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The Key Issues of Polish Penal Law - ebook/pdf
The Key Issues of Polish Penal Law - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Język publikacji: polski
ISBN: 978-83-7969-967-4 Data wydania:
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Humanism is also reflected in the Penal Code provisions concerning sentencing. These provisions require sentencing courts to take into account the personal traits and circumstances of the offender, his mode of living prior to committing the act and his behaviour after the offence. At the same time, the court is obliged to take into account the purpose of punishment, both with regards to its social impact and its preventive and re-educational aims in respect of the convict (art. 53 of the Penal Code). Based upon the principle of humanism the Code gives ground to the system of justice to less severe treatment of the offender who is responsible for an accidental offence, the negligence offence or when it is reasonable expecting that the offender, treated less severely, will not commit a new offence in the nearest future. The legal instruments for less severe treatment of an accidental offender include for example conditional discontinuance of proceedings concerning the offence – first of all – it should not be socially damaging (arts. 66–68). The book gives a view on the principles of Polish penal law. It consists of two parts which are divided due to the topics: general and special part of penal law. The authors present the commentary to the main institutions of Polish Penal Code. They show the most important provisions in the background of the doctrine and jurisprudence. The book is addressed both to the foreigners and the Poles who needs to improve their English in law.

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THE KEY ISSUES OF POLISH PENAL LAW Krzysztof Indecki, Justyna Jurewicz THE KEY ISSUES OF POLISH PENAL LAW Krzysztof Indecki, Justyna Jurewicz – Uniwersytet Łódzki, Wydział Prawa i Administracji Katedra Prawa Karnego Międzynarodowego, 90-232 Łódź, ul. Kopcińskiego 8/12 RECENZENT Barbara Kunicka-Michalska Krzysztof Indecki, Justyna Jurewicz – Uniwersytet Łódzki, Wydział Prawa i Administracji SKŁAD KOMPUTEROWY Katedra Prawa Karnego Międzynarodowego, 90-232 Łódź, ul. Kopcińskiego 8/12 AGENT PR RECENZENT PROJEKT OKŁADKI Stämpfli Polska Sp. z o.o. Barbara Kunicka-Michalska Zdjęcie na okładce: © SKŁAD KOMPUTEROWY AGENT PR © Copyright by Uniwersytet Łódzki, Łódź 2014 Wydane przez Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego PROJEKT OKŁADKI Wydanie I. W.06698.14.0.K Stämpfli Polska Sp. z o.o. Zdjęcie na okładce: © ISBN 978-83-7969-430-3 e-ISBN 978-83-7969-967-4 © Copyright by Uniwersytet Łódzki, Łódź 2014 Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Wydane przez Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego 90-131 Łódź, ul. Lindleya 8 Wydanie I. W.06698.14.0.K e-mail: tel. (42) 665 58 63, faks (42) 665 58 62 ISBN 978-83-7969-430-3 Druk i oprawa: Quick Druk Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego 90-131 Łódź, ul. Lindleya 8 e-mail: tel. (42) 665 58 63, faks (42) 665 58 62 CONTENTS Introduction General Part 1. Principles 2. Offence 3. Element excluding offence. Circumstances excluding or reducing the degree of fault 4. Forms of committing an offence 5. Concurrence of statutory provisions and concurrence of offences 6. Imposition of penalties 7. Penalties, penal measures and preventive measures 7.1. Penalties 7.2. Penal measures 7.3. Preventive measures SPecial Part Conclusions Selected bibliography 7 11 11 18 23 31 39 43 51 51 54 66 69 111 113 Introduction Krzysztof Indecki The first Polish Penal Code was adopted in 19321, the second one in 19692, and the third one in 19973. The Code of 1932 was a symbol of the re-establishment of Polish independ- ence after more than 120 years of partition4. After World War II the 1932 Penal Code did not ensure the protection of the newly formed State’s political and economic interests. It did not correspond to the conditions of the new political, social, and economic system as well as