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Słownik biologiczno-medyczny angielsko-polski - ebook/pdf
Słownik biologiczno-medyczny angielsko-polski - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: rozpisani.pl Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 9788394532604 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> edukacja
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Słownik zawiera ponad 48 tys. terminów angielskich oraz 68 tys. terminów polskich obejmujących słownictwo z zakresu: – anatomii i fizjologii człowieka, zwierząt i roślin,– mikrobiologii lekarskiej (parazytologia,  wirusologia, bakteriologia, mykologia),– biologii komórki,– biologii molekularnej,– biochemii,– genetyki,– nazewnictwa chorób, objawów chorobowych oraz procedur stosowanych w medycynie,– ewolucji,– ekologii,Pozycja ta stanowi nieocenioną pomoc przy tłumaczeniu tekstów biologiczno–medycznych. Jej dodatkowym atutem są liczne przykłady zastosowań terminów w zdaniu oraz podpowiedzi kontekstowe.
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A band A A band A box A cells A site A streptococci A/E histopathology a-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-pr opionate aardvark AAS aa-tRNA AB toxins abacterial abalones abandon abandoned abasic sites abate abatement of symptoms ABC ABC cassette proteins ABC model ABC transport proteins ABC transporters abdomen abdomen tip abdominal 1 abdominal actinomycosis abdominal aorta abdominal aortic aneurysm abdominal aortic plexus abdominal bowel abdominal cavity abdominal coelom abdominal cramping abdominal cramps abdominal cuticle abdominal discomfort abdominal distention abdominal esophagus abdominal glands abdominal inguinal ring abdominal mass abdominal muscles abdominal musculature abdominal organs abdominal pain abdominal prevertebral plexus abdominal prolegs abdominal roseola abdominal sepsis abdominal slits abdominal spines abdominal swelling abdominal tenderness abdominal ultrasound abdominal ultrasound abdominal ultrasound scan abdominal viscera abdominal wall abdominopelvic region abdominoperineal abducent nerve abduct abduction abductor abductor digiti minimi abductor hallucis abductor muscles abductor pollicis brevis muscle abductor pollicis longus muscle aberrant ABG ABI ability ability to adapt ability to evolve ability to fly ability to move about actively ability to navigate ability to proliferate ability to regenerate ability to repair ability to see 2 abiotic abiotically ablate ablation abnormal abnormal genitalia abnormal allele abnormal apoptosis abnormal blood clotting abnormal cell abnormal condition abnormal growth abnormal growth pattern abnormal internal genitalia abnormal meiotic division abnormal mitotic division abnormal operator sequence abnormal phenotypes abnormal sperm abnormality abnormally abnormally active abnormally high abnormally large amounts abnormally large numbers abnormally viscous mucus ABO alleles ABO blood group ABO blood group incompatibility ABO blood group incompatibility ABO blood group system ABO blood groups ABO incompatibility ABO system abolish abomasum abopercular pole aboral aboral surface abort aborted embryos abortion abortion response abortive infection abortive initiation abortive poliomyelitis above normal above the genus level above the species level aboveground ABP abrade abrasions abrasive properties abrupt abruptly ABS 3 abscess abscess rupture abscise abscisic acid abscission abscission layer abscission zone absence absence seizures absent absent reflex absolute absolute age absolute cutoff value absolute fitness absolute IgA deficiency absolute insulin deficiency absolute performance absolute refractory period absolute temperature absolute zero absolutes absorb absorbable absorbance absorbed absorbency test absorbent pad absorbing absorbing absorption absorption peak absorption properties absorption rate absorption spectrum absorptive absorptive capacity absorptive nutrition absorptive surface abstinence abundance abundance of life abundant abundant rainfall abuse abused abuser abyssal zone acanthamebosis Acanthisittidae Acanthocephala acanthocephalans acanthodians Acanthodii acanthosis Acanthostega Acanthrocirrus retrisrostris 4 acaricides accelerate accelerated AV conduction accentuate accentuated accept accepted by acceptance rate acceptor acceptor group acceptor molecule acceptor stem access accessory accessory bundle accessory cells accessory cholera enterotoxin accessory fruit accessory glands accessory hemiazygos vein accessory lacrimal glands accessory meningeal artery accessory middle meningeal artery accessory molecules accessory nerve accessory organs accessory pancreatic duct accessory pigments accessory renal arteries accessory renal arteries accident accidental host accolé position accommodate accommodated accommodation accommodation of the lens accompany accompanying veins accomplished by account for accrue accumbens nucleus accumulate accumulate in layers accumulation accumulation accumulation of salt accuracy accurate ACE ACE inhibitors acellular acellular pertussis vaccine acellular vaccine acetabular floor acetabular fossa 5 acetabular labrum acetabular notch acetabulum acetaldehyde acetate acetate group acetic acid acetoacetate acetoacetic acid acetone acetyl cholinesterase acetyl CoA acetyl coenzyme A acetyl group acetylate acetylated acetylation acetylcholine acetylcholine ion channel acetylcholine precursor choline acetylcholine receptor acetylcholinesterase acetyl-CoA acetyl-coenzyme acetylmuramic acid acetylsalicylic acid acetyltransferase achalasia achalasia of the esophagus achalasia of the esophagus achene Acheulean Acheulian culture achieve Achillea millefolium Achilles reflex Achilles tendon aching muscles achlorhydria acholic stools achondroplasia acid acid blobs acid blocker acid deposition acid dye acid fast acid fastness acid gastric contents acid hydrolases acid lability acid pH acid precipitation acid rain acid reflux acid solutions acid vesicles 6 acid wastes seeping from mines acid-alcohol solution acid-alkali solution acid-base acid-base balance acid-base equilibrium acid-base imbalances acid-base indicator acid-base pair acid-fast acid-fast organisms acid-fast stain acid-fast stain reaction acid-fastness acid-growth hypothesis acidic acidic activation domain acidic amino acids acidic changes acidic conditions acidic environment acidic hot springs acidic polysaccharide capsules acidic soil