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Polish your HR English, Angielski ( nie tylko) dla HR -owca - ebook/pdf
Polish your HR English, Angielski ( nie tylko) dla HR -owca - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Infor Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-65789-47-1 Data wydania:
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Polish your HR English. Angielski (nie tylko) dla HR-owca to książka, która z pewnością przyda się nie tylko osobom pracującym w dziale personalnym korporacji, ale wszystkim, którzy posługują się lub będą posługiwać się tym językiem w kontaktach biznesowych.

Dziś znajomość języków obcych w szczególności języka angielskiego coraz częściej staje się nie tylko atutem, ale wręcz koniecznością w życiu zawodowym. W wielu firmach angielski jest drugim obowiązującym językiem obok polskiego.

Książka została podzielona na trzy części:

oraz

Każda z części składa się z 12 lekcji, zawiera ćwiczenie oraz słowniczek.

Cross-cultural Encounters

Pierwsza część koncentruje się na kwestiach komunikacji międzykulturowej w kontekście biznesowym. Znajduje się w niej analiza natury i przyczyn nieporozumień ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem roli języka. W jaki sposób język jest odzwierciedleniem naszej kultury i  nierzadko nieświadomych postaw w życiu codziennym? Jak nasze działania i wypowiedzi są zaprogramowane przez język? Zrozumienie ich może pozwolić uniknąć błędów większych niż językowe. „Cross-cultural Encounters” to cykl dla osób, które chcą lepiej zrozumieć kulturę korporacyjną i język wielonarodowych przedsiębiorstw.

Tematyka cyklu Business Dilemmas dotyczy dylematów typowych dla świata biznesu. Etyka biznesu jest stosunkowo nową dziedziną wiedzy. Rozwija się ona jednak bardzo dynamicznie zapewne dlatego, że tak długo jak istnieje aktywność gospodarcza człowieka, tak długo tej sferze działalności towarzyszą dylematy moralne, a w dobie globalizacji i nowych technologii aspekty etyczne zdają się nabierać jeszcze większego znaczenia.
W cyklu „Business Dilemmas” pokazujemy, jak istotne znaczenie mają kwestie etyczne i moralne w prowadzeniu przedsiębiorstw i zarządzaniu nimi. Przyglądamy się także konkretnym sytuacjom, w których podjęcie właściwej pod względem etycznym decyzji, jest kluczowe dla przedsiębiorstwa.

Z kolei tematyka części The power of language dotyczy języka jako narzędzia komunikacji. Czytelnik dowie się, w jaki sposób ustalony dawno temu system dźwięków i znaków pozwala na przekazywanie myśli, idei oraz uczuć. Skąd wziął się język, jak go przyswajamy i modyfikujemy, żeby podkreślał naszą przynależność do określonej grupy społecznej i zawodowej.

Pozycja rekomendowana przez : Polskie Stowarzyszenie HR Business Partner, HR Polska oraz Aliant® Małgorzata Krzyżowska Międzynarodowa Kancelaria Prawna.

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P olish Your HR English. Angielski (nie tylko) dla HR-owca to książka, która z pewnością przyda się nie tylko osobom pra- cującym  w  dziale  personalnym.  Obecnie  znajomość  języków  obcych jest powszechnie wymagana na rynku pracy. Świat daje nam  dziś wiele możliwości, ale abyśmy mogli z nich skorzystać, znajomość  języków obcych jest koniecznością. W globalnych korporacjach język  angielski jest ważniejszy od języka lokalnego, dlatego wszyscy, którzy  chcą go szlifować, powinni sięgnąć po książkę Polish Your HR English. Angielski (nie tylko) dla HR-owca. Pierwsza  część  „Cross-cultural  encounters”  koncentruje  się  na  kwe- stiach  komunikacji  międzykulturowej  w  kontekście  biznesowym.  Część druga „Business dilemmas” pokaże, jak istotne znaczenie mają  zagadnienia etyczne i moralne w prowadzeniu przedsiębiorstw i zarzą- dzaniu nimi. Z kolei tematyka części trzeciej „The power of language”   będzie dotyczyła języka jako narzędzia komunikacji. Czytelnik dowie  się,  w  jaki  sposób  ustalony  dawno  temu  system  dźwięków  i  znaków  pozwala na przekazywanie myśli, idei oraz uczuć. y ł a t s o z y t s k e T e n a w o t o g y z r p C T L G N A L z e z r p e j c a d n e m o k e R cena 49,90 zł 978-83-65789-87-7 Polish YourPolish Your hr English AngiElski (nie tylko) dlA hr-owcAAngielski (nie tylko) dlA HR-owcAEnglish Polsh Your English AngiElski (nie tylko) dlA hr-owcA Praca zbiorowa Pod redakcją xx Autorzy: Elżbieta Kozioł, Joanna Kołakowska Redakcja: Ewa Walenda Projekt okładki: Sebastian Bieganik Łamanie: Tomasz Babik Korekta: Irena Biśta-Kanciała Druk i oprawa: xxx © Copyright by Wydawnictwo INFOR PL SA, Warszawa 2017 ISBN xxxxx Żadna część tej pracy nie może być powielana i rozpowszechniana, w jakiejkolwiek formie i w jakikolwiek sposób, włącznie z fotokopiowaniem, nagrywaniem na taśmy lub przy użyciu innych systemów, bez pisemnej zgody wydawcy (art. 116, 117 Ustawy o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych z dn. 04.02.1994 r.) Wydawca INFOR PL SA ul. Okopowa 58/72 01-042 Warszawa www.infor.pl SpiS treści 1 Polsh Your English – Angielski (nie tylko) dla HR-owca ............... 7 Cross-cultural Encounters – Spotkania międzykulturowe........... 8 First encounter: Culture – Przystanek pierwszy: Kultura ........... Second ecounter: Time for Business – Drugi przystanek: Czas na biznes ................................................................................................. 