cultural life; in particular, it did not guarantee the prosecution of the Nazi offences5. After World War II many laws and decrees that were aimed at prosecuting such offences were passed. The process of creating penal law at that time can be divided into three stages: – the first one, which covered the years between 1944 and 1954, is represent- ed by legislative efforts to combat fascism and to punish war criminals as well as to censure those Polish citizens who had collaborated with the Nazis6; 1 Rozporządzenie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej z 11 VII 1932 r., Dz.U., nr 60, poz. 571, ze zm. (Journal of Laws, no. 60, item 571, as amended). 2 Ustawa z 19 IV 1969 r., Dz.U., nr 13, poz. 94 ze zm. (Journal of Laws, no. 13, item 94, as amended). amended). 3 Ustawa z 6 VI 1997 r., Dz.U., nr 88, poz. 553 ze zm. (Journal of Laws, no. 88, item 553, as 4 See: J. Bafia, Penal Law, [in:] L. Kurowski (ed.), General Principles of Law of the Polish People’s Republic of Poland, Warsaw 1984, p. 277. 5 See: ibidem. 6 See for example: dekret z 31 VII 1944 r. o wymiarze kary dla faszystowsko-hitlerowskich zbrodniarzy winnych znęcania się nad ludnością cywilną i jeńcami oraz dla zdrajców Narodu Pol- skiego, Dz.U. 1946, nr 69, poz. 377, Dz.U. 1947, nr 65, poz. 390, Dz.U. 1948, nr 18, poz. 124, Dz.U. 1949, nr 32, poz. 238 (Journal of Laws of 1946, no. 69, item 377, Journal of Law of 1948, nr 48, item, 124, Journal of Laws of 1949, no. 32, item 238); art. 1st of the decree is still force in relation to the genocide (see: art. 5, sec. 1 of the law of 6 VI 1997 Przepisy wprowadzające kodeks karny, Dz.U., nr 88, poz. 554 i nr 160, poz. 1083; Dz.U. 1998, nr 113, poz. 715 – Journal of Laws, no. 88, item 554 and no. 160, item 1083, Journal of Laws of 1998, no. 113, item 715), Kodeks karny Wojska Polskiego, dekret z 23 IX 1944, Dz.U. 1957, nr 22, poz. 107, tekst jednolity (consolidated text: Journal of Laws of 1957, no. 22, item 107, dekret z 13 VI 1946 o przestępstwach szczególnie niebezpiecznych w okresie 8 – during the second one, which roughly covered the years 1955–1969, the laws were improved and adapted to the system that was undergoing transforma- tion as well as to the current needs of the fight against crime, in particular eco- nomic crime7; – the third one started on 1 January 1970; after this date the Penal Code of 1969 and other very important laws, such as the Code of Criminal Procedure8 and the Executive Penal Code9, entered into force. The Penal Code of 1969 concentrated on the so-called polarisation of respon- sibility and limiting the disposition of the penalty of the deprivation of liberty in favour of non-custodial penalties. However, it is widely accepted in the literature that this idea was not imple- mented satisfactorily10. Therefore, penal law reform was undertaken at the end of the 1980s. To this end, the Ministry of Justice appointed a special commission that was to prepare a draft of proper amendments to the penal law. Another commission was also established under the auspices of the “Solidar- ity” movement. As a result, two drafts of the Penal Code were published in 1981, i.e. the so- called governmental and the so-called public one. Both of these drafts were based on the same principles, i.e. the liberalisation and rationalisation of penalties as well as the penal policy system and combating offence by penal measures, and were aimed to ensure better protection of indi- vidual rights (both of the wronged person and the perpetrator of an offence)11. The State Council introduced martial law by the decree of 1981 12. This de- cree interrupted the process of penal reform until 1987. odbudowy Państwa, tzw. Mały Kodeks Karny, Dz.U., nr 30, poz. 192 (Journal of Laws, no. 30, item 192). The Law contained provisions, unknown in the 1932 Penal Code: espionage, sabotage, illegal possession of firearms and others. This act was modified a number of times; was repealed on 1 I 1970. 