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The Bulgarian State in 927-969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I - ebook/pdf
The Bulgarian State in 927-969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Język publikacji: polski
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Tsar Peter (927-969), the book’s protagonist, is all too frequently presented in modern scholarship as a weak ruler, devoid of any grander political aspirations, focused on religious matters, indeed - pious, but neglecting the vital interests of his subjects. It was said that during his reign both his court and state became Byzantinised, that the central authority was completely helpless in the face of Hungarian raids, and saw the spread of the Bogomilist heresy. According to the Tsar’s critics, it was as a result of his ineffectual rule that Boris II, his son and successor, was unable to defend Bulgaria’s sovereignty in 971.

This book - the first monograph in world literature devoted to Peter - was written by Bulgarian (Miliana Kaymakamova, Georgi N. Nikolov, Angel Nikolov, Nikolay Hrissimov) and Polish medievalists (Miroslaw J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow, Zofia A. Brzozowska Jan M. Wolski). Thanks to a thorough analysis of the sources and an in-depth knowledge of the literature of the subject, they constructed a comprehensive and balanced image of the reign of their protagonist, and of the role he played in the history of mediaeval Bulgaria.

We are dealing here with a monograph that is exceptional not only in Polish, but also international historiography. Its authors, known for their numerous dissertations, papers on the history of Byzantium and Bulgaria and other works, undertook the task of creating a synthesis, world’s first comprehensive study devoted to the Bulgarian Tsar Peter and his times [...\ The authors convincingly present the political achievements of the monarch and his contributions to the development of the early mediaeval Bulgarian culture [...\ they accurately recreate the image of the contemporary Bulgarian society which, during Peter’s times, benefited from the fruits of the second peace.

Due to its original theme, the monograph may meet with a lively interest of readers both in Poland and abroad

from the editorial review of Dr. hab. Jarosław Dudek,
professor of the University of Zielona Góra

Znajdź podobne książki Ostatnio czytane w tej kategorii

Darmowy fragment publikacji:

The Bulgarian State in 927–969 The Epoch of Tsar Peter I Edited by Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow B Y Z A N T I N A L O D Z I E N S I A Series of the Department of Byzantine History of the University of Łódź F o u n d e d b y Professor Waldemar Ceran in 1997 № XXXIV B Y Z A N T I N A L O D Z I E N S I A XXXIV The Bulgarian State in 927–969 The Epoch of Tsar Peter I Edited by Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow Translated by Lyubomira Genova Marek Majer Artur Mękarski Michał Zytka Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow – University of Łódź bizancjum@uni.lodz.pl Faculty of Philosophy and History Institute of History, Department of Byzantine History 27a Kamińskiego St., 90-219 Łódź (Poland) © Copyright by Authors, Łódź–Kraków 2018 © Copyright for this edition by University of Łódź, Łódź–Kraków 2018 © Copyright for this edition by Jagiellonian University Press, Łódź–Kraków 2018 All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers Published by Łódź University Press Jagiellonian University Press First edition, Łódź–Kraków 2018 W.088620.18.0.K ISBN978-83-8142-115-7 – paperback Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-4545-9 – paperback Jagiellonian University Press ISBN 978-83-8142-116-4 – electronic version Łódź University Press ISBN 978-83-233-9933-9 – electronic version Jagiellonian University Press Łódź University Press 8 Lindleya St., 90-131 Łódź www.wydawnictwo.uni.lodz.pl e-mail: ksiegarnia@uni.lodz.pl phone: +48 (42) 665 58 63 Distribution outside Poland Jagiellonian University Press 9/2 Michałowskiego St., 31-126 Kraków phone: +48 (12) 631 01 97, +48 (12) 663 23 81, fax +48 (12) 663 23 83 cell phone: +48 506 006 674, e-mail: sprzedaz@wuj.pl, www.wuj.pl Contents Forword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sources and Modern Scholarship Zofia A. Brzozowska, Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources . 1.1. Foreign Sources . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Native Sources . . 2. Literature on the Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 11 17 Part One: The Events Chapter I Peter’s Way to the Bulgarian Throne Mirosław J. Leszka . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Chapter II Bulgarian-Byzantine Relations during the Reign of Symeon I the Great (893–927) Mirosław J. Leszka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Chapter III Peace Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 vi 1. Negotiations 2. Peace Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter IV The Byzantine Consort of the Bulgarian Ruler: Maria Lekapene Zofia A. Brzozowska . . . . . 1. Origins and Early Years . . . 2. The Year 927 – a Wedding among Peace Negotiations . 3. Maria Lekapene as a Mother . . . 4. On the Bulgarian Throne at Peter’s Side . 5. Maria’s Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter V The Internal Situation Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow . 1. Fighting Internal Opposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1. John’s Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1. John’s Fate after the Plot . 1.2. Michael’s Rebellion . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Characterisation of Domestic Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter VI Foreign Policy Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow . 1. The Serbian Question . 2. Hungarians . . 3. Relations with Otto I . . . 4. The Rus’ and the Pechenegs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 50 55 56 60 71 77 88 91 91 91 95 96 104 111 111 120 129 132 The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I Chapter VII Last Years of Peter’s Reign (963–969) Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow 1. The Crisis in Bulgarian-Byzantine Relationships . 1.1. Testimony of the Life of St. Phantinos the Younger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Invasions of Svyatoslav (968) 3. Death of Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 137 139 148 151 157 Chapter VIII The Year 971 Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Part Two: The Structures Chapter I The Environment and Geopolitics of the State Kirił Marinow . . . . . . 