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Studia Iuridica. Number 61 - ebook/pdf
Studia Iuridica. Number 61 - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego Język publikacji: angielski
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Journal in the field of legal sciences. Issued since 1974. The authors of the texts are not only outstanding scientists, but also Polish and foreign practitioners. They describe and explain problems appearing in Polish and other law as well as in international law. The magazine publishes articles in Polish, English, Russian and German.

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61 www.uw.edu.pl/ksiegarnia MISCELLANEA 61 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== StudiaIudridica61.indd All Pages 07/12/15 18:18 MISCELLANEA ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== strStudiaIudridica61.indd 1 07/12/15 18:03 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== strStudiaIudridica61.indd 2 07/12/15 18:03 Studia Iuridica tom 61 MISCELLANEA Warszawa 2015 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== strStudiaIudridica61.indd 3 10/12/15 13:11 Rada Programowa Grażyna Bałtruszajtys (przewodnicząca), Jan Błeszyński, Zdzisław Galicki, Hubert Izdebski, Jacek Lang, Maria Rogacka-Rzewnicka, Marek Wąsowicz, Beata Janiszewska (sekretarz) Członkowie Rady Programowej afiliowani za granicą Marc Bors (Uniwersytet we Fribourgu), Michael Martinek (Uniwersytet w Saarbrücken), Alessandro Somma (Uniwersytet w Ferrarze), Elena V. Timoshina (Uniwersytet w Sankt Petersburgu) Recenzenci „Studia Iuridica” w 2015 r. Francisco Javier Andrés Santos, Wojciech Dajczak, Włodzimierz Kamyszanskij, Luz Maria Martinez Velencoso, Andriej Łusznikow, Bronisław Sitek, Jakob Fortunat Stagl Redaktor naczelny Tomasz Giaro Redaktor tematyczny Łukasz Pisarczyk Redaktor językowy Radosław Pawelec Sekretarz Redakcji Adam Niewiadomski Projekt okładki i stron tytułowych Jakub Rakusa-Suszczewski Redaktor prowadzący Dorota Dziedzic Redaktor Krystyna Dziewanowska-Stefańczyk Opracowanie redakcyjne streszczeń anglojęzycznych Robert Stępień Skład i łamanie Barbara Obrębska © Copyright by Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 2015 Wersją pierwotną czasopisma jest wersja drukowana. „Studia Iuridica” znajdują się w wykazie czasopism punktowanych przez Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego na potrzeby oceny parametrycznej jednostek naukowych. ISSN 0137-4346 ISBN 978-83-235-2157-0 Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 00-497 Warszawa, ul. Nowy Świat 4 www.wuw.pl; e-mail: wuw@uw.edu.pl Dział Handlowy WUW: tel. (48 22) 55 31 333; e-mail: dz.handlowy@uw.edu.pl Księgarnia internetowa: www.wuw.pl/ksiegarnia Wydanie 1 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== SPIS TREŚCI Bahyt Altinbasov, Nurbek Khairmukhanmedov – Analiza porównawcza kształcenia personelu naukowego w Kazachstanie i za granicą .............................................. 9 Mikołaj Budzikowski – Problemy interpretacyjne zbiegu norm prawa UE z prawem krajowym na przykładzie rynku cukru ................................................ 23 Paweł Czechowski, Adam Niewiadomski – Wybrane problemy prawne współczesnych form ochrony przyrody na przykładzie parków narodowych i sieci obszarów Natura 2000 z uwzględnieniem koegzystencji rolnictwa .......... 35 Waldemar Gontarski – Satyra antyczna a współczesne standardy prawne wypowiedzi prasowej ............................................................................................ 53 Przemysław Litwiniuk – O problemie przeniesienia własności akcji rolniczych rynków hurtowych na rzecz Skarbu Państwa ....................................................... 127 Filip Ludwin – Podział władzy podziałem suwerenności. Rozumienie zasady suwerenności ludu i zasady podziału władzy od XVII do XIX w. ....................... 141 Włodzimierz Makoda – Zagadnienia regulowania prawnego stosunków w dziedzinie własności przemysłowej. Analiza praktyki sądowej ....................... 173 Konrad Marciniuk – Podział nieruchomości – zagadnienia administracyjnoprawne ...... 181 Justyna Markowska, Witold Kowalczyk – Niektóre aspekty materialnoprawne i procesowe instytucji punitive damages z perspektywy polskiej ........................ 211 Adam Niewiadomski – Nowy system funkcjonowania europejskich systemów pomocowych dla rolników gospodarujących na obszarach Natura 2000 w perspektywie finansowej 2014–2020 ................................................................ 233 Mateusz Jerzy Nocuń – Konstytucjonalizacja prywatnych praw podmiotowych jako przejaw dekodyfikacji. „Prawo dziedziczenia” w Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z 2 kwietnia 1997 roku ................................................ 251 Adam Nowak – Ochrona gleb w prawie wspólnotowym – w kontekście projektu „Dyrektywy Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady ustanawiającej ramy dla ochrony gleb oraz zmieniającej dyrektywę 2004/35/WE” ............................. 283 Eugeniusz Riabokoń – Następstwo prawne w stosunku do mienia bezdziedzicznego według ustawodawstwa cywilnego Ukrainy ......................................................... 299 Jan Rudnicki – Kwestia ceny – o różnicy pomiędzy sprzedażą a zamianą ................. 311 Kamil Rudol – Sytuacja prawna wspólnot gruntowych w przeddzień wejścia w życie ustawy nowelizacyjnej ............................................................................. 325 Aleksandra Stalmach – O elastyczności prawa prywatnego na przykładzie rzymskiej adopcji ................................................................................................... 343 Paweł Wojciechowski – Przedawnienie karalności i wykonalności administracyjnych kar pieniężnych ...................................................................................................... 363 Przemysław Marcin Żukowski – Adam Vetulani – Jakub Sawicki. Rzecz o obsadzeniu katedr dawnego prawa polskiego i prawa kościelnego w II Rzeczypospolitej ............................................................................................ 387 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 6 SPIS TREŚCI Z Wydziału Uroczystość wręczenia dyplomu Doktora Honoris Causa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego Prof. Michaelowi Martinkowi ..................................................... 431 In Memoriam Piotr Winczorek – Czy nauka o państwie jest nauką? ................................................ 451 Wspomnienie o Profesorze Piotrze Winczorku – Jan Majchrowski ............................ 459 Kronika Wydziału Prawa i Administracji UW 2013–2014 – Grażyna Bałtruszajtys ........................................................................................ 465 Konferencje zorganizowane przez Wydział Prawa i Administracji UW w 2013 roku – oprac. Larysa Myrgorodska .......................................................... 533 Konferencje zorganizowane przez Wydział Prawa i Administracji UW w 2014 roku – oprac. Larysa Myrgorodska .......................................................... 539 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== CONTENTS Bahyt Altinbasov, Nurbek Khairmukhanmedov – Comparative Analysis of Training of Scholarly Personnel in Kazakhstan and Abroad ............................................... 9 Mikołaj Budzikowski – Problems of Interpretation of the EU Law Standards Confluence with the National Law on the Example of Sugar Market .................. 23 Paweł Czechowski, Adam Niewiadomski – Selected Legal Issues of Modern Forms of Environmental Protection on the Example of National Parks and the Networks of Natura 2000 Sites, Taking into Account Coexistence with Agriculture ..................................................................................................... 35 Waldemar Gontarski – Ancient Satire and Modern Legal Standards of Press Statements ................................................................................................ 