation PH III – Palaea Historica, 3rd Slavic translation *** Grk. – Greek OCS – Old Church Slavic Bibliography Adler 2013: W. Adler, ‘Palaea Historica (“The Old Testament History”): A  New Translation and Introduction’, [in:] Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. More Noncanonical Scriptures, vol. 1, ed. R. Bauckham, J.R. Davila, A. Panayotov, Grand Rapids, Michigan – Cambridge, UK, p. 585–599 [English translation of the PH on p. 600–672]. Adler 2015: W. Adler, ‘Parabiblical Traditions and Their Use in the Palaea Historica’, [in:] Tradition, Transmission, and Transformation from Second Temple Literature through Judaism and Christia- nity in Late Antiquity, Leiden–Boston, p. 1–40. Birkfellner 1975: G. Birkfellner, Glagolitische und kyrillische Handschriften in Österreich, Wien. Bogdanović 1982: Д. Богдановић, Инвентар ћирилских рукописа у Југославији (XI-XVII века), Bogdanović, Miltenova 1992: Д. Богдановић, А. Милтенова, ‘Апокрифният сборник от манастира Савина XIV в. в сравнение с други подобни южнославянски ръкописи’, Археографски прилози 14, p. 7–30. Böttrich 2007: Chr. Böttrich, ‘Palaea/Paleja. Ein byzantinisch-slavischer Beitrag zu den europäischen Historienbibeln’, [in:] Fragmentarisches Wörterbuch. Beiträge zur biblischen Exegese und christlichen Theologie Horst Balz zum 70. Geburtstag, hrsg. K. Schiffner, K. Wengst, W. Zager, Stuttgart, p. 304–313. Derzhavina 1968: О.А. Державина, ‘Палея’, [in:] Краткая литературная энциклопедия, гл. ред. Београд. А.А. Сурков, Москва. Dobrianskiy 1882: Ф. Добрянский, Описание рукописей Виленской публичной библиотеки, церковно-славянских и русских, Вильна. Flusser 1971: D. Flusser, ‘Palaea Historica – An Unknown Source of Biblical Legends’, [in:] Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature, eds. J. Heinemann and D. Noy [= Scripta Hierosolymitana 22], Jerusalem, p. 48–79. 9 Franklin 1991: S.C. Franklin, ‘Palaia’, [in:] Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, prepared at Dumbarton Oaks, ed. in chief A.P. Kazhdan, Oxford, p. 1557. Ivanova 2008: Кл. Иванова, Bibliotheca hagiographica Balcano-Slavica, София. Jovanović 2005: T. Jовановић, ‘Завет патриjарха Рувима у препису збирке манастира Никољца’, Старобългарска литература 33–34, p. 394–404. KRK 2007: Кириличнi рукописнi книги у фондах Львiвськоï науковоï бiблiотеки iм. В. Стефаника НАН Украïни. Каталог, т. I: XI–XVI ст., вiдп. ред. Л.В. Головата, уклад. М.М. Кольбух (та iн.), Львiв. Likhachev 2001: Д.С. Лихачев, ‘Техника издания текстов’, [in:] Д.С. Лихачев, Текстология на материале русской литературы X-XVII веков, Санкт-Петербург, p. 470–536. Linţa, Djamo-Diaconiţă, Stoicovici 1981: E. Linţa, L. Djamo-Diaconiţă, O. Stoicovici, Catalogul manu- scriselor slavo-române din Bucureşti, Bucureşti. Lovjagin 1861: Е. Ловягин, Богослужебные каноны на греческом, славянском и русском языках, Marshall 1925: H.F. Marshall, Old Testament Legends from a Greek Poem on Genesis and Exodus of Санкт-Петербург. Georgios Chumnos, Cambridge. Medaković 1978: Д. Медаковић, Манастир Савина, Београд. Miltenova 2003: А. Милтенова, ‘Палея’, [in:] Старобългарска литература. Енциклопедичен речник, съст. Д. Петканова, Велико Търново, p. 345–346. Miltenova 2009: А. Милтенова, ‘“Низовата” книжнина през XIII век: сборници, произведения и  цикли в българската и  в сръбската традиция’, Зборник радова Византолошког института XLVI, p. 365–379. Miltenova 2012: А. Милтенова, ‘Неизвестен препис от XIV век на Житието на Богородица от монах Епифаний и неговият контекст’, [in:] Beati possidentes. Юбилеен сборник, посветен на 60-годишнината на проф. дфн Боряна Христова, съст. и научна ред. А. Тотоманова, Ц. Панчева, София, p. 220–230. Mineva 2012: E. Mineva, ‘Problems of the Critical Edition of Byzantine and Slavonic Services’, Scripta e-Scripta 10–11, p. 227–235. Mircea 2005: I.R. Mircea, Repertoire des manuscrits slaves en Romanie. Auteurs byzantines et slaves, revision du texte slave P. Bojčeva, revision du texte français S. Todorova, Sofia. Moshin 1971: В. Мошин, Словенски ракописи во Македониjа, подготвил В. Мошин во соработ- ка со Л. Славева, С. Кроневска и J. Jакимовска, Скопjе. Orlov 2007: A.A. Orlov, From Apocalypticism to Merkabah Mysticism. Studies in the Slavonic Pseude- pigrapha [Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 114], Leiden–Boston. Palia istorică 2001: Palia istorică [= Cele mai veche cărţi populare în literatura română IV], studiu filologic, studiu lingvistic şi ediţie de A. Moraru şi M. Moraru, Bucureşti. Panaitescu 2003: P.P. Panaitescu, Catalogul manuscriselor slavo-române şi slave din Biblioteca Aca- demiei Române, ediţie îngrijită de D.