acidic solution acidification acidify acidifying salts acidity acidity acidity of the gastric juice acidity of the soil acidophilic acidophilic glands acidophils acidophilus milk acidosis acidotic acidotrophic acid-resistant acid-tolerant acinar cells acini Acinopterygii acinotubular acinus acne vulgaris acoel flatworms, Acoela acoelomate acoelomate animals, acoelomates acorn worms acoustic neuromas acoustic stimuli acoustic window acquire acquire an infection acquired immune defenses 7 acquired immune receptors acquired immune system acquired immunity acquired resistance acquisition Acrania acrid acridine derivatives acridine dyes acridine orange stain acrocentric acrocyanosis acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans Herxheimer acromegaly acromial branch acromial end of the clavicle acromioclavicular joint acromioclavicular ligament acromion acromion process Acropora acrosin acrosomal process acrosomal reaction acrosome acrosome reaction act act act against act as a structural framework act of altruism act to inhibit act to maintain genetic variation act together act up act upon/on ACTH actin actin filaments actin microfilaments actin rearrangement actin strands actin strands of thin filaments actin tails actin-based actinin Actinistia actin-myosin actinomycetes actinomycetes pus actinomycetomas actinomycosis actinomycosis infection actinopods action 8 action of drugs action of plants action by effectors action of cilia action of the sunlight action of tides action patterns action potential action potential phases action spectrum activate activated activating enzyme activating factor activation activation cascade activation domain activation energy activation energy barrier activation factor activation gate activation heat activation of complement activation pathway activation proteins activation region activation status activator activator DNA-binding site activator DNA-binding site activator for transcription activator protein activator protein-1 activator site active active against active agent active center of the enzyme active disease active evolution active flight active immunity active immunization active muscles active prophylactic vaccine active reuptake mechanism active site active site residues active speciation active tension active transport active transport system active traps active vaccination active vaccine actively activins 9 activity actomyosin contractile ring acupuncture acute acute aggressive hepatitis acute disease acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis acute infection phase acute inflammatory process acute margin of the heart acute phase reactants acute rejection acute renal failure acute retroviral syndrome acute serum acute serum sample acute spinal cord ischemia acute surgical abdomen acute vessel thrombosis acutely ill acutely life threatening acutely rejected acute-phase cytokines acute-phase proteins acute-phase response acyclic acycloguanosine acyclovir acyclovir acyclovir acyl acylation acylureidopenicillins ad usum humanum ADA adamantanamin Adam s apple adapt adaptability adaptable adaptation adaptations for osmoregulation adapted adapted immune responses adaptedness adapter proteins adaptive adaptive adjustment adaptive alleles adaptive changes in populations adaptive characteristics adaptive cline adaptive combinations of genes adaptive divergence adaptive diversification adaptive evolution adaptive evolutionary changes 10 adaptive gene combinations adaptive geographic variation adaptive immune response adaptive immunity adaptive immunotherapy adaptive landscape adaptive molecular evolution adaptive morphologies adaptive mutagenesis adaptive mutation adaptive peak adaptive phenotypic change adaptive plasticity adaptive radiation adaptive substitution adaptive topography adaptive traits adaptive trend adaptive valley adaptive value adaptive variation adaptive zone adaptively adaptively directed mutation adaptively important adaptively inferior adaptively random mutations adaptor molecules ADCC ADCC ADCC cells add add together added addictive addictive behavior addictive drugs addisonian crisis Addison s disease addition additive additive effect of genes additive effects additive genetic variance additively additively acting additives addressins adduct adduction adductor adductor brevis muscle adductor canal adductor hallucis adductor hiatus adductor longus muscle adductor magnus muscle 11 adductor muscles adductor part of the adductor magnus adductor pollicis muscle adductor tubercle adducts ADE ADEM adenine adeno-associated virus adenohypophysis adenoid adenoid cells adenoid layer adenoidal adenoma adenomatous polyposis coli adenosine adenosine 5 -triphosphate adenosine deaminase adenosine deaminase deficiency adenosine diphosphate adenosine monophosphate adenosine triphosphatase adenovirus adenylate adenylate cyclase adenylating agent adenyltransferases adenylyl cyclase adenylyl cyclase adenylyl cyclase system adequate stimulus adequately ADH ADHD adhere adherence adherence genes adherent adhering adhering junctions adhesion adhesion complex adhesion factors adhesion genes adhesion molecules adhesion process adhesion proteins adhesion structure adhesive adhesive associations adhesive disk adhesive forces adhesive glue cells adhesive proteins adhesive tape method Adiantum capillus-veneris 12 adipocytes adipokines adiponectin adipose capsule of kidney adipose cell adipose tissue adjacent adjoining adjust adjustable lens adjustment adjuvant effect adjuvants adluminal compartment administer administration administration of antibiotics admit A-DNA adnexa adolescence adolescent growth spurt adolescents adoptive transfer experiments ADP ADP ribosyl transferase ADPKD adrenal androgen adrenal cortex adrenal cortex adrenal cycle adrenal diabetes adrenal glands adrenal glucocorticoid hormones adrenal glucocorticoids adrenal hyperplasia adrenal hypertrophy adrenal insufficiency adrenal medulla adrenal medullary cells adrenal medullary secretion adrenal steroids adrenal sulfokinase adrenal vein adrenally insufficient adrenals adrenarche adrenergic adrenergic neuron adrenergic receptors adrenergic sweating adrenocortical adrenocortical cells adrenocortical hormones adrenocortical secretion adrenocortical tumor adrenocorticotropic hormone 13 adrenogenital syndrome adrenomedullin adsorb adsorbance test adsorbed adsorption adult adult immunization schedule adult mortality adult neural stem cells adult