53 Przemysław Litwiniuk – On the Issues of Transfer of Shares of Agricultural Wholesale Markets to the State Treasury .............................................................. 127 Filip Ludwin – Separation of Powers and Sovereignty of People. Understanding of the Principle of Separation of Powers and the Idea of Sovereignty of People from 17th to 19th century ...................................................................... 141 Włodzimierz Makoda – Problems of Legal Regulation of Relations in the Field of Industrial Property. Analysis of Legal Practice ................................................ 173 Konrad Marciniuk – Division of Property – Administrative Law Issues .................... 181 Justyna Markowska, Witold Kowalczyk – Some Material and Procedural Law Aspects of Punitive Damages from the Polish Perspective ................................... 211 Adam Niewiadomski – New System of Functioning of European Aid Schemes for Farmers in Natura 2000 Sites in the 2014–2020 Financial Perspective .......... 233 Mateusz Jerzy Nocuń – The Constitutionalisation of the Private Subjective Rights as a Symptom of Decodification. „Right of Succession” in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997 ............................................................ 251 Adam Nowak – Soil Conservation under the European Community Law – in the Context of European Parliament and Council Directive on Establishing Framework for Soil Conservation and Amending 2004/35/CE Directive Draft ....................................................................................................................... 283 Eugeniusz Riabokoń – Succession to Escheat of Property under the Civil Legislation of Ukraine ........................................................................................... 299 Jan Rudnicki – The Question of Price – a Difference between Sale and Barter ......... 311 Kamil Rudol – Legal Situation of Common Lands on the Eve of the Common Lands Act Amendment .......................................................................................... 325 Aleksandra Stalmach – Elasticity of Private Law Exemplified by the Roman Adoption ................................................................................................................. 343 Paweł Wojciechowski – Statute of Limitations of Administrative Fines ..................... 363 Przemysław Marcin Żukowski – Adam Vetulani – Jakub Sawicki. The Way of Appointing Ancient Polish Law and Ecclesiastical Law Departments in the Second Polish Republic ............................................................................... 387 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 8 CONTENTS On Faculty Ceremony of the Warsaw University Doctor Honoris Causa Award to Prof. Michael Martinek .......................................................................................... 431 In Memoriam Piotr Winczorek – Is the Theory of the State Still a Science? ..................................... 451 Recollection of Professor Piotr Winczorek – Jan Majchrowski .................................. 459 Chronicle of Faculty of Law and Administration of the Warsaw University, 2013–2014 – Grażyna Bałtruszajtys ...................................................................... 465 Academic conferences held at the Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Warsaw in 2013 – oprac. Larysa Myrgorodska ................................................ 533 Academic conferences held at the Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Warsaw in 2014 – oprac. Larysa Myrgorodska ................................................ 539 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== Bahyt Altinbasov, Nurbek Khairmukhanmedov L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University Nurbek Khairmukhanmedov L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLY PERSONNEL IN KAZAKHSTAN AND ABROAD 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY Integration of Kazakhstan into the world of higher education gives rise to the question of unification of academic degrees as well as of training system for the scientific and pedagogical personnel. The trend of the world economy poses similar problems in the majority of the countries with national characteristics as well as in reference to global laws governing the educational systems. For exam- ple, there are many problems concerning the integration of Kazakhstan with the European education system. To address these problems successfully it is useful to conduct a comparative analysis of the emergence, formation and development of systems of postgraduate education. This will allow to identify some positive experience which could be effective in improving the national education system. In Kazakhstan, the doctorate was traditionally considered as the vertex grade of higher education. Focused on training researchers, it reflected values and meanings of the universitary education, based on the combination of the tradi- tions and values of scientific work, knowledge and pedagogical mission of pres- ervation and transmission of cultural heritage. As integral part of the academic world and higher education system of researcher training it also faces the need to revise its guidelines and forms as well as to adapt itself to new socio-cultural and economic circumstances. One of the key factors of such transformations is a deeper involvement of Kazakhstan in the process of globalization in education and science. One example of such an involvement is the participation of Kazakhstan in the Bologna pro- cess. This political process, aimed at improving quality of training and mobility of skilled workers in the European Union, has become the basis for reforming the vocational education system in Kazakhstan and other countries. The Bologna ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== STUDIA IURIDICA LXI 10 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV Agreement considers the doctorate as the third step of higher education, which should also build upon its basic principles. Besides the EU a powerful center of influence on the development of university have the U.S. and the Anglo-Saxon culture which attract a growing number of young researchers. In this way, Kazakhstan faces presently global trends in the training of researchers, even if these trends have not found so far a deeper reflection in the domestic doctrine. However, management reform and new legislation in the field of undergrad- uate and postgraduate education in times of integration and globalization have already generated fierce debates among scholars and politicians. Organizational and legal issues in research training through educational programs such as master and doctoral PhD does not go off the agenda. Organization and implementation of educational and scientific activities in the postgraduate education also requires some adjustment. The abovementioned problems of postgraduate education indi- cate the relevance of the issue among the academics. Moreover, the analysis of Education Research shows that this branch of study is in Kazakhstan not sufficiently developed. Today, there are numerous studies of foreign scholars dedicated to the scientific training as an international legal phe- nomenon, such as D. Crosier, L. Purser, H. Smidt, Universities Shaping the Euro- pean Higher Education Area. The EUA Report “Tendencies of universities form the European space of the higher education” (2007), V. I. Baydenko, “Conceptual model of state educational standards of competency” (2004), V. V. Laptev, “Prob- lems in the training of highly qualified scientific personnel at the present stage of development in science and society” (2006), etc. These works stress a great social significance of the integration process in the higher and postgraduate education in foreign countries. However, there are still no scientific papers, reflecting the substantial analysis of the Kazakh system of scientific training. 