-L. Aramă şi revizuită de G. Mihailă cu o  prefaţa de G. Ştrempel, Bucureşti. Panayotov 1995: В. Панайотов, ‘Тълковната палея в Симеоновия век’, [in:] 1100 години Велики Преслав, т. 2, Шумен, р. 109–117. Petković 1914: C. Петковић, Опис рукописа манастира Крушедола, Сремски Карловци. Petrova 2009: М. Петрова, ‘За един неизвестен препис на Летовника на Георги Амартол и неговите ръкописни паралели’, Старобългарска литература 41–42, p. 226–245. Popov 1881: А.Н. Попов, Книга бытия небеси и земли (Палея историческая) с приложением сокращенной палеи русской редакции [Чтения в Императорском Обществе Истории и Древностей Российских при Московском Университете, кн. 1], Москва. 10 Bibliography PT 2002: Палея толковая, перевод, научное редактироване А.М. Камчатнов, статья, коммен- тарии: В.В. Мильков, С.М. Полянский, Москва. Reinhart 2007: J. Reinhart, ‘Die älteste Bezeugung der Historischen Paläa in slavischer Übersetzung (Cod. Slav. Vindob. Nr. 158)’, Прилози за књижевност, језик, историју и фолклор, 73, p. 45–75. Skowronek 2013a: M. Skowronek, ‘Remarks on the Anathemas in the Palaea Historica’, Studia Cera- nea. Journal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediter- ranean Area and South-East Europe 3, p. 131–144. Skowronek 2013b: M. Skowronek, ‘Uwagi o dwóch odpisach palei historycznej: ze zbiorów Lwow- skiej Biblioteki Naukowej i  Archiwum Państwowego w  Bukareszcie’, Krakowsko-Wileńskie Studia Slawistyczne 8. Cyrylometodejski komponent kultury chrześcijańskiej Słowian w regionie karpackim. Historia, tradycje, odwołania, p. 95–110. Skowronek 2014a: M. Сковронэк, ‘Компиляция ветхозаветных историй. Кодекс СБ III22 кол- лекции Синодальной библиотеки в Бухаресте’, Palaeobulgarica XXXVIII.2, p. 3–37. Skowronek 2014b: M. Skowronek, ‘On Medieval Storytelling. The Story of Melchizedek in Certain Slavonic Texts (Palaea Historica and the Apocryphal Cycle of Abraham)’, Studia Ceranea. Jour- nal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-East Europe 4, p. 169–189. Skowronek 2016: M. Skowronek, ‘Poetry as a Component of Old Testament Narrative Texts (Notes on Palaea historica)’ [paper presented at the conference Identyfying Jewish and Christian Pat- terns in the Literature of Late Antiquity and Middle Ages, Warna, 3.-8.09.2015, forthcoming]. Slavova 1991: Т. Славова, ‘За протографа на Тълковната палея (върху материали от палейния Шестоднев)’, Palaeobulgarica XV.3, p. 57–70. Slavova 2002: Т. Славова, Тълковната палея в контекста на старобългарската книжнина, София. Slavova 2015: Т. Славова, ‘Историческата палея и славянската хронографска традиция’, [in:] ΠΟΛΥΙΣΤΩΡ. Scripta slavica Mario Capaldo dicata, отв. ред. К. Дидди, Москва–Рим, p. 256– 265. Speranskiy 1892: М.Н. Сперанский, ‘Историјска палеја, њени преводи и  редакције у  старој српској књижевности’, Споменик 16, p. 1–15. Speranskiy 1960: М.Н. Сперанский, ‘Югославянские тексты Исторической палеи и рyсские ее тексты’, [in:] М.Н. Сперанский, Из истории русско-славянских литературных связей, Москва, p. 104–147. Stankov 1986a: Р. Станков, ‘Историческая Палея – памятник древней болгарской культуры’, Stankov 1986b: P. Станков, ‘Обща характеристика на лексикалния състав на Историческата Palaeobulgarica X.4, p. 55–63. палея’, Език и литература 5, p. 39–56. Stankov 1992: Из историческата палея. Книгата на небесното и  земното битие, прев. Р.  Станков, [in:] Стара българска литература в 7 тома. Т. 5. Естествознание, съст. и ред. А. Милтенова, София, p. 68–72. Stankov 1994: Р.