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Podstawy penologii - ebook/pdf
Podstawy penologii - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-235-2810-4 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> naukowe i akademickie
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Publikacja będąca próbą przesunięcia dyskusji na temat pojęcia ''kara kryminalna'' z intuicji i pojęć niejasnych na poziom wiedzy pewnej, określonej, a jednocześnie dającej ogólny obraz, czym jest kara w jej różnych formach organizacyjnych. Obraz pozwalający zrozumieć jej znaczenie dla społeczeństwa, ale też jej nieuchronnie negatywne oddziaływanie na ludzi, które możemy minimalizować, ale którego nie możemy uniknąć, jeśli już decydujemy się karami posługiwać.

Zrozumienie natury fenomenu kary kryminalnej pozwalającej nam represjonować innych ludzi, ale też określającej zasady, na jakich możemy to robić, stanowi istotny przyczynek zarówno do debaty aksjologicznej, jak i do dyskusji kryminologicznej na temat wyboru strategii zapobiegania przestępczości. Integralnokulturowa teoria kary stara się więc określić podstawę penologiczną dla koncepcji rozwijanych w ramach penitencjarystyki i polityki kryminalnej. Znając lepiej uwarunkowania i mechanizmy społeczno-kulturowe działania kar, możemy bardziej świadomie kształtować granice między kompetencjami polityki kryminalnej i polityki społecznej czy edukacyjnej oraz zdrowotnej, dokonując wyborów o charakterze cywilizacyjnym.

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Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................ 17 Chapter I. Penology: A Discipline Allied to Criminal Law Studies ..................... 22 Punishment as a Subject of Inquiry of Philosophy, Social Studies and the Humanities .......................................................................................... 25 Criminal Law Studies and Allied Disciplines .................................................. 27 Penitentiary Sciences (a Part of Criminal Justice Studies) ............................... 28 Penology .......................................................................................................... 34 Chapter II. Principles of Culturally Integrated Studies ........................................ 46 Category of Historical-Cultural Background ................................................... 47 The Notion of Evil in Criminal Punishment ........................................... 50 The „Metaphysics” of Punishments in Studies of Culture ...................... 50 The Meaning of Punishment as a Cultural Phenomenon ........................ 52 The Question of the Differentiae Specificae of Criminal Punishment .... 54 The Question of the Historical Continuity of Criminal Punishment ....... 56 Misfortune (Fate) as a Source of Punishment ......................................... 58 Punishment as a Result of Sin ................................................................. 60 Cultural and Religious Roots of the Notion of Fault ............................... 64 Cultural Factors in the Development of the Notion of Fault in Criminal Law ...................................................................................... 65 Cultural and Religious Sources of Reflections on Free Will ................... 68 The Cultural Identity of Punishment ....................................................... 70 The Category of Social Institution ................................................................... 71 An Advanced Definition of Criminal Punishment and its Importance for Research ...................................................................................................... 78 Chapter III. The Formation of Penological Reflection .......................................... 82 Antiquity .......................................................................................................... 82 From the Middle Ages to Modernity ............................................................... 87 Classification of Theoretical Lines of Rationalization of Punishment.............. 98 Theories of Punishment Determined by Instincts or Hatred ............................. 105 A Theoretical Framework of Ideas of Penological Positivism.......................... 109 The Development of Theoretical Trends of Criminal Anthropology The Influence of Rehabilitation Ideas on the Identity of Criminal Punishment in its Organizational Form of Deprivation of Liberty .................. 122 and Sociology Towards Penological Ideas of Social Defence and Resocialization (Rehabilitation)................................................................. 117 11 Chapter IV. Anxieties of Civilization ...................................................................... 128 Neoclassical Renaissance and Humanitarian Criticism of Punishment ........... 128 Halfway Between New Penology and Populism: The Return of Fascist Rhetoric ............................................................................................................ 145 Chapter V. Jeremy Bentham. The most Influential Penological Idea of Punishment in Modern Times .................................................................. 167 The Importance of the Penology of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) ................. 169 The Framework and Principles of the Social and Philosophical Ideas of J. Bentham ................................................................................................... 170 Jeremy Bentham’s Notion of Punishment ........................................................ 174 Rules of Statutory and Judiciary Sentencing .................................................... 176 Circumstances Crucial for the Determination of the Ratio of Punishment to Crime ........................................................................................................... 181 Principles of Sentencing .................................................................................. 183 The Aim of Punishment and Different Kinds of Punishment .......................... 185 The Main Purpose: General Prevention ........................................................... 186 Improvement of the Convict ............................................................................ 187 Incapacitation of the Perpetrator ...................................................................... 190 Compensation and Penalties Affecting Property ............................................. 191 Prison ................................................................................................................ 192 Prison Reforms ................................................................................................ 195 The Death Penalty ............................................................................................ 197 Corporal Punishments ...................................................................................... 198 Bentham: Penology of Golden Means .............................................................. 201 Chapter VI. Analysis of the Notion of Punishment. Anglo-Saxon Experiences ... 205 Starting Point of the Debate: The Idea of Retribution at the Turn Rationalization of Punishment ......................................................................... 214 All-round Arguments of Anthony M. Quinton: Semantics of Punishment ...... 219 A. Flew: On the Trap of Ontological Argument in Penological Theories ........ 221 J. Rawls: On the Utilitarian Character of Retributive Punishment .................. 223 K.G. Armstrong: On Incorrect Reasoning in Criticism of Retribution ............ 228 J.F. Doyle, Hegel in America, Punishment as a Condition of Just Order ........ 232 H.L.A. Hart, Prolegomena to the Theory of Criminal Punishment .................. 234 On the Importance of the Reflections of H.L.A. Hart ............................. 234 The Basis of the Ideas of H.L.A. Hart ..................................................... 235 General Justifying Aim and Principles of Distribution of Punishment ... 235 The Issue of Dispensation, Unpunishability and Understanding in Sentencing ........................................................................................... 240 of the XIX and XX Centuries .......................................................................... 208 F.H. Bradley: Criticism of Practical Reason versus Darwinism ............. 208 T.H. Green: Post Kantian Reflections, Punishment as a Guardian of Legal Rules ......................................................................................... 209 B. Bosanquet: from Kant to Hegelism .................................................... 211 H. Rashdall: The Non-Christian Aspect of Retribution .......................... 212 A.C. Ewing: Condemnation of the Evil Deed ......................................... 212 W.D. Ross: Punishment as a Fulfilled Promise ....................................... 213 J.D. Mabott: On the Completely Erroneous Character of Utilitarian Contents Podstawy penologii. Teoria kary 12 Individualization of Punishment ............................................................. 247 Chapter VII. Sociology of Punishment ................................................................... 252 On the Tragedy of Punishment ........................................................................ 252 Historicity: The Genealogy of Punishment ...................................................... 253 Sacredness and Collective Consciousness ........................................................ 258 Socio-Economic Determinism of the Development of Organizational Forms of Criminal Punishment? ...................................................................... 266 E.B. Paszukanis: Punishment as a Shady Business........................................... 273 Michel Foucault and the Compulsive Rationality of Penality........................... 279 Afterword ................................................................................................................... 291 Quoted Literature ........................................................................................................ 295 Personal Index ............................................................................................................ 320 Podsumowanie ............................................................................................................ 329 Summary .................................................................................................................... 341 Zusammenfassung ...................................................................................................... 354
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