2. THE CHIEF ANALYSIS It is common knowledge that in March 2010 Kazakhstan with its 60 universi- ties has officially joined the Bologna Agreement and became the 47th full member of the European Higher Education Area. It signified a transition to a three-tier model of training: Bachelor – Master – PhD, based on the principles of the Bolo- gna Declaration, also known as the Great Charter of European Universities1. According to this document, Kazakhstan implements a model of modern doctoral PhD, aimed at preparing a new format of a young scholar oriented towards the world of scholarship. 1 See the Internet site of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 11 In Kazakhstan, the training in doctoral PhD is underway since 2005, but only in 2011 the degree “Doctor of Philosophy PhD” was formally given the status of academic grade. Universities in recent years has trained about 450 doctoral stu- dents, of whom 105 have been awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). About the training of researchers there was a lengthy discussion in Kazakh- stan, and not only in Kazakhstan. As a matter of fact, in some countries of East- ern Europe, where all the old degrees were largely replaced by the new, emerged the same problem of correspondence between the “old” and the “new” degrees. Many scholars wonder whether this system of doctoral training displays remark- able benefits or not. And what should the bearers of the old doctoral diploma do: Is their grade equal to the Bachelor or to the Master degree, and is the degree of candidate of sciences equal to the degree of Doctor in the sense of PhD or not? Asking the same questions, our study aims to analyze various education methods of doctors, PhDs and professors in foreign countries and, based on this analysis, to formulate proposals for the further development of the aforementioned institu- tion, which is expected to increase the level of research activity in Kazakhstan. According to several sources, the doctorate was awarded for the first time in 1130 at the University of Bologna or somewhat later, in 1231 at the University of Paris. The Doctorate (from the Latin verb doceo, I teach) appeared in Europe as a license to teach at the medieval university. As you know, only in 2003 the Bologna process included doctoral programs which were qualified as a third cycle of higher education. Since then, much attention is paid to European educational structures, including the quality of doctoral programs. In accordance to the Trends V Report the doctorate is considered as one of the two models of the organization of doctoral programs. “Doctoral/Research school” is defined there as “an organizational structure that includes only doc- toral students. It may be organized around a particular discipline, research theme or a cross-disciplinary research area and/or it is focused on creating a research group/network and is project-driven. It may involve one institution only or several institutions in a network”2. In Europe and the U.S. there was for a long time a significant variety of aca- demic degrees according to the prevailing national educational traditions. Forms of organization and the value of the doctorate have undergone in recent years strong transformations in many countries. For example, prior to the beginning of the 20th century British and American universities had a small number of teach- ers, usually older scholars, who enjoyed the doctor’s degree. At the same time the German system of higher education required for the position of University lecturer the doctor degree, and this tradition is still widespread in continental Europe. With the growing role of science and the augmenting number of research 2 D. Crosier, L. Purser, H. Smidt, Trends V Report: Universities Shaping the European Higher Education Area, Report “Tendencies: Universities form the European space of the higher educa- tion”, Brussels 2007, p. 27. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 12 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV universities the importance of doctoral programs begun to increase. Today, the doctorate is a general prerequisite for an academic career, although the doctoral training increasingly cease to be associated with a university career. Currently in the West there is no uniform system of academic degrees. Tradi- tional systems of doctoral training and certification also differ greatly. In the first approximation, we can only talk about some highly conditional “clustering” of the countries in which these traditions exhibit more similarities than differences. In this sense, studies on the European system of higher education allows to distin- guish two types of doctoral studies and their respective degrees. Within the first type the doctoral research is organized around the academic research. Its results are presented in the form of dissertation, the so-called doc- toral thesis, and should in principle be suitable for publication in a peer-reviewed publication, usually in scholarly journals or monographs. They must involve at least a modest contribution to the existing human knowledge. These results are presented to a special committee, composed of a small number of professionals in the field, appointed by the university. The most common example of this type is the degree of Philosophy Doctor (PhD), which was particularly widespread in the 20th century. Other examples of such degrees are PhD of Engineering (EngD) in the United States and Great Brit- ain, Doctor of Education (EdD), Doctor of Applied Linguistics (DAppLing) and Doctor of Natural Sciences (DScNat) or Dr. r.nat. in Germany etc.3. It should be noted that the basis of the Anglo-Saxon model, which represents the traditional liberal form of academic education, including some of his eclecti- cisms, becomes now the subject of criticism and encouragement for moderniza- tion on the part of the movement “towards Bologna”4. Unlike in France and in Germany, a master’s degree in the United Kingdom, as well as the degree of PhD, refers to a graduate degree. Doctoral (PhD) pro- grams differ significantly as far as the research component and the ultimate goal of the PhD are concerned. Planned durations tend to be of three years. The PhD candidates may be individuals possessing a master’s degree. This degree is in such cases not just a precondition of entering the doctoral training, but an initial stage of preparing a doctoral thesis. In the United Kingdom a considerable part of the dissertation research at the universities is funded with the help of grants5. Doctoral training programs tend to differ significantly from each other depending on the university and the area of study. A doctorate awarded for origi- nal research is normally carried out for several years. 3 A. A. Gribankova, Main tendencies of development of world system of higher education, “Actual problems of professional pedagogical education” 2011, No. 29, pp. 30–33. 4 The higher education in England: www.grata.ru/eduend.htm. 5 Doctoral Studies and Qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and Prospects. Studies on Higher Education, Bucharest 2004, 302 pp. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 13 Along with the traditional PhD-programs exists a new direction – the New Route PhD which allows to deepen the competence of doctoral candidates in the field of their basic specialization. The New Route PhD program offers a combina- tion of research and a number of educational modules on the mastery of research methods. Doctoral candidates usually learn them at the master’s courses during the first two years of doctoral studies, combining the training with a research project. Since usually the duration of the doctoral program is four years6, the final two years focus on preparing the dissertation. Minimum periods for research and doctoral training may vary considera- bly: in the United Kingdom the minimum time required for a course of study or research for the PhD amount usually to three years. Prerequisite is the completion of a master’s study program. In Kazakhstan, according to the Kazakhstani Law of the Republic dated 27 July, 2007 Nr. 319-III “On education” the first type of doctorate is a PhD based on the profile of vocational education programs of the graduate study during at least three years7. The second type of doctoral studies is the academic type. In some countries, such as Great Britain, Ireland and some Scandinavian countries, there is a degree of higher level, assigned on the basis of formally submitted portfolio containing published works of a very high standard. Examples of such PhD degrees (Doctor of Science; Doctor of Letters), exist in the United Kingdom and some other countries, such as Denmark (doktorgrad of dr. theol. which means Doctor theologiae), etc. In France, Germany and Poland this category refers to degrees of postdoctoral qualification (Habilitation). However, in some German-speaking countries even the Habilitation is not a strictly academic degree, but rather a kind of professional license to teach at a German university. In some other lands the Habilitand is for- mally given the degree of Doctor habilitatus8. The main stage of this procedure is the defense of a habilitation thesis. Its preparation involves a number of scientific works of a much higher level than is required for the doctor’s degree, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Unlike the doctoral thesis, this dissertation is performed independently, i.e. it is not intended to be guided by a more trained scholar. The habilitation procedure looks differently in various countries. In Western Europe, a review of the thesis is needed, the so-called backup. The doctoral mon- ograph and other works of the researcher, including in particular his scientific publications, are valued according to an accepted system of punctuation which 6 Reading 2006. Postgraduate and Professional Development Programs, The University of Reading 2006, 231 pp. www.adilet.zan.kz. org/. 7 The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 27, 2007 No. 319-III “About education”, 8 S. Behrenbeck, Junior Professorship – The German Way of Tenure Track, http://www.oecd. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 14 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV covers also teaching activities (publication of textbooks and training lectures) and organizational work in the field of science (participation in international scien- tific organizations or in boards of editors of international journals, management of research projects etc.). Unlike in Germany, in Anglo-Saxon countries (U.S., Canada, UK and other) the status difference among doctors of philosophy has only implicit significance. These countries follow a so-called tenure system which means a guaranteed aca- demic position for PhD holders. A university assigns tenure to more qualified doctors of philosophy who have high impact factor publications and other scien- tific advances. In fact, PhD holders with tenure enjoy higher scientific, adminis- trative and other positions. Eligible applicants for the scientific degree of DSc (Doctor of Science, Doctor of the profile or habilitated doctor) may be reduced to allow protection only on the basis of a scientific paper on a current problem or in basis of the totality of published works. At the same time, without compromising the requirements for the scientific research, the requirements of international character, such as pub- lications abroad and in international journals, reviews and oppositions to foreign colleagues, periods of foreign training, participation in conferences abroad etc., must be enhanced9. Thus, if we draw an analogy with the domestic system of research training, PhD in the sense of Philosophy Doctor is an analogue of PhD in natural sciences and serves as a passport into the professional science. In the abovementioned English tradition of formal degrees there is no habilitated doctor (Dr. habil.) of German style – it is rather an honorary distinction, which fixes already existing status, determining publications, awards and grants. If the English-speaking countries there are only PhD degrees, whereas in the continental Europe there are doctoral PhD and doctoral Habilitation degrees. Habilitation is important for the sake of career and, in fact, it is an analogue of a doctoral degree in the Kazakhstani domestic sense. As practice shows, in Ger- many, France, Switzerland, Austria and other countries an expert without habilita- tion has no right to claim the professorship, and may not be the formal supervisor of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Having defended his habilitation, a specialist in these countries receives the title of Private-Dozent. French doctoral education can only take place in doctoral schools, accredited by the state and subject to the estimate of the National Agency of Higher Educa- tion and Research. Doctoral studies in France are regulated by the legislation on the admission requirements for doctoral programs, the organization of research and the final result of training, as well as the assessment and verification of degree 9 A. A. Gribankova, Modern foreign approaches to the training of specialists researchers within the training in postgraduate study, Materials of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference “PR in Russia: education, tendencies, international experience”, Krasnodar 2008, pp. 91–94. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 15 awarded. Based on the analysis of the university personnel available, of material and information resources, a “contract” valid four years is issued. A new contract will be signed by the National Committee for Higher Education only providing an assessment of training within the specific doctoral school and the evaluation of results obtained during the previous four years10. The American educational system has become one of the initiators of the modernization process described. Such trappings of the modern high school, as the credit system, the legally confirmed institutional autonomy of universities, the public and professional accreditation of schools etc., were for the first time developed and tested in the U.S. The Doctorate is the main distinction of the researchers and teachers training at the U.S. universities. Even if in the U.S. there is only one stage of the doctoral thesis (PhD), logic and language also apply the term “doctorate” in the sense of degree awarded to a graduate of the medicine school. However, in fact and according to the qualification requirements doctoral dissertation in the United States corresponds to the doctoral dissertation in the national education systems11. In opposition to the American model of researchers training, the European system is characterized by a longer duration and more methodical organization. The American training often includes a five-year PhD-program. In the first two years of training a very large emphasis is placed on practical competences, whereas in subsequent years on research. Unlike in Europe, the U.S. five-year PhD program may receive bachelors. In contrast to the U.S., in Europe no doctoral training system has been tradi- tionally elaborated. Whereas the American universities created in the early 20th century a broad system of doctoral programs that combine theoretical training courses with practical research, in Europe postgraduate studies implied an indi- vidual approach: students apply skills acquired in their research work under the guidance of experienced researchers. The first national university ranking appeared in the U.S., published in 1983 by the American magazine “U.S. News World Report”. Subsequently, there were dozens of ratings and league tables of higher education institutions and indi- vidual educational programs in high schools, including PhD programs. In the United States doctoral programs are evaluated both independently and together with many other areas of the educational activities of the university, when universities are ranked in general12. 