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The art of legal negotiations - ebook/pdf
The art of legal negotiations - ebook/pdf
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What are legal negotiations? What is their structure? Is there one method of successful legal negotiation? Is it reasonable to settle disputes through negotiations? These are some of the questions which Jerzy Stelmach and Bartosz Brożek address in this volume. They posit that one could and should view the law as a negotiable phenomenon , thus dispensing with the constraints imposed by legal positivism. They claim further that, as there is no unique key to legal negotiations, one should acknowledge that there are different models of negotiating, and identify three such possible models: the argumentation, the topic-rhetorical and the economic. The models are described both from the theoretical perspective, as well as by providing catalogues of the principles of right, effi cacious and economically effi cient negotiating.
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Jerzy Stelmach, Bartosz Brożek The Art of Legal Negotiations Warszawa 2013 Publication financed from the Funds for Science for 2011–2014 Translation Aeddan Shaw Editor-in-chief Monika Pawłowska Editor Ewa Fonkowicz Proofreading Anna Krzesz Typesetting Andrzej Gudowski Cover image: Andrzej Wróblewski, Nagrobki, 1957, by kind permission of the Andrzej Wróblewski Foundation © Copyright by Wolters Kluwer Polska Sp. z o.o., 2013 ISBN 978-83-264-4072-4 Published by: Wolters Kluwer Polska Sp. z o.o. 01-231 Warszawa, ul. Płocka 5a tel. (22) 535 80 00, (22) 535 82 00 e-mail: ksiazki@wolterskluwer.pl www.wolterskluwer.pl online bookstore www.profinfo.pl Table of Contents Foreword.........................................................................................................7 Chapter I. The Phenomenon of Negotiations.........................................9 1...The.negotiable.law.............................................................................12 The.open-endedness.of.legal.interpretation..................................14 What.is.a.legal.rule?...........................................................................16 Negotiation.triggers...........................................................................17 Result....................................................................................................18 The.claim.to.universality...................................................................20 Statistical.justification.........................................................................21 2...Three.models.for.negotiations..........................................................23 The.argumentation.model................................................................24 The.topic-rhetorical.model................................................................2 The.economic.model..........................................................................2 Criteria.for.distinguishing.between.negotiation.models.............27 3...The.practice.of.negotiations..............................................................27 Five.sources.of.misunderstanding...................................................28 The.existing.models.of.negotiations................................................32 Chapter II. The Argumentation Model..................................................37 1...Rightness.as.a.negotiation.criterion.................................................40 The.concept.of.rightness....................................................................40 The.discursive.approach.to.rightness..............................................46 2...The.top-down.strategy......................................................................47 Normative.deduction.........................................................................47 The.key.moments.of.negotiations....................................................49 3...Controversy.over.the.argumentation.model.................................2 The.objections.of.positivists..............................................................2 The.objections.of.laissez-faire.advocates..........................................4  Table of Contents The.façade.objection...........................................................................7 The.undecidability.objection............................................................8 4...Ten.principles.of.right.negotiations.................................................60 Chapter III. The Topic-Rhetorical Model...............................................68 1...Efficacy.as.the.criterion.of.negotiations..........................................72 The.concept.of.efficacy....................................................................72 Particular.audience.............................................................................74 2...The.bottom-up.strategy.....................................................................76 The.key.moments.in.negotiations....................................................76 Negotiation.eristic...............................................................................81 3...Controversy.over.the.topic-rhetorical.model.................................87 Underdetermination..........................................................................88 Amoralism............................................................................................88 Psychologism.......................................................................................89 Eristic.character...................................................................................90 Eclecticism............................................................................................90 Relativism.............................................................................................91 4...Ten.principles.of.efficacious.negotiating.........................................92 Chapter IV. The Economic Model..........................................................100 1...Economic.efficiency.as.the.criterion.of.negotiations..................102 The.economic.way.of.thinking.......................................................103 Law.as.an.economic.fact..................................................................104 Peculiarities.of.legal.negotiations...................................................109 2...The.mixed.strategy...........................................................................112 Between.top-down.and.bottom-up...............................................112 Common.and.conflicting.interests.................................................11 The.key.moments.of.negotiations..................................................117 