173 Chapter II The Economy Kirił Marinow . 1. Agriculture and Animal Husbandry . . . . . 2. Crafts and City Development . 3. Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter III Everyday Life Nikolay Hrissimov . 1. Climate and Environment . . . . . 2. Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 203 207 216 223 223 226 Contents viii 2.1. Women . . 2.2. Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Food and Nutrition . 4. Dwellings . . . 5. Holidays and Celebration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter IV State Organisation and Power Hierarchy in the Bulgarian Empire (927–969) Georgi N. Nikolov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 233 239 250 251 257 Chapter V Armed Forces and the Defence System of Peter’s State Kirił Marinow . . . . 1. The Army and its Organisation . . . 2. The Defence System of the Bulgarian State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 270 280 Chapter VI Wild, Haughty and Menacing Highlanders: Bulgarians and Mountains in the Context of Byzantine-Bulgarian Armed Conflicts Kirił Marinow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Chapter VII The Church Mirosław J. Leszka, Jan M. Wolski . . . 1. The Status of the Bulgarian Church and its Organisation Mirosław J. Leszka 2. Monasticism Jan M. Wolski 3. Bogomilism Jan M. Wolski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 303 317 335 The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I Chapter VIII The Culture Zofia A. Brzozowska, Angel Nikolov . . 1. Political Ideology, Education and Literature Angel Nikolov . 2. Art and Church Architecture Zofia A. Brzozowska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Church Architecture and Sculpture 2.2. Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 347 380 380 392 Part Three: The Interpretations A. Medieval Visions Chapter I The Portrayal of Peter in Mediaeval Sources Mirosław J. Leszka . 1. Byzantine Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1. Peter’s Titulature in the Byzantine Sources . 1.2. Portrayal of Peter in the Context of the Conclusion of Peace in 927 and . at the Beginning of his Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Peter’s Religious Attitude. Portrayal of the Ruler in the Final Years of . his Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Bulgarian Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Titulature . . . 2.2. The Sermon against the Heretics . . . 2.3. Peter in the Lives of St. John of Rila . . 2.4. Peter in the Tale of the Prophet Isaiah . . . . . 3. Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. Peter in the Works of Liudprand of Cremona . 3.2. Ibrahim ibn Yakub’s Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 405 405 410 415 419 420 421 421 425 430 430 433 Contents x Chapter II War and Peace in the House of the Lord: A Conflict among Orthodox Christians and its Overcoming according to the Homily ‘On the Treaty with the Bulgarians’ Kirił Marinow . 1. War and its Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1. The Effects of Violence 1.2. The Author’s Reaction, Feelings, Thoughts and Attitude to War . 1.3. Some Conclusions on Rhetorical Authenticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Motive of Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. The New Israel or the Body of Christ . 2.2. God is Peace among Christians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 438 438 439 443 446 446 450 Chapter III The Cult of the Bulgarian Tsar Peter (927–969) and the Driving Ideas of the Bulgarian Liberation Uprisings against the Byzantine Rule in the 11th–12th Century Miliana Kaymakamova . . . 1. A Brief Overview of the History of the Cult of Tsar Peter in Medieval . 2. The Importance of the Cult of Tsar Peter for the Conceptual Justification . of the Bulgarian Liberation Uprisings in the 11th–12th Century . Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 460 468 B. Modern views Chapter IV The Portrayal of Peter in Modern Historiography Jan M. Wolski . 1. . 2. Mid-Eighteenth to Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Birth of Native Historiography and the Development of Historical Literature in the Balkans and in Russia . . Seventeenth to Mid-Eighteenth Centuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 483 . . 494 The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 3. Historiography after the 1850s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. Classical Historiography on Medieval Bulgaria 3.2. Peter’s Rehabilitation . 3.3. Peter’s Place in the Historical Memory and Political Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . Abbreviations . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Sources 2. Modern Scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Index of People and Personages . 2. Index of Ethnic, Religious and Geographic Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 511 511 522 525 529 535 543 543 557 635 635 652 663 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Foreword Tsar Peter I (927–969) had not previously been the subject of a mono- graph. This is despite the fact that he was the longest reigning monarch in the history of mediaeval Bulgaria, and being counted among the saints by the Bulgarian Church. There had been, however, works discussing the reigns of his two predecessors – Boris I and Symeon I – his grandfather and father, and also the life of the most popular anchorite living in his times, St. John of Rila. On the one hand it appears to be understandable, since the scarcity of the sources relating to his reign does not allow constructing a full image of either Peter himself, nor of his reign. Despite the appearances, however, the silence of the sources from his era did not shield this ruler from numerous negative judgements about him, formulated by genera- tions of scholars. They spoke of his lack of character, torpid governance and his focus on religious over political matters. He was accused of being a protégé of Constantinople and serving the Byzantine cause, and leading the state into a social breakdown, which manifested itself through, i.a., the Byzantinisation of the court and the development of the Bogomilist heresy. Finally, counted amongst his failures was the political disintegra- tion which resulted in the state’s downfall – under Rus’ and Byzantine 2 pressure – near the end of his reign and during the reign of his son and successor, Boris II. These evaluations suffered from a one major methodological fault – assessing Peter primarily from the perspective of the accomplishments of the aforementioned two great predecessors. Boris-Michael