10 Doctoral Studies: the Siena Experience. Projects Related to the Bologna Process by Uni- versities Austria: How to Assure Quality in New-Style Doctoral Studies?, Wien 2009. 11 A. A. Gribankova, Organization of the training of researchers in higher education institu- tions of the USA, [in:] Actual problems of professional pedagogical education, Kaliningrad 2011, pp. 46-48. 12 Quality of education: problems and prospects, ed. A. V. Petrov, N. Novgorod 2007. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 16 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV After the time of national rankings passed by, even more influential global ratings appeared, including ratings of specialized PhD programs. Such studies are conducted by professional associations, academies, schools, special rating agen- cies, media, etc. For example, there is an influential rating of doctoral programs in philosophy called the Philosophical Gourmet Report13. It should be noted that due to these ratings, originating from America, pro- spective doctoral students actively use information about the universities with PhD programs, published in magazines. Ratings are red by 40 of American students, and 11 said that they are an important factor determining their choice. In the UK, 61 of the students consulted some ratings before making their decision, and 70 considered them to be important or very important. In Ger- many, 60 of potential doctoral students use the ratings as one of the sources of information on universities and their doctoral programs. Paying attention to the ratings, employers recruit specialists from the prestige universities. Meanwhile ratings are already beginning to usurp the function of quality assurance equal to sampling14. According to these data, we are entitled to conclude that under the influence of Bologna agreements mainstream trend, found in most European countries in the researchers training, becomes a widespread introduction of structured doctoral training programs specially created within high schools. In contrast to the U.S., in Europe a structured doctoral training system has traditionally been unknown. As we already stated, since the early 20th century American doctoral programs combine theoretical training courses with practical research, whereas in Europe the training implied an individual approach. In general, scholarship has shown that the current system of researchers train- ing looks for a way out of the crisis, which was present at the turn of the century in many countries, including Kazakhstan. According to the identified trends the key areas of transformation in the system of university doctoral training programs in Europe and the U.S. encompass complex organizational and pedagogical con- ditions that allow to implement the following tasks: – creation of systematic training courses and educational control forms that integrate research training in comparable educational standards; – strengthening of universal components in preparing research specialist associated with social competence, necessary for a modern representative of the scientific community; – inclusion of doctoral research in the context of innovation policy of the uni- versity and potential commercialization of research results. 13 Philosophical Gourmet Report, http://www.philosophicalgourmet.com. 14 Е. Hazelkorn, Are Rankings a Useful Transparency Instrument?, www.dit.ie/researchan- denterprise; The emperor has no clothes? Rankings and the shift from quality assurance to world- class excellence, http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/rankings. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 17 It should be noted that a modern attestation of scientific and scientific-peda- gogical personnel is characterized in Kazakhstan by the centralized state control in the sphere of scientific degrees and titles, as well as their awarding by the State. This system has its pros and cons. Currently, science and the proper preparation of doctoral theses are often mistakenly identified. Obtaining a degree is seen as a major stimulus for the progress of science. Under the conditions of insufficient funding, limited demand for scientists, lack of a developed system of support to basic research, insufficient wages of scientists and high school teachers, financial incentives are not working. It does not quite match our economy15. No less important is the question of the relationship between the degrees of Candidate of Sciences and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Perhaps the latter should be equated to the Doctor of Philosophy, as it is written in Kazakh candidate state diplomas. However, the Institute doctors (which is the highest degree) cannot in our opinion retain their doctor degree in reforming the profile or assign it as the second degree, after a PhD doctorate. First of all, we must keep high the credibil- ity of the PhD developed in a long time. It is important to find a sound balance between the two tasks: to discover new opportunities and to conserve certain criteria for the selection of the most gifted for the future army of thousands doctors of philosophy (PhD). It should be noted that in the West exist implicit or explicit analogues of the Kazakhstani PhD. Thus, the German tradition knows the habilitated doctor degree with a status superior to the PhD. The award of this degree is preceded by five to ten or more years of successful research activity after receiving the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Unlike the PhD, the degree of habilitated doctor does not require the preparation and discussion of a separate thesis, but requires other conditions, such as solid publication of scientific articles and monographs, scientific reports, etc. If the degree of habilitated doctor or some equivalent degree is accepted in Kazakhstan, it can be assigned to the current PhDs whose number is presently about 1.600. In case the current doctors along with the candidates would be equated to doctors of philosophy, they will treat it as a kind of degradation. This may cause unnecessary stress and dissatisfaction within the scientific community of the country. The best solution seems to be in this situation the introduction 15 A. Nysanbayev, S. Udartsev, Preparation and certification of scientific shots and the Eu- ropean standards, “Adilet Scientific Works” 2005, No. 1, pp. 235–242, and with some editorial changes the same authors: Preparation and certification of scientific shots and the European stan- dards, “Education synergetics” 2005, No. 3, ed. A. P. Stukanov, pp. 122–135; Preparation and cer- tification of scientific shots: movement problems to the European standards, “Education, science, creativity” 2005, No. 1, pp. 22–28. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 18 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV of the degree of habilitated doctor and, as has been said, the reintegration of the present doctors to habilitated doctors16. It should also be noted that it is very difficult to implement at present quali- fication requirements for licensing of educational activities. Currently many spe- cialties are not represented in Kazakhstan. Now scholars are trained only according to the training program for PhD doctors. In the year 2012–2013 500 seats in 84 specialties were allocated for the preparation of PhD. Only 31 universities acquired the authorization to conduct the training program for the doctoral PhD. This is a very small figure, considering the fact that on 1 September 2009 according to the classifier of higher and post- graduate education in Kazakhstan PhD doctoral programs were conducted only in 180 specialties. It means that more than a hundred specialties are absent from the general research training program. Out of the 24 Education majors contained in the state order only 6 specialties were active; out of the 16 in Humanities envis- aged only 13 specialties; in the section Law out of the 4 specialties only 2; in the section Art out of the 23 specialties only 1; in Social Sciences and Business out of the 19 specialties only 10, etc. The