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The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters. A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study - ebook/pdf
The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters. A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study - ebook/pdf
Autor: Liczba stron: 248
Wydawca: Uniwersytet Śląski Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-8-3226-3017-4 Data wydania:
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Kategoria: ebooki >> naukowe i akademickie
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Żyjemy w czasach, w których kontakt z obcokrajowcami (osobisty lub wirtualny) jest nieunikniony. Publikacja koncentruje się na charakterystyce spotkań międzykulturowych, interakcji jakie zachodzą pomiędzy uczestnikami takich spotkań oraz przedstawieniu czynników, które odgrywają istotną rolę podczas komunikacji międzykulturowej. Spotkania międzykulturowe omówione są z dwóch perspektyw: teoretycznej i osobistej, uwzględniającej doświadczenia studentów Filologii Angielskiej polskiego i tureckiego pochodzenia. Publikacja z jednej strony przybliża specyfikę kontaktów międzykulturowych i pozwala zaobserwować mechanizmy, jakie podczas takich spotkań występują; z drugiej zaś stanowi materiał źródłowy w postaci osobistych refleksji uczestników badania, historyjek i anegdotek z zakresu komunikacji międzykulturowej. Dlatego też, książka adresowana jest do zarówno do studentów, osób podróżujących i mających kontakt z obcokrajowcami, jak i nauczycieli lub osób prowadzących szkolenia międzykulturowe.

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G r a ż y n a K i l i a ń s k a - P r z y b y ł o T h e A n a t o m y o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l E n c o u n t e r s . A S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S t u d y Grażyna Kiliańska-Przybyło The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU ŚLĄSKIEGO KATOWICE 2017 The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study Grażyna Kiliańska-Przybyło The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego • Katowice 2017 Editor of the series: Językoznawstwo Neofilologiczne Maria Wysocka Referee Lucyna Aleksandrowicz-Pędich Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1 Intercultural encounters 1.1 Intercultural encounters – Facts 1.2 Intercultural encounters as awareness-raising situations 1.3 Intercultural encounters as interaction, mediation, and negotiation 1.3.1 Intercultural encounters as mediation 1.3.2 Intercultural encounters as negotiation 1.4 Intercultural encounters – The linguistic dimension 1.4.1 Intercultural encounters as language-in-action situations 1.4.2 Intercultural encounters as culture bumps – Cross-cultural pragmatics 1.5 Intercultural encounters as problem-solving tasks 1.6 Intercultural encounters as emotion-generation situations 1.6.1 Empathy 1.6.2 Perspective-taking and sense-making 1.6.3 Identity and self-construals 1.6.4 Communication apprehension 1.6.5 Willingness to communicate 1.6.6 Self-disclosure 1.6.7 Cultural differences in self-disclosure 1.6.8 Stereotypes 1.6.9 Culture shock 1.7 The intercultural continuum 1.7.1 Interculture, interlanguage 1.7.2 Cultural intelligence 1.7.3 Intercultural competence 9 11 17 17 21 22 25 26 27 28 30 33 34 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 6 Contents 1.7.4 Intercultural sensitivity and other conditions for intercultural learning 1.7.5 Learning – unlearning – relearning 1.8 Obstacles to intercultural communication 1.9 Intercultural encounter as a trigger for reflection 1.9.1 Intercultural encounter as an example of experiential learning 1.9.2 Intercultural encounter as a part of a sociocultural process 1.10 Research on intercultural competence 1.10.1 Projects on intercultural competence and training – An over- 1.10.2 Ways of studying intercultural competence view Chapter 2 perspective) Narrative inquiry – Background 2.1 Homo narrans and narrative intelligence 2.2 Narrative’s moments – A record of one’s own experience (individual’s 2.3 Tell me your story – Approaches to narrative analysis (researcher’s perspective) 2.3.1 Narrative inquiry: The elements of a good story 2.3.2 Cultural aspects in the narrative analysis 2.4 Narrative and intercultural learning – The critical incident theory 2.4.1 What is critical about critical incidents? 