А. Станков, Лексика Исторической палеи, Велико Търново. Stankov 2010: Р. Станков, ‘Слово палѣꙗ в древней славянской письменности’, [in:] Акꙑ бъчела любодѣльна. Юбилеен сборник в чест на доц. д-р Цветанка Янакиева, ст. н. с. II ст. д-р Павел Георгиев и доц. Валентин Кулев, Шумен, p. 67–80. Stanković 2003: Р. Станковић, Рукописне књиге Музеја Српске Православне Цркве у Београду. Водени знаци и датирање, Београд. Sumnikova 1969: T.A. Сумникова, ‘К проблеме перевода Исторической палеи’, [in:] Изучение русского языка и источниковедение, отв. ред. В.Ф. Дубровина, Москва, p. 27–39. 11 Bibliography Svencyc’kij 1906: Іл. Свенцицький, Опис рукописів Народного дому з колекції Ант. Петруше- вича, част 1, у Львові. des études slaves 40, p. 195–206. Turdeanu 1964: É. Turdeanu, ‘La Palaea Byzantine chez les slaves du Sud et chez les Roumains’, Revue Turilov 1986: A.A. Турилов, Предварительный список славяно-русских рукописных книг XV в., хранящихся в СССР (для Сводного каталога рукописных книг, хранящихся в СССР), Москва. Тvorogov 1988–1989: О.В. Творогов, ‘Пaлея хронографическая’, [in:] Словарь книжников и книжности Древней Руси, т. 2, ч. 2, отв. ред. Д.С. Лихачев, Ленинград, p. 160–161. Vassiliev 1893: A.V. Vassiliev, Anecdota graeco-byzantina [Сборник памятников византийской литeратуры 11], Москва, p. 188–292. Vodolazkin 2007: Е.Г. Водолазкин, ‘Новое о палеях (некоторые итоги и перспективы изучения палейных текстов)’, Русская литература 1, p. 3–23. Velinova, Vutova 2013: В. Велинова, Н. Вутова, Славянски ръкописи, кирилски печатни книги и пеpиодични издания, том I, София. Verevskiy 1888: Ф.А.Веревский, ‘Русская историческая палея’, Филологические записки, вып. 2, Vitić 1992: З. Витић, ‘Апокриф о гостољубљу Аврамовом у српском рукописном наслеђу’, Воронеж, p. 1–18. Археографски прилози 14, p. 67–104. Vodolazkin 2006–2010: Е.Г. Водолазкин, ‘Краткая хронографическая палея. Текст’, вып. 1, Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы 57/2006, р. 891–915; вып. 2, Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы 58/2008, р. 534–556; вып. 3, Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы 61/2010, р. 345–374. Vodolazkin 2009–2011: Е.Г. Водолазкин, ‘Как создавалась Полная Хронографическая Палея’, часть 1, Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы 60/2009, р. 327–353; часть 2, Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы 62/2011, p. 175–200. Vodolazkin 2014: Е.Г. Водолазкин, ‘Из истории кирилло-белозерских палей’, [in:] Книжные центры Древней Руси: книжнина и  рукописи Кирилло-Белозерского монастыря, Санкт-Петербург, p. 286–309. Vostokov 1842: А.Х. Востоков, Описание русских и словенских рукописей Румянцевского музеу- Zhdanov 1881: И.Н. Жданов, ‘Палея’, Киевские университетские известия, cентябрь, p. 235– ма, Санкт-Петербург. 258. For the Books of the Old and New Testaments commonly accepted abbreviations are used. Bibliography I. Source texts PGr, PH I PGr – Vassiliev 1893, p. 188–292. Main text: codex in the collection of the Austrian National Library [Österreichische Nationalbibliothek] in Vienna № 247, Cod. Vindobonensis theol. 210 (Lamb. 247), 16th century, fols. 34r–84r. Lectiones: 1. Codex Ottobonensis № 205, end of 15th century. PH I1 – Popov 1881, p. 1–172. Main text: codex in the collection of the State Historical Museum [Государственный исторический музей] in Moscow, for- merly the collection of the Synodic Library in Moscow № 591, 15th century (dated to 1460–1470), PH on fols. 1r–130r. Lectiones: 1. codex in the collection of the State Historical Museum in Moscow, formerly the collection of the Synodic Li- brary in Moscow № 638, dated to ca. 1460, PH on fols. 215r–319v; 2. codex in the collection of the State Historical Museum in Moscow, formerly the collection of 1 For a list of the copies of the 1st translation of the PH see: Sumnikova 1969, p. 31–32 (13 Serbian and Russian copies, dated to the 15th century); Reinhart 2007, p. 60 (20 copies). An abridged version of the PH I has survived in the writings of the Eastern Slavs, which last chapter contains the story of Samson; there