scope of many specialties is in general not provided for. In 2012, the majority of national universities received the state order for the training of master’s and doctoral PhD. But even in these universities license is in many specialties unavailable. For the purpose of obtaining a license universities must prove their ability to meet the qualification requirements. Especially for training the PhD doctors they are licensed only in fields that correspond to them. There is also the problem of aging of the present personnel. Now the average age of those with graduate degrees is 56.8 years for doctors and 48.5 years for the PhDs. If no proper system of refreshing the rate will be introduced, in 5 years many specialties will remain without degreed faculty members17. The following highly relevant problem is known as the “brain drain”. Evi- dently, the current Kazakhstani legislation in the field of postgraduate education displays gaps which are contrary to policies of the state in this area. Today in Kazakhstan all dissertation councils for the discussion of theses are closed, being substituted by “seasonal” dissertation councils. As practice shows, in the disser- tation council for doctoral dissertations for the PhD degree in law annually about 5–10 people are protected. This number clearly meets the needs of legal science, but the scientific staff does not fully develop domestic science. Moreover, experience shows that graduates of PhD doctoral program does not go to the research and teaching activities, i.e. they do not work as intended, but go instead to the practice. Here a question arises. Why and for what purpose were they preparing themselves? Why was it necessary to spend huge amounts of 16 A. Nysanbayeva, R. Kadyrzhanov, “Kazakhstan Truth” of 05.12.2003; S. Udartsev, Once again about certification of scientific shots, “News Kazakhstan” of 17.02.2004, p. 8. 17 Z. T. Abdukarimova, Problems of preparation of scientific shots in RK, http://ippk.tarsu.kz. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 19 money on training, which completed the doctorate which will not raise the scien- tific competence of the faculty. This is a clear indication that the parameters set by the state program and plans for its implementation in the field of education and science were not realized. In order to generate the scientific staff needed by the university the PhD grad- uates are obliged to the mandatory minimum of five years work at the university, which completes their process of learning. If a doctoral student is to be trained for his intended purpose, he must work a minimum period in a high school. At the moment only the “Bolashak” program solves the problem in this way. Its positive results may be already observed. In addition, a teacher occupying the academic rank of assistant professor or professor does not receive any supplement to the salary. Under the current leg- islation, the lack of stimulating and encouraging regulations becomes one of the important factors that negatively affect the development of universitary science in Kazakhstan. In this situation, no one is trying to obtain the academic title. At this point, the question of the quality of the PhD training arises. It is best illustrated in a paper which was originally held as a conversation with a former doctoral student at the Law Faculty of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National Univer- sity. According to his story, he joined the paid department, but dropped out after a year, as it was not satisfied neither by the costs of the training, nor by its qual- ity. He said that the payment was approximately 900 thousand Tenge (Kazakh currency) per year with three years to learn. This amount did not cover the two mandatory trips to foreign internship supervisor. Also, if you fail the exam, it is very expensive to retake it. If you pass the Bachelor exam again it may cost about 15 thousand Tenge, whereas the doctorate is 150,000 worth. “With such costs I was not very happy with the quality of education”, continued Erjan who studied at the Law Faculty of the Kazakh National University. “In fact many students simply did not have lectures. Besides, I was disappointed in looking for applicants with a PhD degree, who come to take up a position in our law firm. They come, require a salary of two thousand dollars for his degree, but do not know what the Limited Liability Partnership is. And finally, if I knew that my costs will pay off in the future, I would have continued my studies. But who needs a degree, except in educational institutions? Private companies focus primarily on experience and knowledge”18. Thus, a new form of scientific training still causes great controversy. And the main problem is, whether the State together with the formation of the Institute PhD in science infuse to this training a spark of real life. In our opinion, for the implementation of the provisions relating to the award of academic degrees and conferring of academic titles following things are nec- essary: 18 The doctoral PhD studies as they are or a philosopher’s stone, http://sabitov.kz/. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 20 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV – The Law of Kazakhstan “On Science” should fix rate as a stimulating fac- tor in the development of universitary science. Given that the title of associate professor and professor lost its significance as a motivating factor, there is a need to introduce the high school science researcher Dr. PhD degree in analogy to Dr. Habilitated (Dr. habil.) German style or PhD (D. Sc.) American style. And most importantly, the highest academic degree should be awarded only to the employees of high schools and research organizations; – The existing legislation in the field of post-graduate education should receive modifications and additions, namely on confirmed research topics, on thesis discussion and on award of academic degrees and titles. The work of the present dissertation council is a bit simplistic, but still it is the old Soviet system. Dissertations and scientific works of scholars are not open for public discussion. From here plagiarism, corruption and other negative phenomena of our academic life are born. We would also like to note in conclusion that in order to raise the level of doctoral theses it is not necessary to invent something new. Necessary is rather to increase the requirements for applicants, regardless of their official or social posi- tion throughout the training cycle (from the fixation of the theme to the introduc- tion of mandatory supplementary review) and to show integrity. It is important to remember that no matter what scientific training system we choose, it will be effective only on the condition that the responsible persons will faithfully perform their duties. Otherwise, any PhD system will not avoid corruption and everything will come full circle. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLY PERSONNEL IN KAZAKHSTAN AND ABROAD Summary This paper analyses the influence of the innovative environment upon the preparation of scholarly cadres in Kazakhstan as compared to the experience of foreign countries. The authors discuss participation of scholarly supervisors of the graduate students in activities related to economic agreements, patent development and international exchange, as well as the role of the cadres in preparation of graduate students. Furthermore, the paper deals with the efforts of Kazakhstan and foreign countries to improve the organization of doctoral education within the autonomous universities in the framework of the Bologna Process. The modern training system of highly qualified scientific personnel in Kazakhstan is evaluated from the perspective of its possible integration into the ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== COMPARATIVE ANALySIS OF TRAINING OF SCHOLARLy PERSONNEL... 