2.4.2 Critical incidents and intercultural communication Chapter 3 The scheme of the research study 3.1 Research objectives 3.2 The subjects ners 3.3 Research tools and procedures 3.2.1 Poland and Turkey – Rationale for choosing the research part- 3.3.1 Discussion-generating tasks 3.3.2 The questionnaire for students 3.3.3 Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 3.3.4 Written narrative task: Narrative about intercultural encounters 3.4 Narratives – Analysis and evaluation procedures 3.4.1 Content analysis 3.4.2 Statistical analysis: LIWC software – Brief characteristics 3.5 Stages of the research project 3.6 Data evaluation procedures Chapter 4 Narratives – Data presentation and analysis 4.1. Statistical analysis of the narratives – General characteristics 52 53 54 56 57 57 58 58 59 61 62 64 67 70 72 73 74 76 81 81 83 86 88 88 89 90 92 93 93 93 98 101 103 103 Contents 7 4.2 Content analysis of the encounters 4.2.1 Topical analysis – Background about the nature of the encoun- 4.2.2 Intercultural encounter as an experience raising students’ lan- ters guage awareness 4.2.3 Intercultural encounter as an opportunity to communicate 4.2.4 Intercultural encounter as a lesson in culture 4.2.5 Affectivity in intercultural encounters 4.3 From “Haha” to “aha” – Intercultural encounters as an incentive to reflect, restructure, and learn from the experience 4.3.1 Knowledge extension 4.3.2 Self-knowledge 4.3.3 Redefinition and modification of stereotypes 4.3.4 Change of attitudes 4.4 Intercultural encounters – Reflection for action – Teacher’s perspective 4.5 Structural analysis Chapter 5 Questionnaires and scales – Data presentation and analysis 5.1 Questionnaire – Background (biographical) information 5.2 Intercultural profile – Data analysis 5.3 The analysis of Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) 5.3.1 Emotional Resilience 5.3.2 Flexibility and Openness 5.3.3 Perceptual Acuity 5.3.4 Personal Autonomy Chapter 6 Conclusions 6.1 Answers to the research objectives 6.1.1 Differences between the groups of Polish P1, Polish P2, and 6.1.2 The students’ perception and self-assessment of the sociocul- the Turkish subjects tural competence 6.1.3 Culturally determined aspects of language use 6.1.4 Communication and miscommunication 6.1.5 Cultural sensitivity and cultural knowledge 6.1.6 Intercultural encounters and affect 6.1.7 Narrativisation and reflection 6.1.8 Perspective-taking 6.1.9 The students’ intercultural experiences and adaptability 6.1.10 Learning outcomes: Me as a FL teacher vs. me as a language learner 6.2 Evaluation of the research project 6.3 Implications for further research 109 109 114 118 123 124 126 126 128 129 131 133 137 139 139 147 163 163 165 167 169 173 173 173 177 178 179 179 180 183 184 186 187 192 193 8 Contents Appendix 1. Research scenario for intercultural encounters 2. Iceberg Theory of Culture (supplementary materials implemented during the research – Theoretical training, Step 1) 2a. The Iceberg Theory of Culture – Modified version – Theoretical train- ing, Step 1) 3. The Form technique (Supplementary materials implemented during the research – Theoretical training) 4. Culture Quiz 5. Questionnaire: Intercultural Encounters (Supplementary materials im- plemented during the research – Data collection procedure, Step 2) 6. Narrative task (Supplementary materials implemented during the re- search – Data collection procedure, Step 3) 7. LIWC2007 Output Variable Information – detailed data presentation: Polish P1 group, Polish P2 group, Turkish group Bibliography Streszczenie Zusammenfassung 197 197 199 200 201 202 203 207 208 213 241 243 Acknowledgments I would like to express my thanks to Hasan Bedir (Çukurova Univer- sity, Adana, Turkey) for his contribution and cooperation in collecting data. I would also like to thank all the students who agreed to partici- pate anonymously in the research and showed enthusiasm for the theme of the project. Last but not least, I would like to say thank you to all my family members for their support throughout the process of writing. Introduction The situation of