are at least two copies of this version: 1. Codex of mixed contents from the National Archives of Romania in Bucharest, Cod. ANB 741, 16th century, PH on fols. 72r–156r, title Сїа книга бытїа нбси и земли. и въсѧкои твари, иже сътвори бъ въсѧ дѣла своа испрьва. слово пръвое ѿ бытиа, inc.: Прѣжⷣе въсѣⷯ сыи и въсѧⷦ и за восѣⷯ подобаеⷮ истинⷩомѫ члкѫ что еⷭ бъ. ꙗко шѫⷨ ꙗви сѧ бъ, exc.: и иноплеменⷩици разѹмѣша, и рѣша дати емѫ женѫ ѿ рода своего. да тратѫеⷮ сѧ съ ними. For literature cf.: Linţa, Djamo-Diaconiţă, Stoicovici 1981, p. 257–258; Mircea 2005, p. 236; Skowronek 2013b. 2. Codex of mixed contents from the Lviv National Vasyl Stefanyk Scientific Library of Ukraine, Anton Petrushevych Collection, Cod. 138, 16th century, PH on fols. 85r–166v, title Си кнїги бытїа нбси и земли и всѧкои твари, иже сътвори бъ въсѧ дѣла испръва, блⷭви ѡче, inc.: Прѣжⷣе всѣⷯ сыи, и всѧⷦ ѡ всѣⷯ подобаеть истинномѹ члкѫ вѣдати что есть бъ. ꙗко шѫⷨ ꙗвиⷭ бъ, exc.: ажꙿ потомꙿ жена его ем власы ѡстригла. и в тоꙵ чаⷭ не был моцныꙵ. и лплено ем ѡчи. и быⷧ слѣⷫ. цѣлыи роⷦ. а потоⷨ гды его проважено до его вежѣ. ꙗкꙿ поршиⷧ веж и в тои чаⷭ ѡⷠ валиласѧ веж и всѣⷯ тамъ побила. и з женою его. и самꙿ тамо меръ. For literature cf.: Svencyc’kij 1906, p. 208–216; KRK 2007, p. 223–226; Skowronek 2013. 13 the Synodic Library in Moscow № 548, dated to ca. 1620s.2, PH on fols. 1r–62r. All codices represent the Russian edition of the Church Slavic language, however, in the manuscript of Cod. 591, apart from traits of the local Novgorod dialect, one may recognize traces of the Bulgarian protograph3. PH II4 I. Copies of full text 1. Complete: NIM 25. National Historical Museum [Национален исторически музей] in Sofia, Cod. Slav. 255. Codex of mixed contents, 14th century (ca. 1380–1390), 81 fols., ca. 205 x 135 mm, half-uncial, Rashka orthography. Copy of the PH II is damaged – some folia are missing in different parts of the work, fols. 16r–35v quite damaged (missing the lower right [r] or lower left [v] part of the folio). PH II on fols. 16r–81v; f. 82r/v glued into the binding of the codex. Most headings illegible (faded), the only surviving titles of chapters were written later (i.e. not during the completion of the full codex), with a large, sloppy half-uncial. Title: illegible6; inc.: Сьзⷣань быⷭ прѣ[…] ни носе ѡбразь. адамь. а. ѹбо ѡповѣдѹѥть вьстокь прьвы; exc.: […]нь и чрьмно море[…] Text unpublished7. MSPC 141, the so-called Palaea from the Velika Remeta Monastery. Mu- seum of the Serbian Orthodox Church [Музеj Српске Православне Цркве] in Belgrade, Cod. 1418. Manuscript formerly belonged to the Velika Remeta Monas- tery; unknown/undefined place of composition and how it got to Velika Remeta. Codex of mixed contents (contains PH, pseudo-canonical texts, the Life of Grig- ori Omiricki). 15th century (ca. 1420–1430); 270 + 1 fol., 257 x 187 mm, half-un- cial, Serbian orthography (Rashka with Resavian influences). Copy mechanically damaged: parts of folia missing, folia incorrectly numbered after having the book bound anew, damages on the external areas of the cards due to poor storage con- 2 R. Stankov dates to the half of the 17th century; see Stankov 1994, p. 5. 3 Popov 1881, p. XXIX–XXXII. 4 For a list of copies of the 2nd translation of the PH, see: Reinhart 2007, p. 60–61 (6 copies); Skowronek 2014a, p. 15 (8 copies). 5 For a description of the manuscripts cf.: Velinova, Vutova 2013, p. 85–86. 6 In: Velinova, Vutova 2013, p. 86, reconstructed as: зачла книзѣ сеи в неи же о нбси и земли. 7 For literature cf.: Petrova 2009. 8 For literature cf.: Bogdanović 1982, p. 33, no. 269; Stanković 2003, p. 46. 