7 See for example: ustawa z 21 I 1958 r. o wzmożeniu ochrony mienia społecznego przed szkodami wynikającymi z przestępstwa, Dz.U., nr 4, poz. 11, ustawa z 18 VI 1959 o odpowie- dzialności karnej za przestępstwa przeciw własności społecznej, Dz.U., nr 36, poz. 228 (Journal of Laws, no. 36, item 228), ustawa z 13 VII 1957 o zwalczaniu spekulacji i ochronie interesów na- bywców oraz producentów rolnych w obrocie handlowym, Dz.U., nr 39, poz. 171 (Journal of Laws, no. 39, item 171); ustawa z 27 IV 1956 o warunkach dopuszczalności przerywania ciąży, Dz.U., nr 12, poz. 61; ustawa z 10 XII 1959 o zwalczaniu alkoholizmu, Dz.U., nr 69, poz. 434 (Journal of Laws of 1959, no. 12, item 61), ustawa z 22 V 1958 o zaostrzeniu odpowiedzialności karnej za chuligaństwo, Dz.U., nr 34, poz. 153 (Journal of Laws, no. 34, item 61). 8 Ustawa z 6 VI 1969, Dz.U., nr 89, poz. 555 ze zm. (Journal of Laws of 1969, no. 89, item 555, as amended). 9 Ustawa z 6 VI 1969, Dz.U., nr 90, poz. 557 (Journal of Laws of 1969, no. 90, item 557). 10 See: A. Marek, Prawo karne. Zagadnienia teorii i praktyki, Warszawa 1997, s. 18, 19, see also: Projekt Kodeksu karnego. Uzasadnienie, Warszawa 1968, p. 1. 11 See: ibidem, p. 19. 12 See: Dekret z 12 XII 1981 o stanie wojennym, Dz.U., nr 29, poz. 154 (Journal of Laws of 1981, no. 29, 154). 9 The commissions that had been appointed to carry out the reforms of penal law began work under new political and ideological conditions13. During this period certain changes were made to penal law. The most important among them were the following: a) repealing art. 194 of the Penal Code that penalised the abuse of freedom of conscience and confession to the detriment of the Polish People’s Republic14; b) repealing art. 282, which penalised public incitement to disobedience to or acting against a law or regulation that was adopted by a state authority15; c) abolishing an additional penalty of property confiscation as well as of com- mitment to a social adjustment centre for recidivists16; d) determining the amount of a fine based on the State’s economic situation and the level of inflation17; e) making amendments concerning the conditions under which the termina- tion of pregnancy was permitted (arts. 149a, 156b and 157 of the Penal Code)18; f) repealing acts that dealt with the protection of economic turnover19; g) repealing a range of additional penal acts20; h) amending the Penal Code by the statute of 12 July 1995 (these changes were referred to as “a small amendment”)21. After the political and legal changes the work on the new Penal Code was carried out based on the governmental draft. The first version of the new Penal Code was published in 1991. The final ver- sion of the draft Penal Code was issued in 1994 with an explanatory statement. The bill was brought before the Sejm in 1995. 13 See: ibidem. 14 See: ustawa z 17 V 1989 r. o stosunku państwa do Kościoła katolickiego, Dz.U., nr 29, poz. 154 15 See: ustawa z 29 V 1989 o zmianie niektórych przepisów prawa karnego, Dz.U., nr 34, poz. 180 (Journal of Laws, no. 29, item 154). (Journal of Laws, no. 34, item 180). 16 See: ustawa z 23 II 1990 o zmianie kodeksu karnego i niektórych innych ustaw, Dz.U., nr 14, poz. 24 (Journal of Laws, no. 14, item 24). 17 See: ustawa z 28 II 1992 o zmianie niektórych przepisów prawa karnego, prawa o wykro- czeniach i o postępowaniu w sprawach nieletnich, Dz.U., nr 24, poz. 101 (Journal of Laws, no. 24, item 101). 18 See: ustawa z 7 I 1993 o planowaniu rodziny, ochronie płodu ludzkiego i warunkach dopusz- czalności przerywania ciąży, Dz.U., nr 17, poz. 78 (Journal of Laws, no. 17, item 78, as amended). 19 See: ustawa z 12 X 1994 r. o ochronie obrotu gospodarczego i zmianie niektórych przepisów prawa karnego, Dz.U., nr 126, poz. 615 (Journal of Laws, no. 126, item 615). 20 See for example: prawo bankowe, tekst jednolity: Dz.U. 1994, nr 72, poz. 359 z późn. zm. (Journal of Laws of 1994, no. 72, item 359, as amended), prawo o publicznym obrocie papierami wartościowymi i funduszach powierniczych, tekst jednolity: Dz.U. 1994, nr 58, poz. 239 z późn. zm. (consolidated text: Journal of Laws of 1994, no. 58, item 239, as amended). 21 See: ustawa z 12 VII 1995 r. o zmianie przepisów Kodeksu karnego i Kodeksu karnego wykonawczego oraz o podwyższeniu dolnych i górnych granic grzywien i nawiązek w prawie kar- nym, Dz.U., nr 95, poz. 475 (Journal of Laws, no. 95, item 475); also: L. Gardocki, Najnowsze zmiany w kodeksie karnym, Państwo i Prawo 1995, 12. 