led to Bulgaria’s Christianisation and an instilling among his subjects a new literary and liturgical language with which they could express their faith and through which they adapted the grand cultural achievements of the Christian Byzantium for their own use. These two elements had a power- ful influence on the final consolidation of the state and the subjects of the Bulgarian rulers. Symeon, who not only contributed to the great cultural growth of Bulgaria, but was primarily remembered on the pages of history as an able and ambitious ruler who led Bulgaria to the apex of military might, establishing the country as a power at the international arena and in the political sphere. In comparison with them, the reign of their descendant appeared indistinct at best, or outright decadent – devoid of any great territorial gains or major cultural developments. On the other hand, from the mid-twentieth century, there had been burgeoning attempts at re-interpreting the reign of this ruler, rightly questioning the portrayal of Peter’s reign fixed by the classic Bulgarian mediaevists (and others), while the research into (widely understood) material culture is providing increasingly more information about Bulgaria of his time. For these reasons it seems to be fully justified to finally under- take larger scale research into Peter’s portraiture and the country he ruled. In other words, to fill the existing gap in historiography regarding this matter, and at the same time restore Peter to his rightful place in history. This task, realised within the framework of the National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, research grant was undertaken on the following pages by an international team of scholars: employees of the Department of Byzantine History and the Ceraneum Centre of the Łódź University (Poland) and of the Department of History of Bulgaria of the St. Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia (Bulgaria), with the minor participation of the Department of Old and Medieval History of the St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgaria). In our reseach we made two fundamental assumptions – that the original sources required The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 3 a new reading taking into account the most recent achievements of the worldwide Byzantine and mediaeval Bulgarian studies, and that the por- trayal of Peter and his reign would be presented in fullest against the backdrop of the Bulgarian state between 930s and the 960s. We hope that this monograph is going to contribute to the preser- vation of a more balanced and generally positive evaluation of Peter I’s role in the history of mediaeval Bulgaria. * * * We would like to thank our Colleagues from Ceraneum and from the Department of Byzantine History and the Department of Slavic Studies, all of University of Łódź (Poland), for the supportive attitude towards our work: Prof. Maciej Kokoszko, Prof. Georgi Minczew, Prof. Teresa Wolińska, Prof. Sławomir Bralewski, Prof. Ivan Petrov, Dr. Paweł Filipczak, Dr. Agata Kawecka, Dr. Andrzej Kompa and Dr. Małgorzata Skowronek. We thank Professor Jarosław Dudek from the University of Zielona Góra for the meticulous and positive editorial review. We thank Dr. Michał Zytka for editing and proofreading the English text. We would also like to give thanks to Elżbieta Myślińska-Brzozowska for providing the illustrations (drawings) for this volume. * * * This book was written as part of a research project financed by the National Science Centre (Poland). Decision number: DEC-2014/14/M/ HS3/00758 (The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I the Pious). The Editors Foreword Zofia A. Brzozowska Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow Sources and Modern Scholarship 1. Sources 1.1. Foreign Sources The sources that constitute the basis for the considerations presented in this volume have predominantly been penned by the Byzantine authors1. Crucially, many of the accounts which we are going to examine here were 1 The Reader will find a thorough overview of the Byzantine sources that include information about Peter and Maria in the following work: Т. То д о р о в, България през втората и третата четвърт на X век: политическа история, София 2006 [unpublished PhD thesis], pp. 19–17, 150–152. See also, i.a.: В. Гю з е л е в, Значението на брака на цар Петър (927–969) с ромейката Мария-Ирина Лакапина (911–962), [in:] Културните текстове на миналото – носители, символи, идеи, vol. I, Текстовете на историята, история на текстовете. Материали от Юбилейната международна конференция в чест на 60-годишнината на проф. д.и.н. Казимир Попконстантинов, Велико Търново, 29–31 октомври 2003  г., София 2005, p.  32; А.  Н и к о л о в, Политическа мисъл в ранносредновековна България (средата на IX – края на X в.), София 2006, pp. 233–236; Т. То д о р о в, Владетелският статут и титла на цар Петър І след октомври 927 г.: писмени сведения и сфрагистични данни (сравнителен анализ), [in:] Юбилеен сборник. Сто години от рождението на д-р Васил Хараланов (1907–2007), Шумен 2008, pp. 94–95. 6 written during tsar Peter’s life, or soon after his death. The most detailed description of the developments of 927, i.e. the negotiations leading to the conclusion of peace between the Empire and Bulgaria (the guaran- tee of which was to have been the marriage between Peter and a grand- daughter of Romanos I Lekapenos), we find in a narrative written down in the 10th century in Constantinople. It was created by authors from the so-called ‘circle of Symeon Logothete’: Continuator of George the Monk (Hamartolos), Symeon Logothete, Leo Grammatikos and Pseudo- Symeon Magistros2. The output of the anonymous Continuator of George the Monk includes the description of events from 842 onwards – from the point at which George’s narrative ended. The fragments devoted to Peter and Maria are practically identical with the relevant passages in the Chronicle of Symeon Logothete. The text is known in two variants. Redaction A, older, written down prior to 963, describes the events prior to 948, i.e. the death of Romanos I Lekapenos. The later redaction B includes the history of Byzantium up to 963 (enhanced with certain additional details). The older version of the Chronicle of Symeon Logothete is highly similar to redaction A of the Continuation of George the Monk, while the newer version closely resembles redaction B. In this monograph, we are not going to differentiate between the redactions A and B, as the passages relating to Maria Lekapene and Peter in both variants are identical. They include first and foremost an unusually extensive and detailed narrative of the events of 927, the beginning of Peter’s reign, the description of his brothers’ 2 On the subject of Symeon Logothete and the works associated with his name, see: В.