phase adult respiratory distress syndrome adult stem cells adult structures adult teeth adult vaccine adulthood adultlike adult-onset advanced advanced glycosylation end products advances advantage advantage of sex advantageous adventitia adventitial cyst adventitious adventitious plantlets adventitious plantlets adventitious roots adverse adverse effects adversely affect adversely affected adynamic ileus aequorin aerate aeration aerial aerial hyphae aerial mycelia aerial parts aerial plant body aerial portion of a plant aerial roots aerial stem aerobactin aerobes aerobic aerobic bacteria aerobic cellular respiration aerobic conditions aerobic exercise aerobic glycolysis aerobic metabolism aerobic oxidation 14 aerobic respiration aerobic respiratory pathway aerobically aerobically respiring aerogenic aerogenic transmission aerogenically aerophagia aerosol droplets aerosol infection aerosol transmission aerosolization aerosolized aerosolized droplet aerosolized virus aerosols aerotolerant aerotolerant anaerobes aesculin-positive AEV AFC afebrile afebrile period affect affected affected lymph nodes affecting afferent afferent autonomic pathways afferent autonomic pathways afferent fibers afferent impulses afferent nerves afferent neuron transmission afferent neurons afferents afferents affinity affinity chromatography affinity ligands affinity tag affixed afflict afford protection afibrinogenemia aflatoxicosis aflatoxin B1 aflatoxins AFLP markers, AFLPs AFP African eyeworm African meningitis belt African sleeping sickness African trypanosomosis after-depolarization after-discharge after-hyperpolarization 15 afterload afterloaded afterloading Ag response against agammaglobulinemic aganglionic agar agar block agar diffusion test agar dilution test agar gel precipitation agar medium agar plate agar surface agarose agarose beads agarose gel agarose gel electrophoresis age age at maturity age class age cohort age determination technique age distribution of divergences age interval Age of Cycads Age of Fishes age structure age structure aged aged blood cells age-dependent age-group age-induced agenesis agent agent of choice agent of evolutionary change agent of mutation agents of disease agents of gene transfer age-specific age-structure diagram ageusia agglutinate agglutinating antibodies agglutination agglutination method agglutination procedure agglutination reaction agglutination test agglutinins agglutinogens aggravate aggravating effect aggregate 16 aggregate embryo aggregate fruit aggregated aggregated distribution aggregated IgA aggregated lymphatic nodules aggregation aggregative adherence fimbriae aggregative adherence fimbriae I aggress against aggressins aggressive aggressive hepatiti aggressive infection aggressive medical intervention aggressively aggressiveness agile aging aging genes aging process agitate agitation agnathans agonist agonistic agranular agranular endoplasmic reticulum agranular leukocytes agranular leukocytes agranular reticulum agricultural agricultural applications agricultural chemicals agricultural crops agricultural development agricultural disturbance agricultural field agricultural land agricultural losses agricultural pollution agricultural problems agriculturalist agriculturally important crops agronomics agronomist agronomy AH interval ahead of aid AIDS dementia complex AIDS encephalopathy AIDS patients AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma AIDS-defining diseases ailment air 17 air breathing air bubbles air canal air chamber air channels air circulation air conduction air currents air ducts air embolism air exchange air leak air masses air pollutants air pollution air pump air sacs air spaces air stone air temperature air trapping air tubes airborne airborne spread air-breather air-breathing air-dried airflow airfoils airfoils airspaces airway airway closure airway epithelial cells airway epithelium airway inflammation airway obstruction airways akinesia Al ala ala of the vomer alae alanine alanine aminotransferase alanyl-tRNA synthetase alar alar cartilage of the nose alar fold alar ligament alarm call alarm pheromones alarm reaction alarm substance alarmones alastrim albendazole 18 albinism albino albino girl Albulidae Albuliformes albumen albumin albuminuria alcid birds alcohol dehydrogenase alcohol dependence alcohol fermentation alcohol intoxication alcohol poisoning alcohol problems alcohol use alcoholic preparations alcoholism alcohol-related aldehyde dehydrogenase aldehyde sugars aldehydes alder tree aldose aldosterone aldosterone synthase AlDS-associated alert alert state alert state alertness aleurone alfalfa alga algae algal algal beds algal blooms algid malaria algin alginate alginate capsule alien species alight align aligned alignment alimentary canal alimentary route alimentary transmission aliphatic aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds aliphatic hydrocarbon substrates aliquot alive alkali alkali treatment 19 alkaline alkaline conditions alkaline lysate alkaline lysis alkaline phosphatase alkaline stains alkaline tolerance alkalinity alkaloid alkaptonuria alkyl alkyl group alkyl phospholipid alkylated alkylating alkylating chemicals alkylation alkylguanine alkyl-phospholipid alkyltransferase allantoin allantois Allee effect allele allele combination allele composition allele copies allele for selfing allele for susceptibility allele for susceptibility allele frequency allele frequency changes allele frequency differences allele lineage allele pair allele substitutions allelic allelic differences allelic diversity allelic exclusion allelic form allelic pair allelic state allelic variants allelic variation allelopathy Allen s test allergen allergenicity allergen-IgE reaction allergen-IgE response allergen-specific response allergic allergic alveolitis allergic aspergillus alveolitis allergic asthma allergic disorder 20 allergic IgE-dependent diseases allergic reaction allergic response allergic rhinitis allergic rhinitis allergic skin reactions allergic symptoms allergically allergy allergy symptoms allergy test alleviate alleviation of competition all-female alligators allocate allocations of energy allochthonous allocortex allodynia allogeneic stimulation allogenic allograft allohexaploid alloimmunization alloinfection allolactose allolactose inducer allometric coefficient allometric coefficient allometric growth allometric relationship allometric threshold allometrically