21 unitary educational and scientific space of Europe. The paper also addresses the problem of transforming the old Kazakhstani system of training and certification of scientific personnel in connection with the Bologna Process. BIBLIOGRAFIA Abdukarimova Z. T., Problems of preparation of scientific shots in RK, http://ippk.tarsu.kz Behrenbeck S., Junior Professorship – The German Way of Tenure Track, http://www. oecd.org/ Crosier D., Purser L., Smidt H., Trends V Report: Universities Shaping the European Higher Education Area, Report “Tendencies: Universities form the European space of the higher education”, Brussels 2007 Doctoral Studies and Qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and Pros- pects. Studies on Higher Education, Bucharest 2004 Doctoral Studies: the Siena Experience. Projects Related to the Bologna Process by Uni- versities Austria: How to Assure Quality in New-Style Doctoral Studies?, Wien 2009 Gribankova A. A., Main tendencies of development of world system of higher education, “Actual problems of professional pedagogical education” 2011, No. 29 Gribankova A. A., Modern foreign approaches to the training of specialists researchers within the training in postgraduate study, Materials of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference “PR in Russia: education, tendencies, international experience”, Krasnodar 2008 Gribankova A. A., Organization of the training of researchers in higher education in- stitutions of the USA, [in:] Actual problems of professional pedagogical education, Kaliningrad 2011 Hazelkorn Е., Are Rankings a Useful Transparency Instrument?, www.dit.ie/researchan- denterprise Nysanbayev A., Udartsev S., Preparation and certification of scientific shots and the European standards, “Adilet Scientific Works” 2005, No. 1 Nysanbayev A., Udartsev S., Preparation and certification of scientific shots and the European standards, “Education synergetics” 2005, No. 3, ed. A. P. Stukanov Nysanbayeva A., Kadyrzhanov R., “Kazakhstan Truth” of 05.12.2003 Preparation and certification of scientific shots: movement problems to the European standards, “Education, science, creativity” 2005, No. 1 Quality of education: problems and prospects, ed. A. V. Petrov, N. Novgorod 2007 Reading 2006. Postgraduate and Professional Development Programs, The University The emperor has no clothes? Rankings and the shift from quality assurance to world- class excellence, http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/rankings Udartsev S., Once again about certification of scientific shots, “News Kazakhstan” of of Reading 2006 17.02.2004 ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 22 BAHyT ALTINBASOV, NURBEK KHAIRMUKHANMEDOV KEYWORD scientific personnel, educational system, Kazakhstan, educational process, com- parative analysis SŁOWA KLUCZOWE personel naukowy, system kształcenia, Kazachstan, proces kształcenia, analiza porównawcza ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== Mikołaj Budzikowski Uniwersytet Warszawski PROBLEMY INTERPRETACYJNE ZBIEGU NORM PRAWA UE Z PRAWEM KRAJOWYM NA PRZYKŁADZIE RYNKU CUKRU I Rynek cukru oraz mechanizm zarządzania rynkiem wewnętrznym, w tym systemem kwot, są regulowane zarówno na poziomie prawa unijnego, jak i kra- jowego. Oznacza to, że prawo unijne, a także krajowe kształtują rygorystycznie obowiązki oraz prawa i plantatorów buraka cukrowego, i producentów cukru1. Trzonem tej regulacji jest system państwowego kontyngentowania produkcji cukru oraz nadzór państwowy w poszczególnych krajach UE. System ten, histo- rycznie ustanowiony w 1967 r., funkcjonuje z pewnymi modyfikacjami do chwili obecnej. Istotną rolę odgrywają w nim rozporządzenia UE (art. 288 TFUE), które są wiążące w całości i bezpośrednio stosowane we wszystkich państwach człon- kowskich. Od momentu opublikowania w Dzienniku Urzędowym UE stanowią część prawa krajowego i nie ma potrzeby transponowania norm tych rozporzą- dzeń do krajowego porządku prawnego (tzw. zasada autowykonalności; por. orzeczenia ETS – sprawy 34/73 Varida, 40/69 Bollmann itp.). Prawo unijne oraz krajowe wywiera również wpływ na istotne elementy sto- sunku zobowiązaniowego umowy kontraktacji, nazywanej w prawodawstwie UE umową dostawy czy też umów dodatkowych wynikających z „bazowej” umowy kontraktacji2 ukształtowanej pod wpływem przepisów unijnych i krajowych. W latach 2010–2012 w polskiej branży cukrowniczej wystąpiły napięcia mię- dzy stronami umowy kontraktacji na skutek braku podpisania przez producentów buraka cukrowego oraz cukrownie porozumienia branżowego, o którym mowa w art. 50 ust. 1 Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) 1234/2007 z dnia 22 października 2007 r. ustanawiającego wspólną organizację rynków rolnych oraz przepisy 1 Por.: F. C. Snyder, Common Agricultural Policy of European Economic Community, London 1990; E. Tomkiewicz, Limitowanie produkcji rolnej w ustawodawstwie rolnym Wspólnot Europej- skich, Warszawa 2000, s. 75 i n. 2 A. Stelmachowski, Kontraktacja produktów rolnych, Warszawa 1960, s. 5. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== STUDIA IURIDICA LXI 24 MIKOŁAJ BUDZIKOWSKI szczegółowe dotyczące niektórych producentów rolnych (Rozporządzenie o jed- nolitej wspólnej organizacji rynku, Dz.Urz. UE 2007, L. 299, z późn. zm.; dalej: Rozporządzenie nr 1234/2007). Powyższa sytuacja kolizyjna nie została rozwiązana na mocy art. 50 ust. 7 powoływanego rozporządzenia. Otóż zgodnie z art. 50 ust. 7 „w przypadku braku porozumień branżowych dane państwo członkowskie podejmuje niezbędne kroki zgodnie z niniejszym rozporządzeniem w celu ochrony interesów zaintereso- wanych stron”. Brak zgodności stron co do zawarcia porozumienia branżowego doprowadził do konieczności wydania przez Ministra Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi Rozporządzenia z dnia 10 marca 2011 r. w sprawie warunków zakupu i dostawy buraków cukrowych przeznaczonych do produkcji cukru w ramach kwot produk- cyjnych cukru (Dz.U. nr 57, poz. 292; datę wejścia w życie tego rozporządzenia, zgodnie z § 9 ustalono na 14 dni od dnia jego ogłoszenia, tj. weszło ono w życie dnia 30 marca 2011 r.). Rozporządzenie MRiRW w sensie normatywnym w isto- cie zastąpiło porozumienie branżowe, które do dnia jego wydania nie zostało podpisane przez polskich producentów buraka cukrowego oraz producentów cukru (cukrownie). Powoływane rozporządzenie zgodnie z § 1 określa istotne warunki zakupu i dostawy buraków cukrowych przeznaczonych do produkcji cukru w ramach kwot cukrowych. Jak już wspomniano powyżej, zastępuje ono porozumienie branżowe między stronami w rozumieniu części II ust. 11 Załącz- nika III do Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) 1234/2007 z dnia 22 października 2007 r. Rozporządzenie Ministra Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi z 10 marca 2011 r. zostało wydane na podstawie art. 31 ust. 9 ustawy z 11 marca 2004 r. o Agencji Rynku Rolnego i organizacji niektórych rynków rolnych (Dz.U. z 2007 r., nr 231, poz. 1702, z późn. zm.). Jednoznacznie odwołuje się ono do art. 31b ust. 7 powoły- wanej ustawy z 11 marca 2004 r. oraz art. 50 ust. 1 Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) nr 1234/2007 r. z dnia 22 października 2007 r.3. Tym samym Minister Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi wprowadził jako podmiot administracji rządowej odpowiedzialny za organizację rynku regulowanego sektora cukru szczegółowe zasady umów kontraktacyjnych na zasadach lex specialis obowiązujących w tym sektorze4. Przepisy rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r. zobowiązują producenta cukru do zawarcia umowy kontraktacji z producentem buraków cukrowych, o której jest mowa w art. 31b ust. 7 ustawy z dnia 11 marca 2004 r. o Agencji Rynku Rol- nego i organizacji niektórych rynków rolnych. Należy podkreślić, że w cytowa- nym rozporządzeniu wyraźnie jest mowa o umowie kontraktacji, „zawierającej postanowienia, jakie powinna zawierać umowa dostawy, o której mowa w art. 50 3 Dotyczy to również załącznika II do Rozporządzenia Komisji (WE) nr 952/2006 z dnia 29 czerwca 2006 r. ustanawiającego szczegółowe zasady stosowania Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) nr 318/2006 w odniesieniu do zarządzania rynkiem wewnętrznym cukru oraz systemem kwot (Dz. Urz. UE 2006, L. 178, s. 39, z późn. zm.). 