15 Third ecounter: Is it all about Power? – Trzeci przystanek: Czy zawsze chodzi o władzę? .................................................................. Fourth encounter: I or we?– Przystanek czwarty: Ja czy my? .... 29 Fifth encounter: between masculinity and femininity; is culture gender-sensitive?– Przystanek piąty: Między męskością i kobieco- ścią, czyli czy kultura ma płeć?................................................................. 37 Different is Dangerous – about Uncertainty Avoidance in Cultures – Inne oznacza niebezpieczne – o unikaniu niepewności w kulturach ....................................................................................................... 45 Gratification for the (im) patient? – Gratyfikacja dla (nie)cierpliwych? .................................................................................... 53 You Can’t Have your Cake and eat it? – Indulgence and Restraint in cultures – Nie można mieć wszystkiego? – o pobłażaniu i umiarze w kulturze ..................................................................................... 59 A Doomed Search for Universal Laws – Poszukiwanie uniwersal- nych praw skazane na porażkę ................................................................ 65 Emotions under control – Emocje pod kontrolą ............................. 72 The Captains of their Fate – Kowale swojego losu ......................... 79 ‘Who are you?’ or ‘What do you do?’ – „Kim jesteś?” vs. „Co robisz?” ............................................................................................... 86 Business Dilemmas – Dylematy biznesowe ........................................ 93 Business Ethics – Etyka biznesu .............................................................. 94 3 Ethical Dilemmas at Work – Dylematy etyczne w pracy ............... 100 It is a difficult decision – To trudna decyzja ...................................... 107 Compliance policy – Polityka compliance .......................................... 114 It Is All About Making a Rational Choice – Chodzi o racjonalny wybór .................................................................................................................. 121 Rational Choice in Practice – Racjonalny wybór w praktyce ...... 128 Rational Choice – Case study 1 – Racjonalny wybór – Studium przypadku 1 ..................................................................................................... 135 Rational Choice – Case studies 2 – Racjonalny wybór – Studia przypadków 2 ................................................................................................. 142 Rational Choice – Case studies 3 – Racjonalny wybór – Studia przypadków 3 ................................................................................................. 150 Rational Choice – Case studies 4 – Racjonalny wybór – Studia przypadków 4 ................................................................................................. 157 The present and the future of business ethics – Teraźniejszość i przyszłość etyki biznesu........................................................................... 164 Code of Conduct – Kodeks postępowania i etyki biznesu ........... 172 The power of language – Potęga języka ............................................... 179 The origin of languages – O pochodzeniu języka ............................. 180 On language acquisition– O przyswajaniu języka ............................ 187 Our language, our identity – Nasz język, nasza tożsamość .......... 194 Do you speak Globish? – Czy mówisz w języku Globisz? .............. 201 Troublesome dialects – Kłopotliwe dialekty ...................................... 207 Language – Uses and Abuses – Użycia i nadużycia językowe ..... 214 The Anatomy of Swearing – Anatomia przeklinania ...................... 221 Jargon and Slang – Żargon i slang ........................................................... 229 Write about it! – Napisz o tym ................................................................. 236 The Printed Word – Słowo drukowane ................................................ 244 How to Tell a Story? – Jak opowiedzieć historię? ............................. 251 The Art of Public Speaking – Sztuka przemawiania ....................... 257 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs SPotkania międzykulturowe 5 część 1 cross-culturAl EncountErs Spotkania międzykulturowe W ramach części pierwszej zachęcamy do lektury serii artykułów, któ- re koncentrują się na kwestiach komunikacji międzykulturowej w kon- tekście biznesowym. Będziemy analizować naturę i przyczyny nieporo- zumień ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem roli języka. Pokażemy, w jaki sposób język jest odzwierciedleniem naszej kultury i  nierzadko nie- świadomych postaw w życiu codziennym. Przyjrzymy się nieudanym fuzjom, nie do końca przemyślanym restrukturyzacjom i  zmianom w kulturach korporacyjnych. Sprawdzimy, jak nasze działania i wypo- wiedzi są zaprogramowane przez język. Pokażemy, że ich zrozumienie może pozwolić uniknąć błędów większych niż językowe. Cross-cultural Encounters to tematyka dla osób, które chcą lepiej zrozumieć kulturę korporacyjną i język wielonarodowych przedsiębiorstw. 