Н. З л а т а р с к и, Известията за българите в хрониката на Симеон Метафраст и Логотет, [in:] i d e m, Избрани произведения в четири тома, vol. I, ed. П. П е т р о в, София 1972, pp. 359–573; А.П. К а ж д а н, Хроника Симеона Логофета, ВВ 15, 1959, pp.125–143; W. S w o b o d a, Kontynuacja Georgiosa, [in:] SSS, vol. II, p. 468; М. К а й м а к а м о в а, Българска средновековна историопис, София 1990, pp. 170–171; J. H o w a r d-J o h n s t o n, Byzantium, Bulgaria and the Peoples of Ukraine in the 890s, [in:] Материалы по археологии, истории и этнографии Таврии, vol. VII, ed. А.И. А й б а б и н, Симферополь 2000, pp. 343–345; S. Wa h l g r e n, Autor und Werk, [in:] S y m e o n L o g o t h e t e, pp. 3–8; A. B r z ó s t k o w s k a, Kroniki z kręgu Symeona Logotety, [in:] Testimonia, vol. V, pp. 64–67; W. Tr e a d g o l d, The Middle Byzantine Historians, New York–Basingstoke 2013, pp. 197–224. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 4 C o n t i n u a t o r o f G e o r g e t h e M o n k, p. 913; S y m e o n L o g o t h e t e, 5 L e o G r a m m a t i k o s, pp. 315–317; P s e u d o-S y m e o n M a g i s t r o s, 33–34, 136.67. pp. 740–741. 7 actions against him3 as well as a mention of the Bulgarian tsaritsa’s visits to Constantinople in the later period4. Textologically separate, but related in content, are the Chronicle of Pseudo-Symeon Magistros and the Chronicle of Leo Grammatikos. Their descriptions of the developments of 927 are similar to the ones discussed above, but presented more concisely5. The second, later redaction of the Chronicle of Symeon Logothete, com- pleted ca. 963, most likely served as the basis for the anonymous author of the first part of book VI of the Continuation of Theophanes, written at roughly the same time6. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that this work’s 3 C o n t i n u a t o r o f G e o r g e t h e M o n k, pp. 904–907; S y m e o n L o g o- t h e t e, 136. 45–51. 6 Continuation of Theophanes encompasses the period between 813 and 961. Books I–IV have been written by an anonymous author on Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos’ orders. Book V (Life of Basil) is often attributed to the emperor himself, while book VI most likely had two authors. Its first part, covering the period after 886 until the death of Romanos I Lekapenos (948) was written by an anonymous author, most likely during Nikephoros II Phokas’ reign (963–969). As some scholars think, it is dependent on one of the editions of Symeon Logothete’s work, in the version of Continuator of George the Monk (edition B). The second, describing years 948–961, is associated with the person of Theodore Daphnopates and was created – it is thought – prior to 963. On the subject of authorship, source basis and the message of Continuation of Theophanes: А.П.  К а ж д а н, Из истории византийской хронографии X в., I, O составе так называемой “Хроники Продолжателя Феофана”, ВВ 19, 1961, pp. 76–96; A. M a r k o p o u l o s, Théodore Daphnopatés et la Continuation de Théophane, JÖB 35, 1985, pp. 171–182 (he considers the association of Daphnopates with Continuation of Theophanes as exceedingly problematic); J.  S i g n e s C o d o ñ e r, Algunas consideraciones sobre la autoría del Theophanes Continuatus, Ery 10, 1989, pp. 17–28 (he ascribes the authorship of books I–V to Constantine VII himself ); J. L j u b a r s k i j, Theophanes Continuatus und Genesios. Das Problem einer gemeinsamen Quelle, Bsl 48, 1987, pp. 45–55; i d e m, Сочинение Продолжателя Феофана. Хроника, история, жиз- неописания?, [in:] П р о д о л ж а т е л ь Ф е о ф а н а, Жизнеописания византий- ских царей, еd. i d e m, Санкт-Петербург 1992, pp. 293–368; J.M. F e a t h e r s t o n e, Theophanes Continuatus VI and De Cerimoniis I, 96, BZ 104, 2011, pp. 115–123 (he supposes that the source’s compilation was done by parakoimomenos Basil, son of Romanos I Lekapenos, during the reign of Nikephoros II Phokas); I. Š e v č e n k o, Sources and Modern Scholarship 8 account of the circumstances in which the Bulgarian-Byzantine peace treaty of 927 was concluded is also highly similar to the descriptions mentioned above. It also includes a strikingly close depiction of the marriage between Maria and Peter, as well as a record of the tsaritsa’s several journeys to Constantinople, where, accompanied by her children, she paid visits to her relatives7. Some information on Peter’s times was also included in the works of later Byzantine chroniclers: John Skylitzes8 and John Zonaras9. Both of these authors included a description of the facts of 927, based on the above-mentioned earlier accounts but presented in a more condensed form10. Moreover, they also noted an event that, for obvious reasons, could not have been mentioned by the authors of the earlier historiographical works (concluded in the early 960s) – i.e. the death of Maria11 and the Introduction, [in:]  Chronographiae quae Theophanis Continuati nomine fertur Liber que Vita Basilii Imperatoris amplectitur, ed. i d e m, Berlin 2011, pp. 3–13; J.M. F e a t h e r s t o n e, Theophanes Continuatus: a History for the Palace, [in:] La face cachée de la littérature byzantine. Le texte en tant que message immédiat, ed. P. O d o r i c o, Paris 2012, pp. 123–135. 7 C o n t i n u a t o r o f T h e o p h a n e s, VI, 22–23, 35, pp. 412–415, 422. 8 Sýnopsis historión encompasses the period between 811 and 1057. It was most likely written during the 1070s. For more information about John Skylitzes and his work, see i.a.: H. T h u r n, Ioannes Skylitzes, Autor und Werk, [in:] J o h n S k y l i t z e s, pp. VII–LVI; W. S e i b t, Johannes Skylitzes: Zur Person des Chronisten, JÖB 25, 1976, pp. 81–85; J. B o n a r e k, Romajowie i obcy w Kronice Jana Skylitzesa. Identyfikacja etniczna Bizantyńczyków i ich stosunek do obcych w świetle Kroniki Jana Skylitzesa, Toruń 2003, pp. 15–24; C. H o l m e s, The rhetorical structure of Skylitzes’ Synopsis Historion, [in:] Rhetoric in Byzantium, ed. E. J e f f r e y s, Aldershot 2003, pp. 187–199; J.-C. C h e y n e t, John Skylitzes, the author and his family, [in:] J o h n S k y l i t z e s, A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811–1057, transl. J. Wo r t l e y, Cambridge 2010, pp. IX–XI; B.  F l u s i n, Re-writing history: John Skylitzes’ Synopsis historion, [in:] J o h n S k y l i t z e s, A Synopsis…, pp. XII–XXXIII. 