related allometries allometry allopatric allopatric divergence allopatric fragmentation allopatric speciation allopatrically allopatry allopolyploid allopolyploidy alloreactive alloreactivity allorecognition all-or-none law all-or-none response allosteric allosteric activation allosteric effector allosteric effects allosteric enzyme allosteric inhibitory site allosteric protein allosteric regulation 21 allosteric regulators allosteric regulatory site allosteric site allosterically allostery allotetraploid allotransplant allotype allotypic differences allozygous allozyme allozyme analysis allozyme clines allozyme data allozyme differences allozyme frequencies allozyme loci allozyme markers allozyme study allozyme variation allylamines Aloe vera alone alpha block alpha carbon alpha cells alpha globulins alpha proteobacteria alpha rhythm patterns alpha rhythm patterns alpha-Amanitin alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole- 4-propionate receptors alpha-synuclein alphatoxin alphavirus alpine Alpine barley alpine tundra ALS ALT alter alteration alteration of a DNA sequence alteration of gene sequence alteration of genes alterations of chromosome number altered altered amino acid sequence altered e­xpression altered mental capacity altered patterns of gene expression altered phenotypes altered sensation altered state of consciousness altered states of consciousness alternate 22 alternate leaf arrangement alternate phyllotaxy alternately alternating alternation alternation of generations alternative activation of complement alternative activation pathway alternative complement pathway alternative exons alternative mating strategies alternative mRNA processing alternative pathway alternative poly A processing alternative processing alternative RNA hairpin alternative RNA splicing alternative sigma factors alternative splicing alternative splicing alternative splicing pattern alternative translation start site alternatively processed alternatively spliced altitude altruism altruist altruistic altruistic act altruistic act altruistic behavior altruistic trait altruistically alum aluminum aluminum poisoning aluminum sulfate alveolar alveolar air alveolar arch alveolar bone alveolar colloid of the liver alveolar ducts alveolar echinococcosis alveolar epithelium alveolar foramen alveolar gas alveolar gas pressure alveolar hydatid disease alveolar macrophage alveolar mucosa alveolar part of mandible alveolar PCO2 alveolar PO2 alveolar pressure alveolar process alveolar ridge 23 alveolar sacs alveolar space alveolar type I cells alveolar ventilation alveolar walls alveolar-capillary block alveolar-capillary exchange alveolates, Alveolata alveoli alveolitis alveolocapillary membrane alveolococcosis alveolus amacrine cells amantadine amastigote amastigote form amastigote stage ambient pressure ambient temperature ambiguity ambisense ambisense genome ambi-sense single-stranded genome ambisense virus ambulatory Ambystoma maculatum AME ameba ameba amebapore amebiasis amebic colitis amebic cysts amebic dysentery amebic liver abscess amebic species amebic trophozoites amebicides ameboflagellates ameboid ameboid motility ameboid organism ameboma amebosis ameliorate amenorrhea ament American Cancer Society American trypanosomosis amidated amidation amide bond amide group amiid fishes, Amiidae amikacin amine 24 aminergic aminergic system amines amino acid amino acid acceptor site amino acid acceptor stem amino acid adenylate amino acid biosynthesis amino acid bridge amino acid catabolism amino acid code amino acid composition amino acid disorders amino acid metabolism enzymes amino acid monomers amino acid phosphorylated amino acid polymers amino acid pool amino acid position amino acid replacement amino acid residue amino acid screen amino acid sequence amino acid side chains amino acid substitution amino acid unit amino acid-binding site amino acid-changing mutation amino acid-coding sequences amino acid-coding sequences amino acid-coding triplets of bases amino acid-nucleotide cofactors amino acid-replacing amino acid-replacing substitutions amino alcohol amino end amino end of protein amino group amino sugars amino terminal ends amino terminals amino terminus aminoacyl adenylate aminoacyl site aminoacylated aminoacylation, aminoacylation reaction aminoacyl-tRNA bond aminoacyl-tRNA molecules aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase aminoacyl-tRNAs aminobenzoic acid aminobutyrate aminocyclitol antibiotics aminoglycosidases aminoglycoside acetyltransferase aminoglycoside antibiotics aminoglycosides 25 aminolipids aminopenicillin aminopeptidase aminopterin aminopyrine A-minor interactions A-minor motif amitochondriate ammonia ammonification ammonifying bacteria ammonites ammonium ammonium chloride ammonium compounds ammonium cyanate ammonium ions ammonium salts ammonoid amnesic aphasia amniocentesis amnion amnion cells amniotes, Amniota amniotic amniotic cavity amniotic egg amniotic fluid amniotic sac amniotic sac amoeba amoeba-like amoebic dysentery amoebicides amoebocytes amoeboid amoeboid cells amoeboid movement amoebozoans Amoebozoa among-population genetic differentiation amorphous amount amount of CO2 expired amount of dissolved oxygen amount of genetic variation amount of secondary structure amount of variation amoxicillin amoxicillin-clavulanate AMP AMPA receptors amphetamines amphibians amphibious amphibolic cycle amphichelydian turtles 26 amphichelydians amphimixis amphioxi amphioxus amphipathic amphipathic helix amphipathic lipids amphipathic molecules amphipods Amphipoda amphisbaenians Amphisbaenia amphotensides amphoteric amphotericin B ampicillin ampicillin-sulbactam amplification amplification culture amplification tests amplified amplified fragment length polymorphisms amplified products amplify amplifying effect amplitude amprenavir ampulla ampulla of bile duct ampulla of bile duct ampulla of the ductus deferens ampulla of Vater ampullary amu amygdala amygdalin amygdalo-hypothalamic fibers amygdaloid amygdaloid nucleus amylase amyloid fibrils amyloid plaques amyloid precursor protein amyloid β-protein Tau amyloid-like fibrils amylopectin amyloplast amylose amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ANA anabolic anabolic effect anabolic hormone anabolic metabolism anabolic nervous system anabolic operon anabolic pathway 27 anabolic reaction anabolic steroids anabolic-androgenic steroids anabolism anadromous anaerobe