7 Lekcja 1 First EncountEr: culturE przyStanek pierwSzy: kultura Podczas pierwszej lekcji dowiemy się, że zarówno dziewiętna- stowieczny brytyjski ambasador, jak i europejski biznesmen z  XXI w. są zaprogramowani kulturowo i językowo. Pomimo globalizacji, pewne skróty myślowe nadal są niezwykle karkołomne, zarówno dla języka, jak i kieszeni. Winna temu jest kultura, w której funkcjonuje- my. Trochę o historii, trochę o biznesie i trochę o obieraniu cebuli… A wszystko z użyciem popularnych idiomów, które nie zawsze brzmią tak samo po polsku i po angielsku. oncE uPon A timE… To start with, could you please have a look at these two seem- ingly different texts to find out what they could have in common: Somewhere in Central Europe, a highly successful automotive company decides to make hay while the sun shines and enters a new market in Western Europe. So far, the company has recorded major prof- its from the sales of one of its models called NOVA – a nice, sporty city car with dynamic design. However, it seems that the success won’t be repli- 8 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe cated in Spain, where the company is expanding now. Everybody in the company is wondering why the model is not doing as well as in other parts of Europe. It takes some time until the Sales Department at the headquar- ters realizes that the name chosen for the car is extremely unfortunate. In Spanish it means “doesn’t go”, which sounds rather like a mockery than a catching product name. Pity that nobody had checked it earlier… (a story based on facts) The English elchi (ambassador) had reached Tehran a few days be- fore we arrived there, and his reception was as brilliant as it was possible. (…) Then all the proper attentions of hospitality were shown.(…) All these attentions, one might suppose, would be more than sufficient to make infidels contented with their lot; but, on the contrary, when the subject of etiquette came to be discussed, interminable difficulties seemed to arise. (…) First, on the subject of sitting. On the day of his audience of the Shah, he would not sit on the ground, but insisted upon having a chair; then the chair was to be placed so far, and no farther, from the throne. In the second place, of shoes, he insisted upon keeping on his shoes, and not walking barefooted upon the pavement; and he would not even put on our red cloth stockings. And then, on the article of dress, a most violent dispute arose. (…)He said, that he would appear before the Shah of Persia in the very same dress he wore when before his own sovereign. (the adventureS of hajji baba of iSPahan by jameS morier, 1780-1849) Incomparable as the two stories may seem, they have one thing in common. In both cases the nature of the problem stems from cul- tural misunderstanding or, in other words, cultural miscommunica- tion. What leads to communication gridlock is the fact that we tend to take other people and their behavior for granted. This means that we impose our beliefs, values, behavioral patterns on other people and their respective beliefs and values which do not necessarily have to be the same and actually very rarely are when we consider multinational organizations and societies. All communication is cultural. It draws on the ways we have learnt to speak and act. It draws on our culture. But what is culture? It can mean various Don’t unDErEstimatE thE powEr of CulturE 9 1. PoliSh your engliSh gramming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. What is more, it should not be confused things. There is culture understood as civilization and is used to refer to education, literature and fine arts. And in a much broader sense, there is culture which describes patterns of thinking, feeling and acting, which includes as mundane things as eating, greeting, showing or not showing your feelings, keeping a certain physical distance or main- taining body hygiene. Culture is learnt, not inherited. It derives from our environment and not from our genes. According to Hofstede, it is the collective pro- with human nature on the one hand and human personality on the other. Human nature is inherited and is universal for all human beings. It constitutes a sort of an operating system which defines basic physical and psychological abilities, like being able to feel fear, desire for love or the ability to observe and interpret environment. However, the way we express emotions is conditioned by our culture. Hence, it means that the same human ability to express, for example, joy can manifest itself in various ways, depending on the culture and its code. It is cru- cial to know the code to decipher the superficial representation of a type of emotion which is known to the whole human race. Finally, at the top there is personality, which is a collection of person-specific features both inherited and acquired through environment and our personal experiences. To sum up, at the bottom of the pyramid there is human nature, universal and inherited, on the second level there is culture, acquired and group-specific and at the top there is personal- ity, both learnt and inherited, which is person-specific. It means that only culture does not depend on our genes and is totally conditioned by the environment. In order to understand the concept of culture let’s think about an onion. Each culture is specific and manifests its unique features in several ways or layers– through symbols, heroes, rituals and values. SYMBOLS build the outer layer of the onion because they are the most visible. They include e.g. language, fashion, haircut or status