9 This work encompasses the history from the creation of the world until 1118, and was written soon after that year. On John Zonaras and his chronicle: K. Z i e g l e r, Zonaras, [in:] RE, vol. X.A.1, 1972, col. 718–732; I. G r i g o r i a d i s, Linguistic and literary studies in the Epitome Historion of John Zonaras, Thessaloniki 1998; T.M. B a n c h i c h, Introduction, [in:] The History of Zonaras from Alexander Severus to the Death of Theodosius the Great, transl. i d e m, E.N. L a n e, New York 2009, pp. 1–19; W. Tr e a d g o l d, The Middle…, p. 388sqq. 10 J o h n S k y l i t z e s, pp. 222–224; J o h n Z o n a r a s, pp. 473–475. 11 J o h n S k y l i t z e s, p. 255; J o h n Z o n a r a s, p. 495. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 9 final years of Peter’s reign12. Another, particularly significant, source for the final years of Peter’s reign is the History of Leo the Deacon13. The works of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos14 deserve particular attention. He was of a similar age to Peter and his spouse and was married to her aunt – Helena Lekapene; he also participated in the events of 927 and most likely knew Maria personally. However, the ‘purple-born’ author is not objective: he is unsympathetic to our heroine’s family and does not conceal his outrage that she, a granddaughter of emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, married a foreign, Slavic ruler. Constantine included an evaluation of this marriage in chapter 13 of the treatise On the Governance of the Empire15. 12 J o h n S k y l i t z e s, p. 255sqq; J o h n Z o n a r a s, p. 495sqq. 13 Leo the Deacon was born ca. 950, and received a thorough education. As a cler- gyman, he was associated with the patriarchate of Constantinople and the imperial court. He participated in the disastrous expedition of Basil II against the Bulgarians in 986. His work was written after that event. On the subject of life and works of Leo the Deacon, see i.a.: С.А. И в а н о в, Полемическая направленность Истории Льва Диакона, ВВ 43, 1982, pp. 74–80; O.  J u r e w i c z, Historia literatury bizan- tyńskiej, Wrocław 1982, pp. 181–182; М.Я. С ю з ю м о в, Лев Диакон и его время, [in:] Л е в Д и а к о н, История, transl. М.М. К о п ы л е н к о, ed. Г.Г. Л и т а в р и н, Москва 1988, pp. 137–165; The History of Leo the Deacon. Byzantine Military Expansion in the Tenth Century, ed. A.-M. Ta l b o t, D.F. S u l i v a n, with assistance G.T. D e n n i s, S. M c G r a t h, Washington 2006, pp. 9–52; A. K a z h d a n, History of Byzantine Literature (850–1000), ed. Ch. A n g e l i d i, Athens 2006, pp. 278–286. 14 On the subject of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos: P. L e m e r l e, Byzantine Humanism: the First Phase. Notes and Remarks on Education and Culture in Byzantium from the Origins to the 10th Century, transl. H. L i n d s a y, A. M o f f a t t, Canberra 1986, p. 310sqq; A. To y n b e e, Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World, London 1973; T.E. G r e g o r y, The Political Program of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, [in:] Actes du XVe Congrès International des Études Byzantines, vol. IV, Athènes 1985, pp. 122–133; G. Ta n n e r, The Historical Method of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, BF 24, 1997, pp. 125–140. 15 C o n s t a n t i n e   V I I P o r p h y r o g e n n e t o s, On the Governance of the Empire, 13, pp. 72–74. This work was created between 944 and 952, although some of its parts may have been written earlier. Љ. М а к с и м о в и ћ, Структура 32. поглавља списа De admistrando imperio, ЗРВИ 21, 1982, p.  31 –  believes that chapter 32 was written between 927/928 and 944). A detailed analysis of the work: К о н с т а н т и н Б а г р я н о р о д н ы й, Об управлении империей, еd. Г.Г. Л и т а в р и н, А.П. Н о в о с о л ц е в, Москва 1989, pp. 276–457 (a list of aca- demic literature – pp. 460–468). Cf. also: T. Ž i v k o v i ć, De conversione Croatorum et Serborum. A Lost Source, Belgrade 2012. For the opinion of Constantine Porphyrogennetos Sources and Modern Scholarship 10 Another of his works, the Book of Ceremonies16, may also prove a valuable source. While it would be futile to search the pages of this text for direct remarks on Maria, it does provide us with some important information about the official status and titulature of the mid-10th century Bulgarian ruler17. Peter and Maria Lekapene are also mentioned, although very rarely, by the western European sources. A particular role in this is played by the contemporary to the tsar couple Liutprand of Cremona, who came to Constantinople on a diplomatic mission twice (in 949 and in 968)18. The person of Maria and the circumstances of her marriage with the Bulgarian ruler drew Liudprand’s attention during both of his stays in the Byzantine capital. In 968, the reasons were obvious – the goal of his visit to Constantinople was, after all, to negotiate Nikephoros II Phokas’s agreement to marry a ‘purple-born’ Byzantine woman to the son of Otto I. The Byzantine-Bulgarian marriage of 927 may have been an important argument during these negotiations, in that the rule according to which a woman from the imperial family could not marry a foreign ruler was on the Bulgarians, as well as on the causes of this ruler’s negative attitude towards the Lekapenos family and their dynastic marriage of 927, see: Г. Л и т а в р и н, Константин Багрянородный о Болгарии и Болгарах, [in:] Сборник в чест на акад. Димитър Ангелов, ed. В. В е л к о в, София 1994, pp. 30–37; F. T i n n e f e l d, Byzantinische auswärtige Heiratspolitik vom 9. zum 12 Jahrhundert, Bsl 54.1, 1993, pp. 21–22; Т. То д о р о в, Константин Багренородни и династичният брак между владетелските домове на Преслав и Константинопол от 927 г., ПКШ 7, 2003, pp. 391–398; В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, pp. 30–31; A. P a r o ń, “Trzeba, abyś tymi oto słowami odparł i to nie- dorzeczne żądanie” – wokół De administrando imperio Konstantyna VII, [in:] Causa creandi. O pragmatyce źródła historycznego, ed. S. R o s i k, P. W i s z e w s k i, Wrocław 2005, pp. 345–361; А. Н и к о л о в, Политическа…, pp. 269–279. 16 It was created near the end of Constantine VII – likely during the years 957–959. On the subject of this source – J.B. B u r y, The Ceremonial Book of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, EHR 22, 1907, pp. 209–227; 417–439; A. M o f f a t t, The Master of Ceremonies’ Bottom Drawer. The Unfinished State of the De cerimoniis of Constantine Porphyrogennetos, Bsl 56, 1995, pp. 377–388; M. M a n i n i, Liber de Caerimoniis Aulae Byzantinae: prosopografia e sepolture imperiali, Spoleto 2009. 