infection anaerobe transport container anaerobic anaerobic cellulitis anaerobic conditions anaerobic glycolysis anaerobic metabolism anaerobic milieu anaerobic respiration anaerobic system anaerobically anagenesis anagenetic anagenetic evolution anal anal aperture anal area anal canal anal cleft anal columns anal glands anal impression smear anal intercourse anal margin anal margin anal membrane anal pecten anal pit anal pores anal pruritus anal region anal sinus anal sphincter anal swab anal triangle anal valves anal verge anal wall analgesia analgesic activity analgesic effect analgesics analog analogous analogue analysis analytical method analytically analyze anamnestic reaction anamnestic response anandamide 28 anaphase anaphylactic hypersensitivity anaphylactic reaction anaphylactic shock anaphylatoxins anaphylaxis anaphylotoxins anaplasmosis Anarhichadidae anasarca anastomose anastomoses anastomotic channels anastomotic connection anastomotic network Anatidae anatomical anatomical data anatomical evidence anatomical neck anatomical plane anatomical position anatomical snuff box anatomically anatomically modern anatomy ancestor ancestor-descendant pair ancestor-descendant relationship ancestor-descendant relationship ancestor-descendant sequence ancestral ancestral anatomy ancestral character ancestral character state ancestral condition ancestral copy ancestral distribution ancestral gene ancestral haplotype ancestral immunoglobulin-like gene ancestral molecular polymorphisms ancestral organism ancestral polymorphisms ancestral population ancestral proteins ancestral RAG-containing transposon ancestral species ancestral state ancestrally ancestral-type ancestry anchor anchor cell anchorage anchorage dependence anchored 29 anchoring anchoring junctions anchoring junctions anchoring point ancient ancient bacteria ancient DNA ancient purple bacteria ancient times ancient tree resin ancient woodland anconeus muscle ancreatic fluids Ancylostoma duodenale ancylostomosis androgen insensitivity syndrome androgen-binding protein androgenic activity androgenic flush androgens andropause androstenedione androsterone anelectrotonic anemia anemic anemic hypoxia anemic person anemone anemone anergized anergy anesthesia anesthesia breathing circuit anesthesiology equipment anesthetics anesthetized aneuploid aneuploid condition aneuploids aneuploidy aneurysm aneurysm rupture angel dust Angelman syndrome angina pectoris angioedema angiogenesis angiogenesis inhibitors angiography angioplasty angioproliferative lesions angiosperm angiosperms angiostrongylosis angiotensin angiotensin-converting enzyme 30 angiotensin II angiotensinogen angle angle of a rib angle of mandible angle the cervix angled angled shape anglerfishes Anguilliformes angular acceleration angular artery angular gyrus angular incisure angular methyl group angular motion angular movements angular notch angular vein Anhimidae anhydrase anhydrobiosis anhydrobiotic anicteric anicteric leptospirosis aniline dyes animal animal behavior animal bites animal bites animal carriers animal cells animal cognition animal corpses animal dens animal diversification animal diversity animal domestication animal experimentation animal feces animal foods animal hair animal hemisphere animal hemisphere cortex animal herds animal immune deficiency viruses animal inoculation animal kingdom animal life animal meal animal mitochondrial DNA animal models animal mtDNA animal origin animal phyla animal phylogeny animal phylogeographic studies 31 animal pole animal pollination animal pollinators animal products animal relationships animal reservoir animal sources animal starch animal test animal testing animal touch animal-borne Animalia animal-vegetal axis anion anion-exchange chromatography anion gap anionic anionically charged anisakiosis anise oil anisocytosis anisogamy ankle ankle bone ankle brachial pressure index ankle jerk ankle joint ankle-brachial index ankle-brachial index ankyloglossia ankylosed primary teeth ankyrin anneal annealed annealing annealing of primers annealing temperature annelids annelid worms Annelida annexins annotation annual annual energy budget annual plants annual precipitation annual rainfall annual rings annuals annucleate annular ligament annular pancreas annular rings annular tendon annulate annulated 32 annulo-spiral endings annulus of Zinn anococcygeal anococcygeal body anococcygeal ligament anococcygeal membrane anococcygeal nerve anococcygeal raphe anocutaneous line anodal current anode anogenital anogenital mucosal membranes anogenital warts anole lizards anoles anomic aphasia anonymous Anoplura anorectal angle anorectal gonorrhea anorectal infection anorectal junction anorexia anorexia nervosa anosmia anovulatory cycle anoxia anoxic anoxic anoxic anoxia anoxic injury ANP ansa cervicalis ansa hypoglossi Anseriformes ant colony ant mound antagonism antagonist antagonistic antagonistic actions antagonistic coevolution antagonistic effect antagonistic fashion antagonistic muscles antagonistic pair antagonistic pleiotropy antagonistic selection antagonistically antagonists antagonize Antarctic Antarctic Circle antbirds anteater antecedent 33 antecubital vein antecubital vein antenna complex antennae antennal imaginal disc antennules anterior anterior area of the temple anterior aspect of the thigh anterior auricular muscle anterior belly of digastric muscle anterior cardiac veins anterior cavity anterior cecal artery anterior cerebral artery anterior chamber anterior chamber angle anterior ciliary arteries anterior ciliary veins anterior circumflex humeral artery anterior clinoid processes anterior communicating artery anterior corner of the upper lateral quadrant anterior coronary ligament anterior cranial fossa anterior cricoarytenoid muscles anterior cutaneous branches anterior descending branch anterior descending branch anterior division anterior edge of the temporal bone anterior ethmoidal artery anterior ethmoidal foramen anterior ethmoidal nerve anterior fascicle anterior fontanelle anterior funiculus of the spinal cord anterior glandular branch anterior gluteal line anterior horn cell anterior hypothalamic area anterior inferior cerebellar arteries anterior inferior iliac spine anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal vein anterior intercostal arteries anterior internodal tract anterior interventricular artery anterior interventricular branch anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery anterior interventricular vein anterior jugular vein anterior lacrimal crest anterior layer of the renal fascia anterior lobe of the pituitary 34 anterior lobe of the pituitary gland anterior longitudinal ligament anterior median fissure anterior mediastinum anterior medullary velum anterior meningeal arteries anterior mesentery anterior myocardial infarction anterior nasal spine anterior palatine foramen anterior papillary muscle anterior part of scalp anterior part of the base of the skull anterior pituitary gland anterior pituitary hormones anterior pituitary insufficiency anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves C6 anterior rami of spinal nerves anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves anterior ramus of nerve L1 anterior reticulospinal tract anterior roots of spinal nerves anterior sacro-iliac ligament anterior scalene muscle anterior sclera anterior spinal artery anterior superior alveolar arteries anterior superior iliac spine anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery anterior talar articular surface anterior talofibular ligament anterior tibial artery anterior triangle anterior triangle of the neck anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery anterior tympanic artery anterior urethra anterior vagal trunk anterior vascular capsule of the lens anterior veins of right ventricle anterior view anterior-inferior anteriorly anteriormost thoracic segments anterior-posterior anterior-posterior axis anterior-posterior expression anterior-posterior gradient anterior-posterior view anterior-to-posterior anterograde transport anterogradely anteroinferior dislocation anterolateral anterolateral system of ascending fibers 35 anterolateral view anteromedial anteromedial knee anteroposterior anteroposterior diameter anteroposterior view anterosuperior anteverted position of the uterus anthelminthic anthelmintic anthelmintic agents anther antheridia antheridiophores antheridium Anthocerophyta Anthoceros natans anthocyanins Anthophyta anthozoans Anthozoa anthracite anthracosaur anthrax anthropocentric anthropogenic anthropogenic activity Anthropoid apes anthropoid primates anthropoid primates anthropoids Anthropoidea anthropological anthropologist anthropology anthroponosis anthroponotic anthropophilic anti conformation anti-A antibodies antiaggregating effect anti-aging antiallergic antiamebic antiapoptosis antiarrhythmic anti-B antibodies antibacterial antibacterial action antibacterial agent antibacterial chemotherapeutics antibacterial immune effector mechanisms antibacterial spectrum antibacterial substances antibacterial therapy antibiotic antibiotic activity 36 antibiotic antagonism antibiotic combinations antibiotic drugs antibiotic measures antibiotic producers antibiotic production antibiotic prophylaxis antibiotic regimen antibiotic resistance antibiotic resistance genes antibiotic selection marker gene antibiotic substances antibiotic susceptibility test antibiotic synergism antibiotic therapy antibiotic treatment antibiotic-associated colitis antibiotic-inactivating enzymes anti-blood group antibody reactions antibodies and complement-dependent mechanisms antibody antibody assay antibody capture solution hybridization assay antibody clearance antibody coating of the virus antibody detection antibody detection method antibody diversity antibody diversity antibody genes antibody identification antibody inhibition assay antibody memory antibody methods antibody molecules antibody neutralization antibody prevalence levels antibody probe antibody production antibody proteins antibody response antibody specificities antibody strength antibody test antibody titers antibody-antigen binding antibody-based test antibody-binding cells antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity cells antibody-dependent cellular immunity antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection antibody-directed reaction antibody-escape virus 37 antibody-forming cell antibody-loaded erythrocytes antibody-loaded lymphocyte antibody-loaded particles antibody-mediated antibody-mediated clearance antibody-mediated hemolysis antibody-mediated immunity antibody-mediated response antibody-producing B cells antibody-producing cells antibody-producing plasma cell antibody-secreting cells antibody-secreting plasma cells antibody-transgenic antibotic associated anticancer anticancer agent anticapsular antibodies anticapsule anti-CD28 anti-CD3 anti-CD3 antibody anti-CD4 anti-CD8 anticlotting anticlotting anticlotting factors anticoagulant anticoagulant anticoagulant activity anticoagulant enzymes anticoagulated blood anticoagulation anticoagulative substances anticodon anticodon arm anticodon deaminase anticodon loop anticodon sequence anticodon stem anti-collagen antibodies anti-complement factors anticomplementary anticonvulsant anti-D anti-D antibodies anti-D serum anti-Darwinian antidepressant effect antidepressants anti-desmosome antibodies antidiuresis antidiuretic antidiuretic hormone anti-DNase B test antidromic conduction 38 antidromic impulses antidromic stimulation antidromically antiemetic antiestrogenic antievolutionary antievolutionist antifolates antifreeze antifungal anti-GBM antibodies antigen antigen A antigen activated B cells antigen assay antigen binding antigen capture antigen D antigen deposits in adjuvants antigen detection antigen epitopes antigen fragment antigen immunogenicity antigen kinetics antigen make-up antigen mixture antigen presentation antigen protein antigen receptor genes antigen receptor genes antigen receptors antigen recognition antigen recognition structure antigen sample antigen selection antigen specificity antigen stimulation antigen stimulus antigen structure antigen testing antigen transfer antigen variability antigen variants antigen variation antigen-activation receptor antigen-antibody binding antigen-antibody complex antigen-antibody immune complexes antigen-antibody profile antigen-antibody reaction antigen-binding cell antigen-binding fragment antigen-binding site antigen-combining site antigen-coupled erythrocytes antigen-dependent differentiation process antigen-detection test 39 antigenemia test antigen-experienced effector lymphocytes antigenic antigenic appearance antigenic challenge antigenic changes antigenic determinant antigenic differences antigenic distinction antigenic drift antigenic masking antigenic mimicry