sym- bols. What country does Coca-Cola trademark make you think about? I am pretty sure it is the USA. The next layer corresponds to HEROES Peeling onion 10 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe – alive or dead, real or imaginary characters, whose traits are highly prized and valued in a given culture. Heroes constitute role models: Batman in the USA, Asterix in France, etc. Heroes are more stable than symbols but still they are time and fashion-bound, which means they may come and go. Having removed the second layer, we get to RITUALS. These are collective activities which, despite their superfluous character, are thought to play an essential role in a society. Rituals can include vari- ous activities like ways of greeting, good manners, social and religious norms.And finally, we reach the core of culture – VALUES. Values are preferences expressed by people living in a given culture which help them to make choices and take decisions. Values are acquired mostly subconsciously at a very early age and it is difficult to change them when a person is adult. Generally, it is not possible to see somebody’s values. They can only be inferred from behaviour and accompanying circumstances. So, don’t judge a book by its cover! To sum it up, the layers help us visualize how complex the con- cept of culture is and hence, how difficult it is to change culture. … do as the Romans do. Better said than done. It seems than it is not enough to learn a language and cultural norms to be able to live in a foreign country. When a foreigner comes to a new country, they can only see the outer layers of the onion, i.e. the visible aspects of the cul- ture: its symbols, heroes and rituals. These can be, to a major extent, understood and learnt. Yet, at a first glance it is not possible to under- stand the underlying values, which constitute the core of the culture. Hence, most foreigners go through a difficult and painful phase until they reach a moment of comfortable existence in a foreign country. At the very beginning each foreigner experiences a period of eu- phoria. It is also referred to as honeymoon time. We come to a new place as if we were tourists and are overwhelmed by its unique charac- ter and exotic, social environment. Everything is interesting and excit- ing, at least for the first three or four weeks. Then there is a phase of culture shock. Once the euphoria has evaporated, a foreigner starts to live a normal live in a new environ- whEn in romE… 11 1. PoliSh your engliSh ment and that is where difficulties appear. Although one can commu- nicate in a foreign language and has some cultural knowledge, they get the impression that they are always getting the wrong end of the stick and talking at cross purposes with the locals. It is culture shock. Every foreigner has to go through this phase to understand that the values and norms of the new culture are different from their home culture.With culture shock behind, a foreigner can start the adaptation process. They acquire local values and social norms. They slowly learn to think in a new culture. This takes time, depending on the person and the new country. Ultimately, it should lead to the state of balance, when one feels at home or even better. And when the person comes back to their home country, they experience another culture shock… I hope you have seen that there is more to CULTURE than meets the eye. A foreign language, although indispensable to survive, is only a tool of the mental software – the culture. Before we embark on the next episode of our cross-cultural en- counters, please do bear in mind the three golden rules of a cross-cul- tural communicator: – Don’t take anything for granted! – Read between the lines. – Be open – minded See you soon. three golden ruleS 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe Glossary: behavioural patterns – wzorce zachowań make hay while the sun shines – kuć żelazo póki gorące better said than done – łatwiej powiedzieć, niż zrobić decipher – rozszyfrować don’t judge a book by its cover – nie sądź po pozorach evaporate – ulotnić się, wyparować feel at home – czuć się jak w domu fine arts – sztuki piękne get the wrong end of the stick – źle kogoś zrozumieć good manners – dobre maniery gridlock – zator, impas impose – nakładać incomparable – nieporównywalny layer – warstwa mockery – drwina, kpina mundane – przyziemny, zwyczajny read between the lines – czytać między wierszami role model – wzór do naśladowania stem from – brać się z, pochodzić od superfluous – zbędny, zbyteczny talk at cross purposes – mówić o różnych rzeczach, nie zdając sobie z tego sprawy to take sth for granted – brać coś za pewnik unfortunate – niefortunne When in Rome (do as the Romans do) – Jeśli wszedłeś między wrony, musisz krakać jak i one. 13 EXErCIsE: 1. PoliSh your engliSh match the following SituationS with the correct idiom: a. feel at home b. take for granted c. make hay (while the sun shines) d. When in Rome (do as the Romans do) e. don’t judge a book by its cover f. talking at cross purposes got the wrong end of the stick g. h. read between the lines Anne _________________________________. I said how nice he was 1. and she thought I wanted to go out with him. 2. There’s a sale at K-mart this week. I think I’ll _____________________ and buy myself something at cut price! 