meeting the Other (also called intercultural encoun- ter) has always fascinated and intrigued people for a variety of rea- sons. Because of its character and complexity, intercultural encounter is a problem-solving, emotion-generating, and face-threatening situation, which is inseparably connected with uncertainty, unpredictability, and the unknown. However, nowadays, in an era of social changes (e.g., glo- balisation, international integration, advance of information technology, increased mobility and migration, international tensions), intercultural encounter is a necessity. Dupuis (in Heyworth et al. 2003: 28) talks about “multilingual daily life” to indicate the frequency of intercultural encounters. Dervin (2007a: 69–70) elaborates on the notion of “liquid times” (a term introduced by the Polish-born British sociologist Zyg- munt Bauman in 2000). According to Dervin (2007a: 69), in liquid times, we all navigate between different and countless cultures […], and witness an excess of identity. […] As we live in a world where we constantly meet people physically or virtually (acquaintances, friends, strangers, etc.), we need to “identify” (i.e., show resemblance or differen- tiate) and create culture every time encounters occur. Dervin (2007a; 2007b) stresses the necessity to redefine some crucial concepts, such as communication process, communicative competence, cross-border interaction, and fixed identity. Some other researchers focus on processes that shape our intercul- tural communication and help us derive meaning from intercultural encounters. Intercultural communication, first introduced by Hall and Trager (1953) in The Analysis of Culture, is often defined as communi- cation between people representing different cultures (cited by Bystrov 12 Introduction and Yermolenko 2011: 16). According to Byram (2000), intercultural communication aims to reveal the external and internal relationships between different cultures, interpreting each in terms of the other, as well as being able to analyse it and critically understand both native and non-native cultures. Terms similar to the notion of intercultural com- munication include the following: cross-cultural communication, tran- scultural communication, interethnic communication, and intercultural interaction (Bystrov and Yermolenko 2011: 16). Intercultural communication research has its long tradition. As not- ed by Gudykunst (2004) theorising about intercultural encounter has also made tremendous progress in the last 20 years. The need for effec- tive and competent intecultural communication has been recognised by many researchers (e.g., Chen 2014; Hua 2016; Neuliep 2015). However, the notion of intercultural communication competence itself is very complex and it consists of at least four dimensions, namely Personal At- tributes, Communication Skills, Psychological Adaptation, and Cultural Awareness. Each of these dimensions contains some other components (Chen 2014: 19). Literature review reflects this complexity. Gudykunst et al. (in Gudykunst 2004) divide the intergroup and intercultural theories into five categories which are not mutually exclusive: 1. Theories focusing on effective outcomes, which include the follow- cultural convergence theory (Barnett and Kincaid 1983; Gudykunst 2004: 11); anxiety and uncertainty management theory (Gudykunst 1994); effective group decision making (Oetzel 1995; Gudykunst 2004: 11); integrated theory of interethnic communication (Kim 1997, 2004 in Gudykunst 2004: 11). 2. Theories focusing on accommodation and adaptation. 3. Theories focusing on identity management. 4. Theories focusing on communication networks. 