antigenic particles antigenic peptides antigenic phase variation antigenic response antigenic shift antigenic specificities antigenic stimulation antigenic structures and sequences antigenic tagging antigenic target antigenic variability antigenic variants antigenic variation antigenically antigenically cross-reactive antigenicity antigenicity structure antigenicity structure antigen-IgG complexes antigen-independent antigen-induced activation antigen-loaded particles antigen-modified erythrocytes antigen-presenting cell antigen-presenting cells antigen-presenting dendritic cells antigen-presenting groove antigen-reactive antigen-reactive peripheral T cells antigens antigens of protein attachment fimbriae antigen-specific antigen-specific activation antigen-specific immune response antigen-specific recognition antigen-specific T lymphocytes antigen-transporting APCs antiglobulin test anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies antigluconeogenetic antigravity reflexes anti-HBc anti-HBe antibodies antihelix 40 antihistamines antihuman antihypertensive therapy anti-idiotypic anti-Ig antibodies anti-IgE antibodies anti-IL antibodies anti-immunoglobulin antibodies antiimmunoglobulin proteases anti-infection substances anti-infective agents anti-infective drugs anti-infective regimen antiinflammatory antiinflammatory effect antiinsulin antiinsulin action anti-interleukins anti-intrinsic factor antibodies antiketogenic antiketotic antilipoidal antibodies antilipolytic anti-lymphocyte antisera anti-lymphocyte antiserum anti-lymphocytic serum antimalaria vaccine antimalarial drugs antimalarials antimalarials antimetabolites antimicrobial antimicrobial agent antimicrobial compounds antimicrobial peptides antimicrobial resistance antimicrobial secretions antimicrobial susceptibility test antimicrobial susceptibility testing antimicrobial therapy antimicrobial treatment antimicrobial vaccines antimicrobials anti-mitochondrial antimitotic antimonial antimonial compounds antimonials antimuscle response antimycobacterial therapy antimycotic agents antimycotics antineoplastic antinuclear antibodies anti-oestrogen action antioncogene antiorexigenic 41 antioxidant antioxidant activity antioxidant effect antioxidant properties antioxidant supplements antioxidants in tissues antiparallel antiparallel sheet antiparallel β-sheet antiparasitic antiparasitic agents antiparasitic immunity antipathogen antiperistalsis antiphagocytic antiphagocytic coat antiphagocytic effect antiphagocytic mechanisms antiphagocytosis antipolysaccharide IgM antiport antiporter anti-predator behaviour antiprotozoal agents antipruritics antipsychotic drug antipyretic effect antireceptor antirejection drugs antirejection drugs antiretroviral antiretroviral therapy anti-Rh agglutinins anti-Rh antibodies anti-Rh titer antisense antisense DNA antisense oligonucleotides antisense RNA antisense RNA strand antisense strand antisense template strand antisense viruses antisense-coded proteins antisense-strand RNA antisense-strand RNA segments antisense-strand viruses antisepsis antiseptic antiseptic agents antisera antiserum antistreptococcal antibodies anti-streptokinase antibodies antistreptolysin antibodies antistreptolysin O test antistreptolysin titer 42 anti-T-cell antibodies anti-TCR anti-TCR networks antitermination antiterminator antiterminator hairpin antithetical to antithrombin III antithrombotic effect anti-thyroglobulin anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies antithyroid antibodies antitoxic serum antitoxic therapy antitoxins anti-trades antitragus antitransformation proteins antitreponema antibodies antitreponemal antitreponeme antibody test antitreponeme lgM antibodies antituberculoid agents antituberculotic agents antituberculous therapy antitumor anti-tumor effect antitumor responses antitumor therapy antitumor therapy antiuricemic therapy antivenene antivenin antivenom antiviral antiviral antibodies antiviral chemotherapeutics antiviral drugs antiviral interferon antiviral proteins antiviral recombinant vaccine antiviral state antiviral therapeutics antiviral-drug–resistant virus antral antral fluid antral follicle antral systole antrum anucleate anular disc tear anular ligament anulus anulus fibrosus anurans, Anura anuria anuric 43 anus anvil anxiety anxiety disorder anxiety states aorta aortic aortic aneurysm aortic arch aortic arch baroreceptors aortic atresia aortic bifurcation aortic body aortic body chemoreceptors aortic chemoreceptors aortic clicks aortic coarctation aortic cuff aortic diastolic pressure aortic dissection aortic glands aortic hiatus aortic impedance aortic insuffiency aortic lumen aortic orifice aortic plexus aortic pressure aortic regurgitation aortic regurgitation aortic ring aortic sinuses aortic stenosis aortic valve aortic valve disease aortic vestibule aortic wall aorticorenal aorticorenal ganglia aorticorenal ganglion aortopulmonary collaterals aortopulmonary window AP diameter AP endonuclease AP site AP-1 apalcillin apathetic apathogenic apathogenically apathy APCs ape apelike aperture apex apex of the cochlea 44 apex of the heart apex of the lung apex of the orbit apex of the right ventricle Apgar score aphakic eye aphids aphotic aphotic region Apiaceae apical apical bud apical cell apical complex of microtubules apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells apical dominance apical end apical growth process apical lung tumor apical margin of the cell apical membrane apical meristem apical nodes apical pleura apical tooth tissue apical-basal pattern formation apically Apicomplexa apicomplexan apicomplexan apicomplexans apicoplast aplasia aplastic anemia aplastic crisis apnea apneic episodes apneic spells APO apodans Apoda apoenzyme apoferritin apoinducer apolipoproteins apomictic apomixis apomorphic aponeurosis aponeurosis epicranialis aponeurosis of the external oblique apoplast apoplast pathway apoplastic apoproteins apoptosis 45 apoptosis antigen apoptosome apoptotic apoptotic activity apoptotic bodies apoptotic cells apoptotic death apoptotic killing apoptotic pathway apoptotic proteins aposematic aposematic coloration aposematically APP apparatus apparent appearance appendage appended appendices epiploicae appendicular appendicular artery appendicular group appendicular skeleton appendicular vessels appendicularians Appendicularia appendix appendix epiploica appendix epiploica appetite appetite stimulant