17 C o n s t a n t i n e   V I I P o r p h y r o g e n n e t o s, The Book of Ceremonies, II, 47, pp. 681–682. 18 L i u d p r a n d o f C r e m o n a, Retribution, III, 38, p. 86; L i u d p r a n d o f C r e m o n a, Embassy, 16, 19, pp. 194–195. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 11 not strictly adhered to at the Constantinopolitan court19. Curiously, Liudprand is also the only author to mention that, upon entering into marriage, Maria adopted a new name (Irene, i.e. ‘Peace’), symbolically underscoring the role she was to play in the Byzantine-Bulgarian relations after 92720. 1.2. Native Sources Regarding times of Peter and Maria, the native sources primarily serve a complementary role. These are largely works that have been translated from Greek, with minor authorial additions. Entirely original works are less common. It is worth noting that tsaritsa Maria, aside from sphragistic material, does not appear at all in sources of Bulgarian origin. Among the Old Bulgarian texts that include mentions of tsar Peter, of particular interest are: Sermon against the Heretics of Cosmas the Priest and Tale of the Prophet Isaiah. The Sermon against the Heretics may be considered as the first Slavic heresiological treatise. It was written by Cosmas the Priest. This work was most likely created either directly after tsar Peter’s death, or during the 1040s. It is the fundamental source for learning about the Bogomilist heresy and – from a broader perspective – about the religious life in the contemporary Bulgaria21. Tale of the Prophet Isaiah (previously referred to as Bulgarian Apocryphal Chronicle) is in turn an excellent testimo- ny of the mediaeval Bulgarian historical and ‘national’ identity, which in recent times became the basis for the study of the political ideology in Bulgaria during the period being examined here. This semi-legendary 19 T. Wo l i ń s k a, Konstantynopolitańska misja Liudpranda z Kremony (968), [in:] Cesarstwo bizantyńskie. Dzieje. Religia. Kultura. Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Waldemarowi Ceranowi przez uczniów na 70-lecie Jego urodzin, ed. P. K r u p c z y ń s k i, M.J. L e s z k a, Łask–Łódź 2006, pp. 208–212. 20 J. S h e p a r d, A marriage too far? Maria Lekapena and Peter of Bulgaria, [in:] The Empress Theophano. Byzantium and the West at the turn of the first millen nium, ed. A. D a v i d s, Cambridge 1995, pp. 126–127; В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, p. 30. 21 Średniowieczne herezje dualistyczne na Bałkanach. Źródła słowiańskie, ed. G. M i n c z ew, M. S k o w r o n e k, J.M. Wo l s k i, Łódź 2015, pp. 19–20, 67–70 (see there for further literature). Sources and Modern Scholarship 12 vision of history was created either during the latter half of the eleventh century or – what is more likely – during the twelfth century22. In a study that requires the analysis of native sources (such as, e.g., research into the titulature of the Bulgarian rulers), the historian needs to seek additional information by examining the Slavic translations of Byzantine chronicles. From among the above-mentioned Greek his- toriographical texts, both versions of the Continuation of George the Monk as well as the work of John Zonaras were certainly translated into the language of the Orthodox Slavs23. The Slavic translation of the Continuation of George the Monk was completed in Bulgaria in the late 10th early 11th century, and it was based on the newer, expanded redaction of the text (B), written after 963. Therefore, the Slavic translation dates back to merely several decades later than the original Greek version (i.e., incidentally, soon after Maria’s death). According to numerous scholars, the Slavic translation is unusually faithful to the original, preserving a version of the text that is closer to the protograph than some of the extant Byzantine copies24. 22 On the subject of this work, see: K. M a r i n o w, Kilka uwag na temat ideologicz- no-eschatologicznej wymowy “Bułgarskiej kroniki apokryficznej”, FE 4.6/7, 2007, pp. 61–75; D. Č e š m e d ž i e v, Bułgarska tradycja państwowa w apokryfach: car Piotr w “Bułgarskiej kronice apokryficznej”, transl. Ł. M y s i e l s k i, [in:] Biblia Slavorum Apocryphorum. Novum Testamentum, ed. G. M i n c z e w, M. S k o w r o n e k, I. P e t r o v, Łódź 2009, pp. 139–147; M. К а й м а к а м о в а, Значението на български апокрифен летопис (XI в.) като извор за ранносредновековната българска култура, [in:] Stephanos Archaeologicos in honorem Professoris Stephcae Angelova, ed. K. Р а б а д ж и е в, София 2010, pp. 593–612; И. Б и л я р с к и, Сказание на Исая пророка и формирането на политическата идео- логия на ранносредновековна България, София 2011 [= I. B i l i a r s k y, The Tale of the Prophet Isaiah. The Destiny and Meanings of an Apocryphal Text, Leiden–Boston 2013]; M. К а й м а к а м о в а, Власт и история в средновековна България (VII–XIV в.), София 2011, pp. 183–216; V. Ta p k o v a-Z a i m o v a, A. M i l t e n o v a, Historical and Apocalyptic Literature in Byzantium and Medieval Bulgaria, Sofia 2011, pp. 274–300. 23 Д.И. П о л ы в я н н ы й, Царь Петр в исторической памяти болгарского сред- невековья, [in:] Средновековният българин и “другите”. Сборник в чест на 60-годиш- нината на проф. дин Петър Ангелов, ed. А. Н и к о л о в, Г.Н. Н и к о л о в, София 2013, p. 139. 24 А.П. К а ж д а н, Хроника Симеона…, p. 126; W. S w o b o d a, Kontynuacja Georgiosa…, p.  468; М.  К а й м а к а м о в а, Българска…, pp.  170–171; A. B r z ó s t k o w s k a, Kroniki…, pp. 64–66. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 13 Interestingly enough, another translation of the Chronicle of Symeon Logothete (vel Continuation of George the Monk), entirely independent from the translation discussed above, was produced in the 14th centu- ry in the South Slavic area. It was based on the older redaction of the Byzantine chronicle (A), covering events until 948. In the manuscripts of this translation, the work is unequivocally ascribed to Symeon Logothete25. Again, the fragments of the source referring to Peter and Maria Lekapene were rendered particularly faithfully, free from abbre- viations or editorial interpolations26. The Bulgarian translation of the Chronicle of John Zonaras (from the second half of the 12th century) and especially the 14th century Serbian redaction can hardly be considered complete. In the manuscripts contain- ing the most extensive version of the Slavic text, we encounter a lacuna between the reign of Leo VI (886–912) and that of Basil II (976–1025)27. Looking for direct references to Peter’s times, therefore, we would be searching them in vain. Interestingly, some information about Peter and Maria was included into the synopsis of John Zonaras’ work by the anonymous author of the manuscript РНБ, F.IV.307, containing a four- teenth-century Slavic translation of the chronicle of Symeon Logothetes28. Remarks about Maria Lekapene and Peter can also be found in sev- eral Old Russian historiographical sources which were dependent con- tent-wise, and sometimes even textologically, on Slavic translations of Byzantine chronicles. Thus, the highly detailed description of the events of 927 as well as the passage on Maria’s later visits to Constantinople – de facto re-edited fragments of the Continuation of George the Monk 25 Г. О с т р о г о р с к и й, Славянский перевод хроники Симеона Логофета, SK 5, 1932, pp. 17–37; А.