5. Theories focusing on adjustment and adaptation to new cultural en- vironments (Gudykunst 2004). According to Chen (2014: 19), the Triangular Model of Intercultural Communication Competence indicates the interrelation of particular aspects in a very precise way and it synthesises the previous literature. Chen (2014: 19) states that the three sides of the triangular model repre- sent the three aspects of cognition (as manifested by intercultural aware- ness), affective (manifested by intercultural sensitivity), and behaviour (manifested by intercultural effectiveness or adroitness). Thus intercul- tural communication cannot be limited to the behavioural aspect only, ing: – – – – Introduction 13 but it should also take into account the remaining two aspects, that is, the affective aspect and the cognitive one. Some of the current chal- lenges and future directions of ICC research should focus on “the re- investigation of the nature of intercultural communication competence in global context” and the exploration of the impact of new media on the ICC” (Chen 2014: 23; Neuliep 2015). Ladegaard and Jenks (2015: 5) state that one of the issues that has been repeatedly discussed in ICC research over the past three decades is “how we conceptualise culture, and how much, or how little, importance we should attach to interlocutors’ cultural background when we analyse intercultural encounters.” Current research tendencies view “culture as a fluid, flexible and multifaceted phenomenon, which is created, nego- tiated and recreated in situ as people engage in talk and other forms of social interaction” (Ladegaard and Jenks 2015: 5). This has a lot in common with the social constructionist approach (Ladegaard and Jenks 2015: 5). However, there are also voices that in order to understand the role of culture in intercultural communication, we need to take into ac- count the importance of background culture and situational demands (i.e., “the possibility of ethnic or cultural marking in communicative behavior and the situational context where participants co-construct (inter)cultures in situ,” Kecskes 2014: 5, in Ladegaard and Jenks 2015: 6). This view is congruent with a number of studies. According to the Ac- culturation Model (Schuman 1970, in Niżegorodcew 2011) and Complex System Theory (Larsen-Freeman and Cameron 2008), when two people are engaged in a talk, their ‘conversation’ emerges from the dynamics of how they talk to each other, while what they say reflects and constructs who they are as social beings (Larsen-Freeman and Cameron 2008: 163, in Niżegorodcew 2011: 32). Consequently, interaction is dependent on the linguistic constraints (e.g., the constant adaptation of their linguis- tic resources in the service of meaning-making, cf. Larsen-Freeman and Cameron 2008: 135, in Niżegorodcew 2011: 32), contextual constraints and affective constraints (e.g., learner’s expectation and learner adapt- ability, to mention just two). It is agreed that “intercultural communicative processes are es- sentially dialogic, and involve recognising and negotiating points of sameness as well as difference” (Holmes 2014: 2; Jokikokko 2010: 13). However, intercultural dialogue is not always a smooth and easy proc- ess. Problems often faced in intercultural communication include: cul- tural identity conflict, anxiety, interpersonal difficulties, value confu- sion, to name just a few. Yet, difficulties are perceived as normal and indispensable to any process of communication and relation building (Holmes 2014: 2). According to Holmes (2014: 2), the positive thing 14 Introduction about intercultural dialogue lies in “the possibility to (re)negotiate and (re)construct their positions and identities within and across groups, to acknowledge the complexity and diversity of relationships, and to work towards solutions to seemingly intractable divergences and unrelenting postures in situations of conflict.” Taking all these aspects into account, it is evident that an intercultural encounter a challenge – the challenge of the 21st century. The book revolves around two broad concepts, namely, intercultural encounters and narrative inquiry. Both of the concepts underpin the characteristics as well as the challenges of the 21st century. The term intercultural encounter refers to the opportunity and the actual situa- tion of meeting foreigners or experiencing cross-cultural conversations due to mobility, alternative, computer-based means of communication, as well as the plurilingual and multicultural diversity of the society. In this sense, intercultural encounter is not limited to direct contact in the foreign context but encompasses a variety of situations both in the home country context and abroad (these notions would be elaborated upon elsewhere in this book). The theoretical part of the book