10 The 1997 Penal Code came into force on 1 September 1998; it represents the premises on which the Republic of Poland is based. In contrast to the former Penal Code, the new Penal Code is based on a new axiology that is adequate for democratic rule, i.e. under which penal law is a tool for protecting the fundamental human values, and not a political tool22. The main task of the Penal Code of 1997 is to protect the dignity of human beings, including wronged persons23. This objective was not questioned in the jurisprudence and it was manifested, for example, in a tendency towards liberalising the system of sanctions24. The code was also modified so as to meet European standards (e.g. the death penalty was abolished)25. The Penal Code of 1997 comprises three main parts: the general part (arts. 1–116), the special part (arts. 117–316) and the military part (arts. 317–363). Minor offences were left out from this code and regulated separately, i.e. by the Code of Minor Offences, thus continuing the trend that had begun with the Penal Code of 196926. 22 See: Uzasadnienie do Projektu Kodeksu Karnego, wkładka do Państwa i Prawa 1994, 3, p. 3. 23 See: ibidem. 24 See: A. Marek, Prawo karne, C.H. Beck 2011, p. 22. 25 See: A. Grzelak, Unia europejska a prawo karne, Warszawa 2002, p. 99 ff.; A. Marek, Pra- wo..., p. 23. H. H. Jescheck, Część ogólna projektu polskiego KK w świetle prawnoporównawczym, Państwo i Prawo 1992, 12, p. 27. 26 Compare: K. Indecki, The Main Features and Principles of the Polish Penal Law, Teise 2003, no. 48. General Part 1. Principles Penal law is based on principles which are rooted in the Constitution and which are aimed to protect civil rights. These rights must be respected also when a citizen is prosecuted for committing an offence. Polish penal law is based on the following principles: nullum crimen sine lege, nulla poena sine lege, nullum crimen sine culpa, lex retro non agit, the prin- ciple of criminal responsibility for an act, the principle of individual and personal liability, and the principle of humanitarianism. These principles create the so-called complex of the principles of penal re- sponsibility27 and define the structure of an offence and sometimes also the axi- ological assumptions of penal law. In the process of formulating the 1997 Penal Code some of these principles were partly modified (cf., e.g. art. 1 of the 1969 Penal Code and art. 1 of the 1997 Penal Code). Certain new principles were also added, such as the principle of humanitari- anism. Currently, nullum crimen sine lege is the basic principle, which is closely con- nected with the guarantee function of penal law. The aim of this principle is to ensure the protection of citizens against any act committed by the organs of the State if they were to be used for the purpose of political repression by using penal law tools. The foundation of this principle was created during the period of the Enlighten- ment. The nullum crimen sine lege principle was clearly formulated for the first time in art. 8 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen dated 178928. Starting with A. Feuerbach’ theory, this principle is treated as the most important 27 See: R. Dębski, Uwagi o konstytucyjnym ujęciu zasady nullum crimen sine lege w polskim porządku prawnym, [in:] Nauki penalne wobec problemów współczesnej przestępczości. Księga ju- bileuszowa z okazji 70. rocznicy urodzin Profesora Andrzeja Gaberle, Warszawa 2007, p. 91 ff.; B. Kunicka-Michalska, Zasada nullum crimen sine lege w projekcie kodeksu karnego w świetle norm międzynarodowych, [in:] S. Waltoś (red.), Problemy kodyfikacji prawa karnego. Księga ku czci M. Cieślaka, Kraków 1993, p. 55 ff. 28 See: Art. 8 states: “8. The law ought only to establish penalties that are strict and obviously necessary, and no one can be punished except in virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the offense and legally applied”.
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