П. К а ж д а н, Хроника…, p. 130; W. S w o b o d a, Symeon Logotheta, [in:] SSS, vol.  V, pp.  506–507; М.  К а й м а к а м о в а, Българска…, pp. 187–188; Т. То д о р о в, България…, pp. 155–156; i d e m, Владетелският…, p. 98; A. B r z ó s t k o w s k a, Kroniki…, p. 66. 26 S y m e o n L o g o t h e t e (Slavic), pp.  136–137, 140. 27 О.В. Тв о р о г о в, Паралипомен Зонары: текст и комментарий, [in:] Летописи и хроники. Новые исследования. 2009–2010, ed. О.Л. Н о в и к о в а, Москва–Санкт- -Петербург 2010, pp. 3–101. 28 J o h n Z o n a r a s (Slavic), pp. 146, 156, 159. Sources and Modern Scholarship 14 – were weaved into the text of the Hellenic and Roman Chronicle of the second redaction29. The latter is a monumental relic of Rus’ historiogra- phy of the late Middle Ages, compiled prior to 1453 on the basis of native accounts as well as Byzantine sources acquired in the East Slavic area (e.g. the Chronicle of George the Monk and the Chronicle of John Malalas)30. Three short notes about Lekapene and her husband, based i.a. on the Bulgarian glosses to the Slavic translation of the Chronicle of Constantine Manasses (14th century)31, can also be found in two (interrelated) 16th-cen- tury Russian compilations which contain an extensive history of the world: the Russian Chronograph of 1512 and the Nikon Chronicle32. In the context of examining the titulature of Peter and Maria, as well as of the position of the tsaritsa at the Preslavian court, the sphragistic mate- rial may provide us with important information. It is beyond any doubt that, during the period 927–945, tsar Peter was depicted on official seals accompanied by his spouse. A relatively high number of artifacts of this kind have survived to our times. Ivan Yordanov, a specialist in medieval Bulgarian and Byzantine sigillography, divided them into three types33: I. Peter and Maria – basileis/emperors of the Bulgarians (after 927) – a depiction of Peter and Maria is found on the reverse. The tsar is shown on the left-hand side of the composition, the tsaritsa 29 Hellenic and Roman Chronicle, pp. 497–498, 501; Z.A. B r z o z o w s k a, The Image of Maria Lekapene, Peter and the Byzantine-Bulgarian Relations Between 927 and 969 in the Light of Old Russian Sources, Pbg 41.1, 2017, pp. 50–51. 30 Т.В. А н и с и м о в а, Хроника Георгия Амартола в древнерусских списках XIV–XVII вв., Москва 2009, pp. 9–10, 235–253; Т. В и л к у л, Літопис і хронограф. Студії з домонгольського київського літописання, Київ 2015, pp. 372–387. 31 Среднеболгарский перевод Хроники Константина Манассии в славянских лите- ратурах, ed. Д.С. Л и х а ч е в, И.С. Д у й ч е в, София 1988, pp. 232, 237. 32 М.А. С а л м и н а, Хроника Константина Манассии как источник Русского хронографа, ТОДРЛ 32, 1978, pp. 279–287; А.А. Т у р и л о в, К вопросу о болгар- ских источниках Русского хронографа, [in:] Летописи и хроники. Сборник статей, Москва 1984, pp. 20–24 [= Межславянские культурные связи эпохи Средневековья и источниковедение истории и культуры славян. Этюды и характеристики, Москва 2012, pp. 704–708]. 33 There are also some atypical artefacts. Cf. И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на среднове- ковните български печати, София 2016, pp. 269–271. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 15 on the right (from the viewer’s perspective). Both are portrayed in the official court dress of Byzantine emperors: Peter wearing stemma and divitision, Maria wearing stemma of female type, divi- tision and loros. The Bulgarian rulers are holding between them a double-crossed patriarchal cross, which ends with a small globe at the lower end. They are grasping it at the same height. The inscription presents them as the basileis of the Bulgarians: Πέτρος καὶ Μαρίας βασιλεῖς τῶν Βουλγάρων34. II. Peter and Maria – autocrators/augusti and basileis of the Bul- garians (940s) – the depiction of the tsar and his spouse on the reverse does not differ fundamentally from the one described above. Peter’s crown has clearly visible plates on the front hoop and pendants; the divitisions are different; the hands of two rulers are represented below the globe at the end of the patriarchal cross. Because of the poor state of preservation of all specimens of this type, the accompanying writing can be reconstructed in several ways: Πέτρος καὶ Μαρίας ἐν Χριστῷ αὐτοκράτορες Βουλγάρων (Peter and Maria in Christ Autocrators of the Bulgarians); Πέτρος καὶ Μαρίας ἐν Χριστῷ αὔγουστοι βασιλεῖς (Peter and Maria in Christ augusti and basileis); Πέτρος καὶ Μαρίας ἐν Χριστῷ αὐτοκράτορες βασιλεῖς Βουλγάρων (Peter and Maria in Christ autocrators and basileis of the Bulgarians). According to numerous scholars, the second interpretation should be considered correct; on the other hand, in his most recent publications, Ivan Yordanov is inclined to accept the third reading35. 34 И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на печатите на Средновековна България, София 2001, pp. 58–59; В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, p. 27; И. Б о ж и л о в, В. Гю з е л е в, История на средновековна България. VII–XIV в., София 2006, p. 275; И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на средновековните…, pp. 86–89. All seal inscriptions in this book quoted as recon- structed by Ivan Yordanov. 