3. We will do whatever we can to make you ______________. Enjoy your stay here. 4. Jill: Everyone in my new office dresses so casually. Should I dress that way, too? Jane: By all means. ______________________________. Don’t believe everything she says so literally. Learn to ___________. 5. I think we’re ________________________ here. You mean the old 6. building, but I was talking about the new one. 7. We _____________so many things in this country – like having hot water whenever we need it. But it’s not like this everywhere. 8. She doesn’t look very bright, but ____________________.In fact, she is really good at what she’s doing. Key: 1.g 2. c 3.a 4.d 5.h 6.f 7.b 8.e 14 Lekcja 2 sEcond EcountEr: timE For BusinEss drugi przyStanek: czaS na bizneS W drugiej lekcji Cross-cultural Encounters spróbujemy zmie- rzyć się z pojęciem czasu. Przyjrzymy się, jak czas, pomimo swojej obiektywnej natury, jest postrzegany i interpretowany w różnych kulturach. Spróbujemy zrozumieć, dlaczego punktualność może ozna- czać wiele rzeczy, w zależności od szerokości geograficznej, i dlaczego w niektórych krajach lepiej jest dogrywać interesy po oficjalnych go- dzinach pracy. Przy okazji poznamy angielskie słowo „czas” w wielu bardziej i mniej znanych konfiguracjach. Czas na lekturę! six hours lAtE = BEing on timE in ghAnA I was invited to attend a women’s conference in Ghana, West Africa. Before I set off, I brushed up on all things African – from greetings, to dress, to food, and language. I even prepared myself, or so I thought, for understanding the African concept of time (…) The driver that was arranged for me was an hour late the first day. After conveying the message of how I need to be at the conference the next day on time, 15 1. PoliSh your engliSh he assured me he understood. The next day, as promised, he came ear- ly, technically, and was only 45 minutes late. Some progress had been made. But when I tried to arrange a trip to the Cape Coast Castle, one of the longest surviving slave export points in Ghana, the wheels fell off again. After trying twice to get to the castle (once, he was a no show, and the next time he arrived 4 hours late!), I was able to secure another driver. I understood now that being 2-3 hours late was customary and was even considered punctual. Realizing that I had my American blin- ders on with everything I read, didn’t allow me to fathom that lateness could extend to up to 6 hours. Thinking in American terms, I understood „late” to be at most an hour. Factoring in the lateness and knowing that the castle closed around 4pm, was an hour away, and I wanted to be there by noon, I was able to convey that I needed to be at the castle by 10am. I was told the driver would be there at 8am. I had time to rest, get breakfast and be ready by 10am. Success! The new driver came 2 hours „late”/on time and I managed to get to the castle by noon. (Monica Moffit, Business News, July 2012) The story above illustrates how the perception of time varies across cultures. In this article, we are going to see how the idea of time, lateness and punctuality is deeply rooted in one’s culture. The concept of time may be a universal one, however the perception is subjective and depends on a range of factors. Hence, it is not that unlikely that different attitudes to punctuality, arriving at meetings and sticking to deadlines can lead to misunderstandings or a personal affront. Last but not least, we will take a closer look at how these differences are re- flected in a language when dealing with or talking about time. So take your time and read this article carefully! The notion of time seems to be universally shared and under- stood. After all, aren’t 90 seconds the same in Berlin and in Beijing? 90 seconds are 90 seconds everywhere, but the attitudes to these 90 seconds can vary immensely across cultures. Time is also heavily related to space. Spacial representations of time are ubiquitous around the world. People use clocks, sundials, rElAtivitY oF timE 16 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe using timE: monochronic v. PolYchronic culturEs hourglasses, calendars and graphs to represent and measure time. This relation is also visible in language. You can postpone a meeting, or move it forward. A student can be bored by a long seminar and may need to take a short break. Or when you are so tired that you can hardly tell the time, it means that you must be working round the clock.In the European and American way of thinking, time starts in the past, continues in the present and stretches further into the fu- ture. In contrast, the African perception of time exists basically in two stages: deep past and present. Technically speaking, these two notions of time are not compatible. On a practical note, how should one talk about future intentions and plans? Depending on the way we treat time in our culture, we use it in different ways. To illustrate two totally different ways of using time, let me give you an example of an American and a Mexican business- man. Almost instinctively, we know that Mexican and American busi- nessmen are more than likely to have problems when they start to do business together. And it is not because one is a bad businessman and the other a good one but because their cultural roots, including their attitudes towards time, are different. There are cultures that tend to view time as a commodity. In such