14 Source texts ditions. Minor marginalia, inter al. on the inside of the front cover: сїа книга глема палеа […] сїа книга нарицаемаа читающем полз; слава бѹ само(држцѹ) хрⷭтосъ ражⷣает се слава ти […] съ небеⷭ срещи те хⷭ на змаї (?) as well as on the inside of the back cover: двѣ тысѧщеи и треⷯ соть пꙗтьдесꙗть и ѻсмь лѣть. PH on fols. 59r–110v. Title: Бговидца мѡусеа прⷪрка кнїга, inc.: Сьзⷣань быⷭ прѣѿць ркою бжїею. крⷭтныи нѻ се ѡбразь. адамь а бо ѻповѣдеть, exc.: и разгнѣва се гь на ниⷯ, и не даⷭ слова. даже до съмръти їѡзїи. сего ради ꙗко ѿ радости рещи пишеть. въ лѣто въ неже мрѣт їѡзїа црь, видѣⷯ га. After the improper binding of the book, one of its users marked how many folia should one flip to the continuation of the text (on fol. 93v: преметни в листа). Nikoljac 83. Copy in the collection of the National Library of Serbia [Народна библиотека Србиjе] in Belgrade9. Current reference number: 83, former reference number 1510. Codex of mixed contents (apart from the PH it contains inter al. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, pseudo-canonical texts, inter al. The Visions of the Prophet Daniel, The Tale of Aphroditian, On the Finding of the Venerable and Life-giving Cross by Alexander the Monk, the sermons of Saint Hippolytus, Maximus the Con- fessor, short teachings etc.). 15th century (ca. 1425–1435); 2 + 239 fols. (?), half-uncial (part of the marginalia are in cursive) Rashka orthography. PH II on fols. 121v–229r. Title: Бговидца мѡусеа прⷪ тныи носе ѡбразь. адамь пръвы ѹбо повѣдѹет се, exc.: и єгда ѹмрѣть ѡзыꙗ. ꙗви се имь гь. Сего ради ꙗко ѿ радости рещи пишеть лѣто. вь нѥже ѹмрѣть ѡзиꙗ црь. видѣхь га. On the margins, someone added the fragments omitted in the text of the PH II – proof of editing by the copyist or by one of the later users of the codex (f. 150v, f. 151v, f. 158v, f. 161v, f. 162v); probationes pennae (f. 196v, 198v: a few words, 199v), instructions (on f. 228v: зри ѡ прению); on the margins of fols. 186v–187r there is a note in cursive: […] сию книгу азъ грѣшни хрⷭ ту рабъ мисаилъ еромонахъ ихинда­ рцъ сущи славяноболгаръ. The text of the PH II has not been published; used only as a source for readings in the edition of a fragment from the Psalter of Novak11. рка книга, inc.: Създань быⷭ  прѣѿць рѹкою бжїею. крⷭ MSPC 42, the so-called Palaea from the Krušedol Monastery. Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church [Музеj Српске Православне Цркве] in Belgrade, Cod. 4212. The manuscript is stored in the collection of the Krušedol Monastery 9 The studies available to me do not indicate the current archival collection to which the codex belongs to. 10 For literature cf.: Bogdanović 1982, p. 38; Medaković 1978, p. 89–96. The pseudo-canonical text Testament of Reuben was published from the manuscript Nikoljac 83 (Jovanović 2005, p. 394–404). 11 Reinhart 2007. 12 For literature cf.: Petković 1914, p. 217; Bogdanović 1982, p. 77, no. 1036; Stanković 2003, p. 17. 15 Source texts under the reference number 85. Codex of mixed contents (apart from the PH it contains also the Chronicle of John Zonaras, teachings from the Church Fathers, inter al. Saint Hippolytus, apocrypha, inter al. The Visions of the Prophet Daniel, The Visions of the Prophet Zechariah). 15th century (ca. 1420–1430); 318 fols., 283 x 195 mm, half-uncial, Rashka orthography. Different copyists worked on the whole codex. Minor marginalia. Note: + сїа книга мнⷭтира кршедѡла, храма блговѣ­ щенїꙗ прⷭтыа влⷣчцы нашеа бци юже азъ пречитаⷯ, 1742 гѡ[…] въ мцⷭѣ мартѣ. илїа стойковиⷱ сщенниⷦ въ шанцѣ петроварадинскѡⷨ (f. 125v). PH on fols. 56r–112v. Title: Бговиⷣца мсеа прⷪрка книга, inc.: сьздань быⷭ прѣѿць рѹкою бжїєю крⷭтни­ ное ѡбраⷥ  адамь прьви ѹбо ѡповѣдꙋе, exc.: єгⷣа мреⷮ иѡзиа ꙗви се єм гь. сего ради ѿ радости рещи пишеть. лѣто вь нѥже мреть иѡзиꙗ црь видѣ га. The text has been published in fragments. Several passages from the copy MSPC 42 were published by Matvey Speranskiy13, who stressed the fact that he did not have the complete text in his disposal. The selected fragments are compared with excerpts from PH I (from 17th-century copies: from the damaged manuscript in the Col- lection of the Serbian Learned Society, later the Serbian Academy for Sciences and Arts, Cod. 24, and the surviving in minor fragments manuscript in the collection of the National Library of Serbia in Belgrade, Cod. 317, destroyed in a bombing during the Second World War). Zorica Vitić in a study on the motive of Abraham’s hospitality in Serbian writings published the chapter On the Holy Trinity14. Savina 24, the so-called Palaea from the codex from the Savina Monastery. Manuscript in the Savina Monastery [Манастир Савина] (?)15. Codex of mixed contents. 