4 Nastąpiło to poprzez stanowienie norm prawnych w ramach powoływanego rozporządzenia w: § 3, § 4, § 5, § 6, § 7, § 8. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== PROBLEMy INTERPRETACyJNE ZBIEGU NORM PRAWA UE... 25 ust. 1 Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) 1234/2007 z dnia 22 października 2007 r. ustanawiającego wspólną organizację rynków rolnych oraz przepisy szczegółowe dotyczące niektórych produktów rolnych (»Rozporządzenie o jednolitej wspólnej organizacji rynku«)”5. Zgodnie z art. 204 ust. 3 Rozporządzenia nr 1234/2007 jego przepisy stosuje się, w odniesieniu do sektora cukru, do końca roku gospodarczego 2014/2015. Z treści powyższej regulacji jednoznacznie wynika, że elementem istot- nym umowy kontraktacji w świetle obowiązujących przepisów jest okres na jaki została ona zawarta, a więc tzw. rok gospodarczy. Zatem umowa musi obejmo- wać okres danego roku gospodarczego. Problematyka definicji roku gospodar- czego będzie podlegać dalszej analizie w tym artykule. Podkreślenia raz jeszcze wymaga fakt, że pomiędzy producentami cukru a plantatorami buraka cukrowego nie doszło w roku gospodarczym 2010/2011, do zawarcia porozumienia branżowego, o którym jest mowa w art. 50 ust. 1 Rozpo- rządzenia nr 1234/2007. W odniesieniu do umów kontraktacyjnych, zawartych na kampanię bura- czaną 2010/2011, zastosowanie mają zarówno postanowienia prawa unijnego, jak również prawa krajowego. Paragraf 2 powoływanego Rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r. wyraźnie wskazuje, że w przypadku braku zawarcia porozumienia branżo- wego umowy kontraktacji buraka mają zawierać postanowienia umowy dostawy, o których jest mowa w art. 50 ust. 1 Rozporządzenia Rady 1234/20076. Ozna- cza to, że Rozporządzenie z 10 marca 2011 r. zobowiązuje producentów cukru do zawarcia w umowie kontraktacyjnej zobowiązania do wypłacenia producen- towi buraka cukrowego „dodatkowego świadczenia finansowego”, o którym jest mowa w § 7, w ramach kampanii buraczanej na lata 2010/2011. 5 Wymienione w załączniku II do Rozporządzenia Komisji (WE) nr 952/2006 z dnia 29 czerw- ca 2006 r. ustanawiające szczegółowe zasady stosowania Rozporządzenia Rady (WE) nr 318/2006 w odniesieniu do zarządzania rynkiem wewnętrznym cukru oraz systemem kwot (Dz.Urz. UE 2006, L 178, z późn. zm.), zwanego dalej „Rozporządzeniem 952/2006”, oraz odpowiadającej wymaganiom określonym w przepisach niniejszego rozporządzenia. 6 Problematykę „dodatkowych świadczeń finansowych” określają postanowienia § 7 powoły- wanego Rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r. Paragraf 7, określając „dodatkowe świadczenie finansowe”, zobowiązuje producenta cukru do wypłaty świadczenia „pod warunkiem, że średnia ważona cena białego cukru kwotowego sprzedanego w danym roku przez tego producenta ustalona na podstawie średnich ważonych cen przekazywanych Agencji Rynku Rolnego przez tego producenta na potrzeby sprawozdawczości cenowej na rynku cukru, zwanej dalej »średnią ceną«, jest wyższa co najmniej o 40 euro za tonę takiego cukru od ceny referencyjnej, o której mowa w art. 8 ust. 1 lit. c pkt. i, tiret drugiego Roz- porządzenia nr 1234/2007”. W § 7 ust. 2 cytowanego Rozporządzenia określono zasady obliczania dodatkowego świad- czenia finansowego w prezentowanym wzorze. Wzór ten jednoznacznie odnosi się do pojęcia da- nego roku gospodarczego (por. części składowe wzoru IB, G, CR, OIB). Zgodnie z przepisami cytowanego powyżej Rozporządzenia Rady 1234/2007 – art. 3 lit. e „lata gospodarcze” dla sektora cukru określono „od 1 października do 30 września następnego roku”. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== 26 MIKOŁAJ BUDZIKOWSKI Cukrownie nie miały podstaw normatywnych do powoływania się na brak definicji „lat gospodarczych” (w tym roku gospodarczego), gdyż lata te zostały określone w Rozporządzeniu 1234/2007. Zgodnie z powołanym art. 3 lit. e w sektorze cukru lata gospodarcze liczą się od 1 października do 30 września następnego roku. Również zawarcie umowy kontraktacji przez producenta cukru z producentem buraka cukrowego przed wejściem w życie Rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r. na rok gospodarczy 2010/2011 powinno uwzględniać wszelkie regulacje prawne, które dotyczą tego okresu. W zaistniałym sporze między cukrowniami a plantatorami buraka cukro- wego powoływanie się przez producentów cukru na zasadę, że „prawo nie działa wstecz” (według paremii lex retro non agit), nie powinno być stosowane w odnie- sieniu do umów kontraktacji na kampanię buraczaną 2010/2011, zawartych przed wejściem w życie Rozporządzenia krajowego z 10 marca 2011 r. Otóż zawar- cie umowy kontraktacyjnej na okres powyższego roku gospodarczego zostało jasno sprecyzowane w prawie unijnym. Z brzmienia Rozporządzenia Ministra Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi z 10 marca 2011 r. wynika, że wypłata „dodatkowego świadczenia finansowego” zgodnie z § 7 ust. 3 cytowanego Rozporządzenia „jest dokonywana w terminie 45 dni od dnia zakończenia danego roku gospodarczego, w którym cukier został sprzedany”. Oznacza to, że producenci cukru są związani okresem roku gospodarczego, który jest wyraźnie określony w powoływanych przepisach prawa unijnego. Tym samym przepisy prawne jednocześnie określają, że umowy kontraktacji buraka cukrowego dotyczą okresu od 1 października do 30 września następnego roku, co występuje w analizowanym przypadku (od 1 października 2010 r. do 30 września 2011 r.). Świadczenie dodatkowe może być wykreowane przez umowę kontraktacyjną lub również w analizowanym sytuacji na podstawie przepisu szczegółowego. Doktryna prawa cywilnego nie pozostawia w tym przypadku wątpliwości7. Umowa kontraktacji jest umową wzajemną, konsensualną i odpłatną. W dok- trynie występuje ugruntowany pogląd, że zasada jednoczesności świadczenia charakteryzująca umowy wzajemne może ulec modyfikacji, jeżeli umowa lub przepisy szczególne przewidują obowiązek spełnienia przez kontraktującego świadczenia dodatkowego. Ponieważ obowiązek zamieszczania postanowień o „dodatkowym świadczeniu finansowym” wynika z obowiązującego przepisu prawnego, producenci cukru są zobowiązani dostosować zawarte wcześniej umowy kontraktacyjne niezawierające powyższego obowiązku lub też zawrzeć kolejną umowę o „dodatkowe świadczenie finansowe” z producentami buraków cukrowych. Zważywszy na powoływane brzmienie § 2 Rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r., jak już wspomniano powyżej, umowa kontraktacyjna na dany rok gospodarczy powinna zawierać postanowienia dotyczące umowy dostawy, o których jest mowa 7 Por.: Kodeks cywilny. Komentarz, red. E. Gniewek, Warszawa 2011, s. 1099–1104. ##7#52#aSUZPUk1BVC1WaXJ0dWFsbw== PROBLEMy INTERPRETACyJNE ZBIEGU NORM PRAWA UE... 27 w art. 50 ust. 1 Rozporządzenia 1234/2007. Z brzmienia cytowanych przepisów jednoznacznie wynika, że zawarte umowy (niezależnie od daty ich podpisania przed lub po wejściu w życie powoływanego Rozporządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r.) obejmują okres roku gospodarczego określony dla sektora cukru w Rozporzą- dzeniu 1234/2007 art. 3 lit. e (tj. od 1 października 2010 do 30 września 2011 r.). Regulacja zawarta w Załączniku II pkt XII ust. 3 lit. j Rozporządzenia Komi- sji (WE) nr 952/2006 określa formułę porozumienia branżowego odnośnie do „podziału między producentów a sprzedawców wszelkiej różnicy między ceną referencyjną a rzeczywistą ceną sprzedaży cukru”. Z tej też przyczyny § 7 Rozpo- rządzenia z 10 marca 2011 r., powołując się na Rozporządzenie (WE) nr 952/2006, określa jednocześnie zasady podziału środków finansowych w ramach „dodatko- wego świadczenia finansowego”. Reprezentuję pogląd, że w razie braku porozumienia branżowego Załącznik II pkt XII ust. 3 lit. j do Rozporządzenia (WE) nr 952/2006 może być zasto- sowany przez strony umowy kontraktacji jako samoistna podstawa prawna we
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