aims at discussing the idea of inter- cultural encounters, characterising their aspects and examining the fac- tors which affect the success of such encounters. Special attention will be focused on the role intercultural encounters play in foreign language learning as well as their impact on shaping learner identity. A closer look will be also given to the nature and mechanisms involved in in- tercultural encounters as well as the description of contextual factors that may have some impact on the character and nature of intercultural encounters. The value of intercultural encounters, however, lies not only in what we experience, but most of all, in what we do afterwards, that is, how we narrate and reflect upon the intercultural encounters and what knowledge we derive from them. Consequently, intercultural encounters can be perceived as catalysts for reflection and an incentive to express oneself orally or in writing. This brings us to the second important issue that the book tackles, namely: narrative inquiry or narrative analysis, which is related to the role of narratives in organising and shaping in- dividuals’ experiences. Human beings are often defined as Homo narrans (“story-telling man,” “the story-telling organism” – Straś-Romanowska, Bartosz, and Żurko 2010). This means that any individual leads a storied life and tells stories to others. In fact, stories or narratives are perceived as in- dispensable elements of interpersonal interaction and communication of one’s own personal experiences (Straś-Romanowska, Bartosz, and Żurko Introduction 15 2010: 9). A story is compared to a vehicle as it provides a stimulus for learning or noticing particular things (Garvie 1990: 67). Story is also described as a theme, because it allows one to organise unrelated events into a sequence or a chain (Garvie 1990: 67). Consequently, narrative competence and narrative intelligence seem as important as communi- cative competence and cognitive intelligence, respectively. The empirical part of this book analyses narratives collected from Polish and Turkish students of English. The main objective of the re- search is to examine cross-cultural differences and similarities that affect the perception and narration of intercultural encounters. The research project involves several stages, including brainstorming and group dis- cussion, the training proper as well as the production of narratives. For better understanding of the research area, it is essential to make a dis- tinction between the following concepts: story, narrative, and narration. According to Garvie (1990: 67), the story is the raw material, the theme of the event. Putting a structure to it and arranging it sequentially means producing a narrative, whereas the process of telling is the narration. As Garvie (1990: 67) further explains, the story carries the potential, the narrative is the “cognitive resource” – a meaning making strategy, and the narration is the sharing of it orally or in literature. In this book, the author intends to focus mostly on the meanings implied by the nar- ratives produced by the research subjects. Consequently, a closer look would be given to the topical analysis of those narratives. Another as- pect of the research concerns the examination of mechanisms regulat- ing the very process of narrative processing and production. However, the terms: story and narrative may occasionally be used interchangeably so as to avoid the over-repetition of the word narrative. Data was collected by means of questionnaires, including scales; trainer’s observation and records, and the students’ narratives. Qualita- tive analysis (focusing on topical categories in the narratives) and quan- titative analysis (based on LIWC programme and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient) helped to evaluate research objectives and formulate final conclusions. Grażyna Kiliańska-Przybyło Anatomia spotkań interkulturowych Socjolingwistyczne studium porównawcze Streszczenie Książka zatytułowana Anatomia spotkań interkulturowych. Socjolingwistyczne stu- dium porównawcze poświęcona została analizie spotkań interkulturowych (sytuacji, podczas których stykamy się z przedstawicielami innych kultur). W dobie globaliza- cji, zacierania