16th century (ca. 1590–1600) and/or beginning of the 17th century (convo- lutum volume). 320 fols., 210 x 150 mm, half-uncial, Rashka orthography. Non vidi. II. Copies of parts of the text 1. Selection of 22 chapters: SB III22. Library of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church [Bib- lioteca Sfântului Sinod] in Bucharest, Cod. SB III21–22 (‘21’ refers to the first part of the convolutum volume, the PH II is in the second part)16. Codex of mixed contents (apart from the PH II it contains The Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleu- stes, the homiletics of (Pseudo) John Chrysostom, On the Icons, pseudo-canonical 13 Speranskiy 1892, passim; Speranskiy 1960, passim. 14 Vitić 1992, p. 93–98. 15 For literature cf.: Bogdanović 1982, p. 37, no. 337; Medaković 1978, p. 89–96. 16 For literature cf.: Mircea 2005, p. 167, 168, 170 (only four chapters). 16 Source texts writings etc.). 15th century (ca. 1459). 223 fols., 190 x 300 mm, half-uncial, Middle Bulgarian/Moldavian orthography. Minor marginalia, including a note on the inside of the back cover: сїа книга написасѧ въ лѣто ҂ѕцѯз е:⁖. PH II on fols. 184r–207v. Title of the first chapter of the PH II: ѻ мелхиседецѣ; inc.: Сеи мелхиседекь, глет сѧ безⸯ мтре. безⸯ ѡца и безⸯ рѡда. поⷣбень снѹ вышнѣаго ба; exc: авраам же приємь извѣщенїє, ѻ покаанїи лотовѣ. и о измѣненїи запаленїа блгодаривь ба. въ врѣмѧ же ѡно, роди сарра жена єго ѻтрочѧ мѫжьскыи поль. и нареⷱ  имѧ ємѹ ісаакь. и ѡбрѣза єго авраа­ мь. и ѡбрадова сѧ авраамь. и веⷭ  єго ѡ рожⷣенїи ісааковѣ. The text of the PH II has been contaminated by short narratives on Old Testament themes, but of non-biblical origin17; published and provided with readings from the copy BAR slav. 35818.  дѡⷨ Rum. 42. Russian State Library in Moscow, Cod. Ф 256, the Rumyantsev Collection [Российская государственная библиотека, Румянцевское собр.], Cod. 4219. Codex of mixed contents. 15th century. 314 fols. (?), half-uncial, Middle Bulgarian orthography. Damaged copy: one folio missing, missing ending of the PH II (On the Holy Trinity). PH II on fols. 290r–314v. Title of the first chapter of the PH II: ѡ мелⸯхы,седецѣ (!); inc.: Съ мелхїседекь, глет сѧ без мтре. безь ѿца и безь рѡда. поⷣбень снѹ вышнѣаго ба; exc: авраам же прїємь извѣщенїє, ѻ пока­ анїи лотовѣ. и ѻ измѣненїи запаленїа блгодаривь ба. въ врѣмѧ. 2. Fragments – 5 chapters: Vindob. slav. 158; fragment from the PH in the Psalter of Novak. Austrian National Library [Österreichische Nationalbibliothek] in Vienna, Cod. Vindob. slav. 15820. 14th century (dated to 1385); 204 fols., 220 x 150 mm, half-uncial, Rashka or- thography. 5 chapters of the PH on fols. 193r–202r. Titles21: [1] Повѣс(тное) пис(а)нїе ѡ Д(а)в(ы)дѣ пр(о)роцѣ и ц(ѣса)ри и ѡ Саѹлѣ, inc.: Сьи Саль нищь бѣше. ѡ(ть) ца имѣє рекомаго Кїса, exc. архіереи же Авїаѳарь ѡтиде сь Д(а)в(ы)дѡм(ь). ѻнꙿ же мѹчаше люд(и) вꙿсе д(ь)ни жївота своєг(о). даже и до сьмрꙿти своєе. и шьд(ь) на брань, биєнь быс(ть). мѹже єликы приведе Д(а)в(ы)дѹ, ѡс(та)вїхѡм(ь) за мно­ женїа пис(а)нїи; [2] ѡ женѣ рїевѣ, inc.: Прѣєтꙿ же Д(а)в(ы)дь ц(ѣса)рс(т)во. и бѣше вь полатѣ своєи, exc.: Се пис(а)нїе мѹдрыи нѣктѡ помїнає ѿ творць вь єдїном(ь) ѿ правиль пише реч(е) сице. Д(авы)дѹ нѣкогда твоємѹ пр(о)р(о)кѹ ꙗк(о)же стави 17 See table of titles. 18 Skowronek 2014a. 19 For literature cf.: Vostokov 1842, p. 420–422; Turilov 1986, p. 180 (no. 1737); Speranskiy 1960, p. 112 ff.; Turdeanu 1964, p. 198–199. 20 For literature cf.: Birkfellner 1975, p. 354–357 (a fragment of the PH as Apokryphe Erzählung über David und Saul, p. 357). 21 Cited from: Reinhart 2007, p. 66, 69, 73. 