35 J. S h e p a r d, A marriage…, pp. 141–143; Г. А т а н а с о в, Инсигниите на сред- новековните български владетели. Корони, скиптри, сфери, оръжия, костюми, наки- ти, Плевен 1999, pp. 98–99; И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на печатите…, pp. 59–60; В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, p. 27; И. Б о ж и л о в, В. Гю з е л е в, История…, pp. 275–276; Т. То д о р о в, България…, pp. 156–159; i d e m, Владетелският Sources and Modern Scholarship 16 III. Peter and Maria, pious basileis/emperors (940–50s) – on the reverse of the sigillum, we find a depiction of Peter and Maria, portrayed similarly as in the previous types. There are also certain differences: in Peter’s crown, which has pendants again; in the details of the divitisions. The couple is holding a cross – the tsar from the left, the tsaritsa from the right side. However, contrary to the seal images of type I and II, the hands of the monarchs are placed at different heights. In the majority of cases, the tsar’s hand is higher; however, there are also examples in which it is Maria who is holding the cross above her husband’s hand. This is the largest group of seals of a Bulgarian ruler. Over eighty-eight specimens struck with unknown number of boulloteria, but in any case more than a dozen, are documented. One of specimens (No 142) in the blank is silver and therefore the seal is an argyrobulla. The most characteristic feature of this group is that Peter and Maria are represented, but the inscription refers only to Peter, calling him a pious emperor: Πέτρος βασι[λεὺς] εὐσ[εβ]ής36. Three other types of seals exist (IV–VI); these depict and mention in the inscription the tsar alone. According to some scholars, the sphrag- istic material of this type was created already after Maria Lekapene’s death, i.e. during the 963–969 period: IV. Peter, emperor of the Bulgarians (Πέτρος βασιλεὺς Βουλγάρων) – bust of the ruler facing. On his head, a low crown (stemma) surmounted with a cross and pendants hanging from it ending with three large pearls. He wears divitision and loros and holds (r. hand) a globus cruciger. статут…, pp.  99–101; С.  Ге о р г и е в а, Жената в българското средновеко- вие, Пловдив 2011, pp. 313–315; M.J. L e s z k a, K. M a r i n o w, Carstwo bułgarskie. Polityka – społeczeństwo – gospodarka – kultura, 866–971, Warszawa 2015, pp. 159–160; И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на средновековните…, pp. 90–95. 36 J. S h e p a r d, A marriage…, pp. 143–146; И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на печати- те…, pp. 60–63; В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, p. 27; И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на средновековните…, pp. 95–110. The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 17 V. Peter, despotes (Πέτρος δεσπότης) – facing bust of the ruler. On his head, a low crown surmounted with a cross and pendants hanging at either side. All facial features are visible. The ruler has a rounded beard and wears divitision and loros. The new unusual elements in this type of seals are the mirror-reversed inscription, the incom- plete (abbreviated) name of the ruler and his title despotes. This type fails into two groups. VI. Peter, tsesar [i.e. emperor] of the Bulgarians (Петръ цıсаръ Блъгаромъ) – facing bust of the ruler. On his head, stemma surmounted with cross and pendants hanging at either side of his face. He wears divitision and loros and holds (r. hand) globus surmounted with double-crossed patriarchal cross. The seals fall in two groups: an original bronze die and lead seals37. The relics characterised above do not exhaust the source material in which we may find information about our protagonists. Other, not yet mentioned here accounts and artefacts will be presented later in this volume. 2. Literature on the Subject Due to lack of space, we will omit the overview of the academic literature, and only draw attention to several works that have been particularly useful in writing of this monograph. Among these, the works of Todor R. Todorov38 occupy a special place, as the newest and the most original take on the political history of Bulgaria in Peter’s times. Of considerable 37 И. Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на средновековните…, pp. 110–119. 38 Т. То д о р о в, България… (regrettably, this work is not available in print); i d e m, Владетелският…, passim; i d e m, Вътрешнодинастичният проблем в България от края на 20-те–началото на 30-те години на Х в., Истор 3, 2008, pp. 263–279. Sources and Modern Scholarship 18 interest are the works of Vassil N. Zlatarski39, Vassil Gyuzelev and Ivan Bozhilov40, Plamen Pavlov41, Angel Nikolov42, Ivan Yordanov43 or John V.A. Fine44. The texts of Jonathan Shepard45 and Vassil Gyuzelev46 in par- ticular are of fundamental importance for the study of the history and role of Maria Lekapene. Regarding the religious matters, including ecclesias- tical organisation, the most crucial were the works of Bistra Nikolova47. Regarding matters of culture, one should point at the very least to the works of Riccardo Picchio48, Dimitri Obolensky49, Miliana Kaymakamova50, and the monumental works Кирило-Методиевска енциклопедия51 and the История на българската средновековна литература52, which include papers by the most outstanding scholars; 39 В.И. З л а т а р с к и, История на българската държава през средните векове, vol. I/2, Първо българско Царство. От славянизацията на държавата до падането на Първото царство (852–1018), София 1927. 40 И. Б о ж и л о в, В. Гю з е л е в, История…, passim. 41 П. П а в л о в, Векът на цар Самуил, София 2014; idem, Години на мир и “ратни беди” (927–1018), [in:] Г. А т а н а с о в, В. В а ч к о в а, П. П а в л о в, Българска наци- онална история, vol. III, Първо българско царство (680–1018), Велико Търново 2015, pp. 403–479. 42 А. Н и к о л о в, Политическа…, passim. 43 И.   Й о р д а н о в, Корпус на средновековните…, passim. 44 J.V.A. F i n e, A Fresh Look at Bulgaria under Tsar Peter I (927–69), ByzS 5, 1978, pp. 88–95; i d e m, The Early Medieval Balkans: a Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, Ann Arbor 1983. 45 J. S h e p a r d, A marriage…, passim. 46 В. Гю з е л е в, Значението…, passim. 47 Б. Н и к о л о в а, Православните църкви през българското средновековие (IX–XIV), София 2002; e a d e m, Монашество, манастири и манастирски живот в средновековна България, vol. I, Манастирите, vol. II, Монаcите, София 2010; e a d e m, Устройство и управление на българската православна църква (IX–XIV в.), 2София 2017. 48 See the collected papers of this author in a Bulgarian translation: Право- славното Славянство и старобългарската културна традициция, transl. A. Д ж а м б е л у к а-К о с с о в а, София 1993. 49 D. O b o l e n s k y, Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453, New York 1971. София 2009. 50 M. К а й м а к а м о в а, Българска… 51 Кирило-методиевска енциклопедия, vol. I–IV, София 1985–2003. 52 История на българската средновековна литература, ed. А. М и л т е н о в а, The Bulgarian State in 927–969. The Epoch of Tsar Peter I 19 for military matters, the books of Dimitar Angelov, Stephan Kas
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