cultures people know they should not waste or lose time because time is money. Such an attitude is typical of the USA and Nordic Euro- pean countries. Because time is valuable, it should be used in the most effective way. You should do one thing at a time and move systemati- cally from one topic to another. People like to focus on one issue at a time and are concerned with completing tasks and meeting objec- tives. In such cultures, very frequently referred to as MONOCHRONIC cultures, punctuality is highly valued. Showing up late for a meeting is interpreted as a lack of respect for other attendees. During a meet- ing, one should stick to the agenda and avoid going off at a tangent. Similarly, deadlines are stuck to and obeyed in monochronic cultures. In POLYCHRONIC cultures, on the other hand, time is viewed as something that cannot be controlled and is rather flexible. This at- 17 1. PoliSh your engliSh titude is typical of southern European and Latin American countries as well as the Middle East. Here, things are planned, not that much on the basis of an agenda but rather on events. Sticking to a plan or agenda is not the ultimate aim. Building a relationship, networking or problem solving is perceived as equally or even more important a goal than the agenda itself. In practice, timetables and deadlines are superseded by the focus on individual needs and strengthening interpersonal bonds. Going back to the American and Mexican businessmen, it is clear that major discrepancies are bound to appear. The Mexican prefers to spend time, seeing it as an opportunity, while the American views time as a precious commodity, which should not be wasted. Naturally, this will lead to major differences in the way the two men do business. The American will expect things to be done systematically, one at a time, while the Mexican businessman will engage in many activities simul- taneously. When talking to his American partner, the Mexican busi- nessman will be calling his son to pick us his car from the garage or answering a phone call from his wife. It will not necessarily be a sign of impoliteness when he invites questions from his secretary, popping in every now and then to find out something, which seems totally trivial and uninteresting to the American guest. Without adequate insight, both men could feel offended by what seems to them an inappropriate business attitude. In fact, it is merely a difference between the MONO- CHRONIC and POLYCHRONIC culture. The differences in perception of time, translate into tangible discrepancies in everyday activities. Take, for example, the idea of scheduling meetings and punctuality. In the USA, business meetings are scheduled in the morning when people are supposed to be fresh and the most resourceful. In polychronic cultures, like Spain, people tend to schedule meetings later in the day. Their working day starts later because they take time to be with their families in the morning. Additionally, they take longer lunch breaks, which may stretch up to 2–3 hours. This relaxed attitude to time, which usually manifests itself after a weekend, has a special How late SHould a punctual perSon be? 18 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe term that has been coined to refer to high absenteeism on a Monday – St. Monday, which is likely to become a national holiday. At times, in polychronic cultures business time and personal time overlap. In countries like Japan, real business takes place over dinner and drinks, hours after the working day finishes. Not realizing this and turning down such an offer from a Japanese partner could re- sult in losing a real opportunity to strengthen business bonds and do business.As for social occasions, the notion of punctuality is also far from universal. For a dinner invitation at 8 pm, representatives of mono- chronic cultures (e.g. Germans, Americans, the Dutch) arrive at 8 pm sharp or by 8.15pm at the latest. Such punctuality would embarrass an Italian or a Latin American, who might still be running around in their underwear. According to the polychronic culture and its etiquette, one should not be more than thirty minutes late, leaving ample time for the host to get ready for unpunctual guests. It is worth taking this into consideration, especially when hosting guests of different cultural ori- gins.kEY tAkEAwAYs The fact that different cultures perceive time in different ways does not make one culture better than the other. It simply makes it different.When doing business overseas, one should try to keep a clear un- derstanding of time and differences of time perception across cultures and use it to one’s own advantage. When doing business in a foreign country with different time orientation than you own cultures, try to start to measure time with the local clock. It should save your time and spare possible mistakes. Good luck! 1. PoliSh your engliSh Glossary: ample time – wystarczająco dużo czasu schedule a meeting – planować spot- kanie at 8 pm sharp – punkt ósma simultaneously – jednocześnie at times – czasami attendee – uczestnik spotkania commodity – towar convey – przekazać, zakomunikować discrepancy – rozbieżność go off at a tangent – odbiec od te- matu hourglass – klepsydra merely – zaledwie overlap – nakładać się na siebie postpone a meeting – przełożyć spotkanie stick to deadlines – trzymać się/ przestrzegać terminów