17 Source texts агг(е)ла. люд(и) гѹбеща мⸯчемь. мїрь подаль єс(и). The text of the PH has been pub- lished22; contains the last chapters of the work: the stories of David and Saul, the wife of Uriah, the scheme and death of Absalom as well as the story about the population census (hence, it lacks the last chapter about king Uzziah, characteristic for the PH II). The text of the PH from Vindob. slav. 158 has been provided with readings from the manuscript Nikoljac 83; these register the „more significant” differences of texto- logical character as well as of other sorts (grammatical, phonetic, morphological)23. 3. Fragments – 3 chapters: BAR slav. 358. Romanian Academy Library [Biblioteca Academiei Române] in Bucharest, Cod. slav. 35824. Codex of mixed contents: contains fragments of the PH compiled with other pseudo-canonical texts, excerpts from the panegyric, the life of Alexis the Man of God, the life of Mark the Athenian, the teachings of Atha- nasius of Alexandria and John Chrysostom, Saint Hippolytus the Pope (?), On the End of the World, fragments of the Old Testament, etc. Second half of the 16th century. Composed in “Romanian lands”25; 179 fols., half-uncial, 210 x 160 mm. Fragments of the PH II on fols. 21v–24v. Titles: [1] ѻ ѹꙗденїи змыинѻмъ, inc.: Възⷣвыгше же снове іилевы, ѿ горы синаискыѧ. поидошѧ дондеже (!) доспѧшѧ въ пѹстини кадскѫѧ, exc.: заеже видѣти немощь своѧ и ѹмръщвленые ꙗко смѣѧще глати. где съмръти желѻ где аде побѣда. [2] ѡ сѣны свѣⷣнїа, inc.: По сем же реⷱ гь мѡѵ̈се, сътвори ми сѣнь, по поⷣнбⷭном. И повелѣнїемь бжїемь възⷣвыгнѫшѧ сѧ ѡблаци, exc.: въсѣк же хѻтѣи вънити въ сѣнь. да измывают сѧ водоѫ чистою, прѣⷣ скѷниею. и такѻ да въхѻдить въ скѷнию. [3] ѡ стои и сщеничь­ скои (!) ѡдежⷣи, inc.: По сиⷯ да сътвориши ми ѡдежⷣѹ стѹ, exc.: исписа и бытиє. иже ѿ ба сътворенныⷨ въсѣмь и ѡ избавленны грѣхѡⷨ. и ѡцѣщенїе члЃкъ съгрѣшаѧщихь. Text used for its readings in the edition of SB III2226. Whole text or fragment – volume undefined: M.II–2. National Archives of the Republic of Macedonia [Државен архив на Република Македониjа] in Skopje, Cod. M.II–227. Codex of mixed contents (apart from the fragments of the PH II it contains also The Life of the Holy Mother 22 Reinhart 2007. 23 See Reinhart 2007, p. 66–74. 24 For the descriptions and catalogues of manuscripts cf.: Panaitescu 2003, p. 142–144; Mircea 2005, p. 234; Ivanova 2008, p. 125–126. 25 „Scris in Ţara Românească”, cited from: Panaitescu 2003, p. 142. 26 Сковронэк 2014. 27 For literature cf.: Mošin 1971, p. 333–335; Miltenova 2009, p. 377–378; Miltenova 2012. 18 Source texts of God by Epiphanius, The Tale of Aphroditian, The Sermons of Saint Hippoly- tus on the 72 Apostles, works with themes from the Old Testament and New Te- stament, teachings). The third quarter of the 14th century. 64 fols., 210 x 140 mm, half-uncial28, Rashka orthography. Codex survives in fragments with parts missing due to poor storage conditions (humidity, mold); the end is lost. Frag- ments of PH II on fols. 30r–34v (?), 53r–64v29: [1 – the story of Adam’s sons and Lot’s sin] inc.:…вѹ чашѹ горꙿкѹ сьмрьти … роди же адамь вь мѣсто ѥ(г) … и наре(ч) име ѥмѹ сить; [2] Ѡ изгнани агары, inc.: Бывшѹ же исаакѹ седьмимь лѣтомь. бѣше играѥ сь исьмаилѥмь. братомь своимь. иже ѿ агары; [3] Ѡ исаковѣ смьрти (! – МS), inc.: Исаакѹ же бывшѹ ѡсьмь на десете лѣть. бь искѹшааше авраама. и р(ч)е аврааме аврааме; [4 – the story of King David] exc.: р(ч)е же кь дрѹгомо … члвкѹ именемь акьхиꙗ. иже … четь прѣписовати. и абиѥ при де аггль гн глѥ двдѹ. разь … ба. и прогнѣва се на те гь. … кати се глѥ. и что ѥ(с) сьврь … ꙗко прогнѣва се … поне … . The M.II–2 copy preserves two titles of chapters from the PH (albeit ‘added later with a writing from the 17th century and 18th century’30), however the transmitted contents comes from ca. five chapters; apart from the chapters retaining their titles: On the Expulsion of Hagar and On the Death of Isaac (instead of On the Sacrifice of Isaac) as well as On the Census (which beginning is missing due to the loss of folia), it seems that what A. Miltenova regards as ‘the story of Adam’s sons and Lot’s sins’ are the chapters entitled On Abel and On the Holy Trinity. The hypothetical original volume of the book, estimated to have been much thicker than it is today31 (considering also the lack of the original numbering of the she- ets) may have included, between the last chapter from the Abraham cycle and the story of King David – more, if not all chapters from the PH II. The text has not been published, except for passages32. Non vidi. PH III Shchukin 505. Collection of the State Historical Museum in Moscow, the P.I. Shchukin Collection [Государственный Исторический Музей, Щукинское собр.], № 50533. Non vidi. 28 According to Mošin: uncial (Mošin 1971, p. 333). 