się granic i wysokiej mobilności ludzi spotkanie z Obcym jest koniecz- nością i wyzwaniem (Bauman 2000; Heyworth et al. 2003; Dervin 2007a, 2007b; Kapuściński 2004). Spotkania interkulturowe są jednakże istotne także z innych względów. Stanowią lustro odbijające zachowanie innych osób, przez co pozwalają zrozumieć siebie samych i kulturę własnego kraju. Nieprzewidywalność oraz indywi- dualny charakter takich spotkań jest z kolei silnym czynnikiem sprzyjającym refleksji nad tym, co istotne w komunikacji interpersonalnej i interkulturowej. Część teoretyczna książki przedstawia charakterystykę spotkań interkulturowych oraz opisuje różne wymiary, m.in. językowy, afektywny czy komunikacyjny. W roz- dziale tym omówiono również pojęcie kompetencji interkulturowej, jako kluczowej w kontakcie z przedstawicielami innych kultur, oraz zawarto opis barier, które utrud- niają lub uniemożliwiają komunikację z Innym. Ze względu na fakt, iż badanie w du- żej mierze opiera się na narracjach osobistych jego uczestników, część teoretyczna przedstawia najważniejsze założenia nurtu narracyjnego, skupiając się na cechach tzw. homo narrans (człowieka opowiadającego historie). Część empiryczna opisuje badanie przeprowadzone wśród trzech grup studentów (dwóch polskich – studenci studiów licencjackich i magisterskich filologii angielskiej Uniwerstytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach oraz grupy studentów tureckich filologii an- gielskiej na Uniwersytecie Çukurova w Adanie; każda z grup liczyła 50 osób). Bada- nie składało się z kilku etapów. Studenci najpierw uczestniczyli w krótkim treningu interkulturowym, a następnie poproszeni zostali o opisanie znaczącego w ich opinii spotkania z przedstawicielami innych kultur (narracja osobista opisująca zdarzenie krytyczne). Dodatkowo w badaniu zastosowano kwestionariusz oraz skalę wrażliwości interkulturowej. Wyniki badania wskazują, iż umiejętność radzenia sobie ze spotkaniami inter- kulturowymi, a co za tym idzie, kompetencją interkulturową, zależy od czynników indywidualnych, stopnia znajomości języka obcego oraz kontekstu socjokulturowego, z którego wywodzą się uczestnicy. Ten ostatni wpływa na charakter i rodzaj kontaktów z przedstawicielami innych kultur, sposób prowadzenia komunikacji czy podejście do 244 Streszczenie kultury kraju języka ojczystego. Samo spotkanie interkulturowe traktowane było przez jego uczestników jako: – okazja do komunikowania się w języku docelowym (rozwijanie umiejętności komu- nikacji interpersonalnej) i jednocześnie sprawdzian własnych umiejętności; – źródło wiedzy, informacji i ciekawostek z zakresu wiedzy ogólnej na temat kultur innych krajów; źródło nabycia lub poszerzenia wiedzy ogólnej; – czynnik zwiększający świadomość językową (zwłaszcza na temat kontekstu i użycia języka w sytuacjach uwarunkowanych kulturowo); – katalizator przyspieszający autorefleksję, a tym samym zwiększający wiedzę uczest- ników o samych sobie; – możliwość uświadomienia sobie i weryfikacji stereotypów oraz własnych opinii na temat przedstawicieli różnych kultur. Grażyna Kiliańska-Przybyło Anatomie der interkulturellen Treffen Eine vergleichende soziolinguistische Studie Zusammenfassung Das Buch unter dem Titel „Anatomie der interkulturellen Treffen. Eine vergleichen- de soziolinguistische Studie“ befasst sich mit der Analyse interkultureller Treffen (Si- tuationen, wo wir mit den Vertretern von anderen Kulturen konfrontiert werden). Im Zeitalter der Globalisierung, des Verwischens von Grenzen und einer hohen Mobilität der Menschen wird das Treffen mit einem Fremden zur Notwendigkeit und Heraus- forderung (Bauman 2000; Heyworth et al. 2003; Dervin 2007a, 2007b; Kapuściński 2004). Interkulturelle Treffen sind jedoch aus mehreren anderen Gründen wichtig und nämlich: Sie spiegeln das Verhalten von anderen Menschen wider, wodurch wir uns selbst und die Kultur unseres eigenen Landes verstehen können. Durch die Unvorher- sehbarkeit und den individuellen Charakter von solchen Treffen wird wiederum die Reflexion über wichtige Elemente in der interpersonalen und interkulturellen Kommu- nikation begünstigt. Im theoretischen Teil des Buches wird die Charakteristik der interkulturellen Tref- fen dargestellt und ihre verschiedenen