sundial – zegar słoneczny supersede – zastępować, wyprzeć tangible – namacalny take a break – zrobić sobie przerwę take your time – nie spiesz się tell the time – powiedzieć, która jest godzina time is money – czas to pieniądz ubiquitous – wszechobecny vary – różnić się rooted – zakorzeniony waste time – trwonić czas 20 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs SPotkania międzykulturowe EXErCIsE chooSe the correct anSwer: 1. I’ve been working for 3 hours now and I feel extremely tired. I des- perately need to _________ a break. b. take a. bring d. brought c. took 2. _______________. We don’t need to hurry. There’s plenty of time left before the train leaves. a. Take a time. b. Leave a time c. Leave your time d. Take your time 3. Let’s stay with the topic and not go_______ a tangent. b. of by a. of at c. off at d. off by 4. I suggest we meet at 9 am. But 9 am _____. Try not to be late. b. sharp a. sharply c. hard d. hardly 5. Could you please wait until I’ve finished my presentation. You’ll have ______ time for questions later. I will answer all the ques- tions then. b. little a. few c. ample d. sample 6. Germans are famous for ___________ to deadlines. b. sticking a. keeping c. getting d. obeying 7. Although Anne is only 5, she can already _____ the time. a. tell b. say d. read c. speak 8. Because of the rain the match had to be _______ until next week. a. moved b. scheduled c. postponed d. shifted 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. b 7. a 8. c 21 Lekcja 3 third EcountEr: is it All ABout power? trzeci przyStanek: czy zawSze cHodzi o władzę? W trzeciej lekcji Cross-cultural Encounters staniemy oko w oko z władzą, a właściwie przyjrzymy się jej z różnych odległości – w zależności od subiektywnego punktu widzenia przyjętego w da- nej kulturze. Spróbujemy zrozumieć, jak hierarchia kształtowana od dzieciństwa przez szkołę i powielana w pracy wpływa na funk- cjonowanie w biznesie. Od strony językowej skupimy się na słow- nictwie związanym z relacjami personalnymi i pozycją w hierarchii społecznej.All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than oth- ers. This famous maxim from G. Orwell’s Animal Farm cynically illus- trates the idea of egalitarianism. This is an ironic twist to the original purpose of the Seven Commandments, which were supposed to keep order within Animal Farm by uniting animals together against the hu- mans and thus prevent the animals from following humans’ habits. Yet, the original idea that all animals are equal was gradually amended to differentiate between the equal and the more equal ones, trying at the 22 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs – SPotkania międzykulturowe same time to stick to the illusion of an egalitarian society. To cut the long story short, everybody knows how unequally it finished. By nature, people, societies and nations are not equal. To be pre- cise, depending on the culture one has been brought up in and in which one lives, people cultivate different levels of inequality. Why? To answer this question, I will direct you to the first article from this series, where I explained the nature of culture with its layers. Social practices, i.e. patterns of behaviour, which originate in the deepest and most uncon- scious part of our culture, stem from values. This means that to a ma- jor extent, more or less equal practices are not something that we can consciously steer and mould. These are behavioural patterns, which are triggered by the software of the mind, i.e. culture. In other words, one can be an advocate of egalitarianism or a supporter of social in- equalities without realizing it. It is only when the two attitudes are compared that the differences start to be visible. One of the most important attempts to tackle and systematise the subject is the development of the power distance dimension, as one of the dimensions to describe various national cultures. The author of the theory, Geert Hofstede, a Dutch researcher in the field of organi- sational studies, defines power distance as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. The funda- mental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. Scientific as it may seem, the theory can have a very practical impact on our lives. Allow me to tell you a story about Korea Air lines of the 80s, an airline that had crash rates substantially above those of the industry norms. Much of these were attributed to a high power distance culture. The reasoning behind it was that pilots were always held in the highest esteem and their decisions could not be challenged wHy SHould it matter? 