29 After: Miltenova 2012. 30 Miltenova 2012. 31 Miltenova 2012, p. 220. 32 Miltenova 2012. 33 Following: Speranskiy 1960, p. 112ff.; Reinhart 2007, p. 60. 19 Source texts Other source texts: St. Andrew of Crete, Great Canon of Penance, [in:] Patrologiae cursus completes. Series graeca, vol. 97, col. 1329–1386. St. Cosmas of Maiuma, Canon on the Nativity of Christ – Первый канон на Рождество Христово св. Козьмы Маюмскаго, [in:] Lovjagin 1861, p. 3–9. St. Cosmas of Maiuma, Canon on the Dormition of the Mother of God – Пер- вый канон на Успение св. Козьмы Маюмскаго, [in:] Lovjagin 1861, p. 99–104. St. Cosmas of Maiuma, Canon on the Elevation of the Holy Cross – Канон на Воздвижение св. Козьмы Маюмскаго, [in:] Lovjagin 1861, p. 126–133. *** The following copies of the PH II, Savina 24 and M.II–2, have not been inc- luded in this edition as sources for readings. Also, they haven’t been acknowledged in the textological characteristics of the text (as well as in the graph of the relations between the copies), since I have not been able to consult the original contents of both copies (nor provide their possible reconstruction). For the same reasons, these copies do not appear in the table of chapter titles appearing in the surviving copies of the PH II. Source texts II. On the 2nd Slavic translation of the Palaea Historica T he so-called Byzantine1 PH is a text that functioned in the literature and culture of the Byzantine-Slavic commonwealth. It was composed in Byzantium at the end of the 9th century and become popularized in its Slavic translations from ca. 10th–11th century until at least the 17th century (the earliest surviving copies come from this period of time) throughout those lands inhabited by the southern Slavs, e.g. Bulgaria and Serbia, as well as the eastern Slavs, but also on lands inhab- ited by non-Slavic peoples, which used Old Church Slavic in liturgy and literature, e.g. Moldavia, Wallachia. We know of pre-modern translations of the text, e.g. the Romanian version dated to the 17th century2, but also of those variants based only on a selection of the literary work as well as of those applying a distinct segmenta- tion of the text differing from the original (i.e. Byzantine). The contents of the PH comprises chiefly of a selection of narratives deriving from the first books of the Old Testament (Gen – 2 Sam or 2 Chr; Slavic variants different from the Greek original), supplemented with details from other sources, inter al. the apocrypha, but also the poetical fragments from the Book of Psalms as well as the works of Byzantine hymnographers. The term ‘palaea’ appearing in the title is directly connected to the contents of the work: it derives from the expres- sion ἡ παλαιὰ διαθήκη ‘Old Testament’, however its Slavic transcriptions ‘палѣꙗ’, ‘палеа’, ‘палеꙗ’, ‘палеѧ’, ‘палѣѧ’, even ‘палїа’3 and ‘палиѧ’4 were used in reference to 1 Turdeanu 1964, p. 195. 2 The translation of the PH I dated to the first half of the 17th century was made in Western Transylvania and was written in Cyrillic in a manuscript from the Library of the Romanian Acade- my in Bucharest, Cod. 649, published in: Palia istorică 2001. Translations of the PH I into modern languages: English, the whole text (Adler 2013, p. 600–672); Bulgarian, a fragment (the beginning: Stankov 1992). 3 See Slavova 2002, p. 38. 4 See Dobrjanskiy 1882, p. 144. 21
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“Palaea Historica”. The Second Slavonic Translation: Commentary and Text
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