appetite-regulating hormones apple scab apple scar skin viroid application application route applied ecology appliqué position apprehension approach Apterygidae APUD cells apurinic apurinic acid apurinic site apurinic/apyrimidinic site aPV apyrimidinic aquaporin aquaporin channels aquarium fish aquatic aquatic biodiversity aquatic community aquatic environment aquatic insect larvae 46 aquatic life aquatic life zone s boundaries aquatic study aqueduct of Sylvius aqueous aqueous aqueous cytoplasm aqueous drainage system aqueous environment aqueous fluid aqueous humor aqueous ion channels aqueous layer aqueous liquid aqueous solution aqueous suspension aqueous veins aquifer Ar ARA arabinogalactan polymer arable fields arable land Araceae arachidonic acid arachnids arachnoid mater arachnoid granulations arachnoid granulations arachnoid granulations arachnoid space arachnoid trabeculae arachnoid villi arboencephalitis viruses arboreal arboreal environment arboreal existence arboreal life arboreal locomotion arboreality arboviral arbovirus arbovirus disease arbuscular arbuscular mycorrhizae arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi arbuscule arch of the aorta arch of the azygos vein arch of the fauces archaea archaeal archaeal enzymes Archaean eon archaean archaebacteria archaeological evidence 47 archaeological remains archaeological site Archaeopteryx archaeplastids, Archaeplastida archaic Archean Archean age archegonia archegoniophores archegonium archenteron arches of tissue archetype archipelago architecture Archosauria archosauromorph diapsids archosaurs arctic Arctic Circle arctic environments arctic tundra arcuate eminence arcuate fasciculus arcuate ligaments arcuate line arcuate line of the abdomen arcuate nucleus arcuate pubic ligament arcuate pubic ligament arcuate vein ARDS area area centralis area cladogram area for diffusion area for digestion area of cell elongation area of infarction area of inflammation area of origin area of research area of transition area postrema areas of organic enrichment areas of woodland arenavirus areola areolar tissue Argasidae arginine arginine vasopressin arginine-synthesizing pathway argon arid arid conditions arietal pelvic fascia 48 arildone arise from arising from arm arm bones armadillo armaments armed armed with teeth armor armor plates armored armored fishes armpit arm-swing army army ants aroids aromatase aromatase inhibitors aromatic aromatic compound aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase aromatic leaves aromatization arousability arousal arousal state arousal system arousal system aroused arranged arrangement arrangement of veins array arrayed library arrest arrestins arrhythmia arrival arrive arsenic arsenicals ARSs ART artemether artemisinin arteria radicularis magna arterial arterial access arterial adventitial cyst arterial arcades arterial baroreceptors arterial blood arterial blood gas arterial blood gases arterial blood pressure 49 arterial catheter arterial circulation arterial CO2 content arterial damage arterial graft arterial oxygen saturation arterial oxygen tension arterial partial pressure of CO2 arterial PCO2 arterial plasma arterial plasma level arterial pressure arterial pulsation arterial pulse arterial pulse quality arterial segment arterial supply arterial system arterial valves arterial walls arteries of the umbilical cord arteriolar arteriolar dilation arterioles arterioluminal vessels arteriosclerosis arteriosinusoidal vessels arteriovascular disease arteriovenous arteriovenous arteriovenous anastomoses arteriovenous fistula arteriovenous malformation arteriovenous O2 difference arteriovenous shunt arteriviruses artery artery of Adamkiewicz artery of bulb of penis artery of the urethral bulb artery walls artesunate arthralgias arthritic change of joints arthritic elbow arthritis arthrogenic disease arthropathy arthrophytes arthropodborne arthropods arthroscope arthroscopic repair of a joint arthroscopy arthrospores Arthus reaction, Arthus-type reaction articular 50 articular bone articular branches articular cartilage articular cavity articular damage articular deformity articular degeneration articular discs articular fossa articular muscle articular processes articular surfaces articular tubercle articularis genus muscle articular-quadrate hinge articulate articulated articulating articulation artifactual artificial heart valve artificial induction artificial selection artificially artificially stained artiodactyl artiodactyls Artiodactyla aryepiglottic aryepiglottic aryepiglottic folds arylated arylating arylating agent adducts arylating agents arylsulfatases arytenoid cartilage ascariasis ascarids ascariosis Ascaris lumbricoides hominis Ascaris suum ascend ascending ascending aorta ascending branches of the left gastric artery ascending cervical artery ascending colon ascending limb ascending limb of Starling curve ascending paralysis ascending part of the duodenum ascending pharyngeal artery ascending tracts ascending vasa recta ascending venography ascension 51 ascent Aschoff-Tawara node asci ascidians Ascidiacea ascites ascitic fluid Asclepiadaceae Asclepias tuberosa ascocarp ascoma ascomycete fungi ascomycetes Ascomycota asconoid canal system asconoid system ascorbic acid ascospore ascus asepsis aseptic aseptic meningitis aseptic meningoencephalitis aseptically asexual asexual condition asexual cycle asexual division asexual genotype asexual genotype asexual lineages asexual propagation asexual reproduction asexual reproductive stage asexual spores asexuality asexually asexually derived asexually produced asexually reproducing ash leaf spots Ashkenazi Jews Asian taeniosis A-site asparagine asparagine-linked carbohydrate aspartate aspartate aminotransferase aspartic acid aspect aspergilli aspergillosis aspergillus asphyxia asphyxiated asphyxiation aspirate 52 aspirate material aspirated fluid aspiration aspiration pneumonia aspiration syndrome asplenia asplenia syndrome asplenic individuals assay assay format assemblage assemble assembled ribosome assembly assembly factor assess assign assignment assignment tests assimilate assimilation assist assisted reproductive techniques assisted reproductive technologies associate associated associate as pairs associate closely associate physically associate physically associated movements association association areas association functions association neu
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