23 1. PoliSh your engliSh high PowEr distAncE vs low PowEr distAncE because subordinates were not expected to speak up. As a result, there was a lack of communication and collaboration, which led to further in- creases in human error, simply because there were not enough checks and balances in the process. This mismanagement can be said to be largely due to the high power distance, which was not appropriately dealt with in this particular industry. at work…In the work environment, high power distance demonstrates itself in centralised power, a vertical hierarchy and major esteem for superiors. Contacts between bosses and subordinates, initiated only by superiors, are emotionally burdened. This means that emotion- ally neutral attitudes are not common in such an environment. On the contrary, employees bear feelings, which are either extremely bad or enthusiastic towards their bosses. There are two extreme boss mod- els in the high power distance working place: ‘a good old father’ or ‘a bad stingy boss’. The position one holds within a structure is clearly marked. Status symbols of all sorts are more than welcome: a bigger and more accessible parking space, an expensive company car, a bigger office, a higher salary, etc. If there is a case of malpractice and using power to one’s own advantage, it can be justified and hushed up. The positive version of this cultural model has employees cherishing a high esteem for the boss and indentifying themselves with him/her and the company both inside and outside the working environment. Countries typical of high power distance culture include: Malaysia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, China, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. In contrast, low power, distance cultures are characterised by a flat hierarchy. It is not that easy to differentiate between superiors and subordinates because the differences are not that clearly marked. There should not be any major discrepancies between the two groups in terms of education and remuneration as it is not that unlikely that one day the roles will be swapped or reversed. As a consequence, sta- 24 1. Cross-Cultural EnCountErs –SPotkania międzykulturowe tus symbols are few and they are not overtly manifested; the same parking space, toilet and canteen. Any malpractice on the side of the management is stigmatised. Whistleblowing is highly appreciated. Typical low power distance countries include: Austria, Denmark, New Zealand, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, UK, Germany, Australia and the Netherlands. at sChool…The power distance pattern at work stems in a natural way from the power distance learnt at school. In high power distance countries, the role of the teacher is central to the educational development of the child. The teacher is in a position to plan, oversee and control the stu- dent’s learning path. On a practical note, students stand up when the teacher enters the classroom and they can speak only when the teach- er allows them to do so. The teacher deserves utmost respect and obe- dience, both inside and outside school. In fact, the transmission and dissemination of knowledge depends to a major extent on the teacher, their skills, knowledge and wisdom. Low power distance countries prefer a decentralised educa- tional model. It is the student who plays a central role in the process. The relation between the teacher and the student is founded on mu- tual respect and partnership. The students are expected to search for the answer on their own. Creativity and initiative are highly appre- ciated. In the classroom, students are encouraged to ask questions whenever they do not understand something, which can even lead to open dissent which is not penalized. The teacher facilitates the dis- semination of knowledge, which as such is conveyed to the student in a form of objective data and facts. Multiplied in adult life, these two extreme models of the educational system reinforce further social differences in the work environment. at homE…Looking for the origins of the differences in power distance, we should go back to the family as a pattern-setter. In cultures with high power distance, family members build a hierarchy with the parents, 25 1. PoliSh your engliSh typically the father, at the very top. Independent thinking and creativity are not perceived as virtues. Children are expected to be obedient and respectful towards their parents. In exchange for this, parents protect or even overprotect their children from any outside risk. These strong family bonds do not get weaker as time passes and children grow up. Even when they are adults, children can rely on their elderly parents when taking important decisions. These proportions are reversed in low power distance families, where children are taught to be inde- pendent and creative. What is more, they are allowed to make mistakes because this is treated as a part of the learning process. Family re- lations are partner-like and no major hierarchy emerges. With time, children become more and more independent at the expense of weak- ening family bonds. Ideally, each family member should be an autono- mous identity with a life of their own, loosely connected with other family members. Multiplied respectively in the family, school and work mi- lieus, these two power distance patterns: the low and the high one, represent two extremes. Obviously, there is a lot of room be- tween them for more moderate versions. What should be remem- bered is that in business terms, there is no universal management model for all cultures. The famous MBO, management by objec- tives, which implies smooth and ongoing partner-like negotiations between the subordinates and superiors, is undoubtedly good for the American culture (low power distance country). However, it would be a mistake to apply the MBO model to a Chinese business (high power distance country), where the expanded vertical hierarchy disables smooth communication across management levels. To put it in a nutshell, all animals are…different. not EquAllY good For EvErYonE
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