Dimensionen, u.a.: auf sprachlichem, affektivem und kommunikativem Gebiet, beschrieben. In diesem Kapitel wurde auch der Begriff „Interkulturelle Kompetenz“ als Schlüsselkompetenz beim Kontakt mit den Vertretern von anderen Kulturen besprochen und Hindernisse, die die Kommunikation mit den Fremden schwer oder unmöglich machen, beschrieben. In Anbetracht der Tatsache, dass die Prüfung überwiegend auf den persönlich von Prüfungsteilnehmern erzählten Geschichten beruht, wurden im theoretischen Teil die wichtigsten Voraussetzungen der Erzähltendenz dargestellt, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf die Merkmale vom so genannten „homo narrans“ (der Mensch als Geschichtenerzähler) gelegt wird. Der empirische Teil beschreibt die Prüfung, die unter 3 Gruppen von Studenten durchgeführt wurde (d.h.: unter 2 polnischen Gruppen von Studierenden – Bachelor- und Masterstudiengänge für Englische Philologie an der Schlesischen Universität – so- wie unter einer Gruppe von türkischen Studierenden der Englischen Philologie an der Universität Çukurova in Adana; jede Gruppe zählte 50 Personen). Die Prüfung bestand aus mehreren Etappen. Zuerst nahmen die Studenten an einem kurzen interkulturellen Training teil, danach wurden sie darum gebeten, das – nach ihrer Ansicht – bedeuten- de Treffen mit den Vertretern von anderen Kulturen zu beschreiben (eine persönliche Erzählung, die einen kritischen Vorgang beschreibt). Zusätzlich wurde für die Prüfung der Fragebogen und die Skala der interkulturellen Sensibilität verwendet. 246 Zusammenfassung Die Prüfergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Fähigkeit zum beidseitig zufrieden- stellenden Umgang mit Menschen unterschiedlicher kultureller Orientierung und – was damit verbunden ist – interkulturelle Kompetenz von individuellen Faktoren, Fremd- sprachenkompetenzen und vom soziokulturellen Raum, aus dem die Prüfungsteilneh- mer stammen, abhängig sind. Der soziokulturelle Kontext erwies sich als wesentlich, weil er den Charakter und die Art der Kontakte mit Repräsentanten anderer Kulturen, die Art der Kommunikation, den Ansatz für die Kultur des Muttersprachlandes beein- flusst hat. Das interkulturelle Treffen war für die Teilnehmer: – eine gute Gelegenheit, sich in der Zielsprache (Weiterentwicklung der interpersonel- len Kommunikation) zu verständigen und gleichzeitig eigene Kenntnisse zu prüfen, – eine Quelle von Wissen, Informationen und Neuigkeiten im Bereich des allgemeines Wissens über Kulturen von anderen Ländern; eine gute Gelegenheit, allgemeines Wissen zu erwerben oder zu erweitern und – ein Faktor zur Erhöhung des sprachlichen Bewusstseins (insbesondere in Bezug auf den Kontext und den Gebrauch der Sprache in den kulturell bedingten Situatio- nen), – ein Katalysator zur Förderung der Autoreflexion und somit zur Erhöhung des Wis- sens von Teilnehmern über sich selbst, – eine Möglichkeit der Bewusstmachung sowie Beurteilung und Prüfung von Stereoty- pen und eigenen Meinungen über die Repräsentanten von anderen Kulturen. Copy editing Technical editing Cover design Proofreading Typesetting Gabriela Marszołek Małgorzata Pleśniar Anna Gawryś Joanna Zwierzyńska Alicja Załęcka Copyright © 2017 by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego All rights reserved ISSN 0208-6336 ISBN 978-83-226-3016-7 (print edition) ISBN 978-83-226-3017-4 (digital edition) Publisher Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego ul. Bankowa 12B, 40-007 Katowice www.wydawnictwo.us.edu.pl e-mail: wydawus@us.edu.pl First impression. Printed sheets: 15.5. Publishing sheets: 16.0. Offset paper, III grade, 90 g Price 20 zł (+ VAT) Printing and binding: „TOTEM.COM.PL Sp. z o.o.” Sp.K. ul. Jacewska 89, 88-100 Inowrocław G r a ż y n a K i l i a ń s k a - P r z y b y ł o T h e A n a t o m y o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l E n c o u n t e r s . A S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S t u d y Grażyna Kiliańska-Przybyło The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU ŚLĄSKIEGO KATOWICE 2017
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The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters. A Sociolinguistic Cross-Cultural Study
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