3...Controversy.over.the.economic.model.........................................121 Counter-factual.character................................................................121 Moral.monstrousness.......................................................................124 Limited.applicability........................................................................126 The.façade.objection.........................................................................127 4...Ten.principles.of.efficient.negotiations.........................................128 Bibliography..............................................................................................137 Index of Names..........................................................................................141 Subject Index.............................................................................................147 6 Foreword There.are.tens.of.books.on.legal.negotiations,.approaching.the. problem.from.different,.often.inconsistent.or.eclectic.perspectives.. It.is.especially.true.of.the.English.legal.literature,.which.is.no.surprise,. as.negotiations.have.for.some.time.now.been.an.important.method. of.conflict.resolution.in.the.common.law..However,.it.is.not.so.obvious. in.those.legal.cultures,.which.follow.the.‘continental’.paradigm.of.the. legal.system:.trapped.in.the.iron.grasp.of.positivistic.thinking,.continen- tal.lawyers.show.little.sympathy.for.negotiating..We.attempt.to.identify. the.basic.factors.which.are.responsible.for.this.state.of.affairs. But.the.problem.of.legal.negotiations.is.more.fundamental,. it.transcends.the.differences.between.the.common.law.and.the.con- tinental.perspectives..We.believe.that.‘taking.negotiations.seriously’. decisively.shapes.our.understanding.of.the.law:.it.is.an.inherently. dialectical.or.open-ended.phenomenon..What.is.most.characteristic. of.law,.is.not.what.judges.do.or.say.–.it.is.the.process.of.negotiating. between.two.freely.participating.parties..Such.an.outlook.underscores. the.futility.of.the.‘scholastic’.debates.pertaining.to.the.‘nature.of.law’. or.the.relationship.between.law.and.morality,.which.predominate. the.contemporary.philosophy.of.law..The.third.dimension.in.which. we.believe.to.have.said.something.novel.is.methodology..Instead. of.developing.an.‘ideal’.model.of.negotiations,.we.have.tried.to.show. what.are.the.possible.approaches.to.legal.negotiating..Moreover,.we. claim.that.there.are.no.absolute,.universally.applicable.methods.of.ne- gotiations..How.one.negotiates.is.always.a.matter.of.choice,.hanging. together.with.various.factors.(the.case.at.hand,.its.context.or.negotia- tion.habits)..It.is,.however,.extremely.important.to.reach.some.level. 7 Foreword of.‘methodological.consciousness’,.to.understand.that.there.are.many. tools.at.our.disposal,.but.each.such.tool.is.connected.to.certain.onto- logical,.epistemological.and.axiological.baggage. Finally,.it.is.our.hope.to.have.contributed.to.the.ongoing.de- bates.in.the.field.of.general.theory.of.negotiations..We.are.critical. of.many.of.the.well-established,.if.not.famous.models.of.negotiating.. (e.g.,.the.Harvard.model.or.the.phase.models)..In.particular,.we.criti- cize.the.overly.psychological.and.economic.approaches.to.negotia- tions..Although.these.two.dimensions.are.important,.they.are.in.no. way.fundamental. Whether.we.have.succeeded.in.shedding.new.light.on.legal. negotiations,.remains.to.be.judged.by.the.Reader. Kraków, July 2012 Jerzy Stelmach Bartosz Brożek 8 Chapter I The Phenomenon of Negotiations In.order.to.answer.the.question.as.to.why.we.have.decided. to.write.a.book.on.the.‘art’.of.legal.negotiation.(the.term.‘art’.has.. been.used.rather.more.for.aesthetic.reasons.than.pertaining.to.the. content),.one.should.consider.first.a.different,.and,.in.our.view,.key. problem:.who.should,.ultimately,.the.contemporary.lawyer.be?.Should. she.rather.become.a.formalist.specialized.in.some.branch.of.the.law. or.primarily.a.negotiator?.This.age.old.discussion,.both.in.legal.theory. and.legal.practice,.has.provided.us.with.no.definite.answers..Usually,. two.diametrically.different.ways.of.thinking.about.the.law.have.been. propounded:.the.positivist.and.the.non-positivist..For.the.support- ers.of.positivism,.law.is.a.‘fixed.value’.even.when.it.fails.to.meet.the. most.basic.requirements.of.rightness,.efficacy.or.economic.efficiency.. Legalism.and.the.predictability.of.the.law,.when.formally.under- stood,.are.considered.sufficient.reasons.to.justify.the.gap.between. legal.decisions.and.the.facts..On.the.other.hand,.the.representatives. of.non-positivism.see.the.possibility.of.a.dynamic.interpretation.of.the. law,.one.that.enables.the.tailoring.of.legal.provisions.to.an.ever.chang- ing.reality..They.claim.that.the.ultimate.sense.of.legal.norms.should. be.established.through.a.process.of.direct.negotiation.between.the. conflicting.parties..This.is.the.stance.we.accept.here..It.can.be.fur- ther.justified.with.a.number.of.arguments,.including.one.pertaining. to.the.nature.of.ongoing.civilizational.changes..The.world.has.‘gone. off.the.rails’,.accelerated.out.of.control.and,.according.to.some,.has. even.gone.mad..Only.the.law.remains.unruffled,.maintaining.its.li- 9 The Art of Legal Negotiations brary-like.hush.and.decorum..In.Poland.–.as.well.as.in.other.Eastern. European.countries.–.the.political.systems.have.been.changed.and. we.are.now.part.of.a.global.and.European.legal.system..The.world. faces.crisis.after.crisis.but.what.has.changed.in.the.law?.We.keep. adjusting.the.same.legal.acts;.we.use.procedures.that.make.efficient. conflict.resolution.very.difficult,.if.not.impossible;.we.teach.the.law. as.if.it.were.the.19th.century..We.fail.to.exercise.our.freedom.and.our. power.–.we.dismiss.the.procedures.of.negotiations.when.we.do.not. want.to,.or.do.not.know.how.to.apply.them.whilst,.at.the.same.time,. we.criticize.anything.new. Meanwhile,.the.majority.of.legal.cases,.especially.in.the.spheres. of.private.and.company.law,.may.be.resolved.without.a.court.trial,. by.the.process.of.negotiation,.with.the.use.of.tools.available.to.us.. We.can.save.our.clients.and.ourselves.a.lot.of.time,.stress.and.money.. And.when.we.can,.we.should.do.so;.we.should.participate.in.a.new. legal.culture.–.the.culture.of.negotiation..Still,.we.should.disregard. the.controversies.concerning.the.meaning.of.words.and.the.validity. of.theories,.looking.directly.at.the.issues.at.hand..Let.us.learn.and.let. us.teach.others.the.art.of.negotiating,.the.art.of.arriving.at.a.legally. and.ethically.acceptable.compromise,.instead.of.engaging.in.pro- longed.disputes. We.are.not.over-attached.to.the.typology.of.negotiation.models. presented.below..It.is.justified.but.is.far.from.being.the.only.possible. option..Our.goal.is.rather.to.present.a.certain.spectrum of.negotiation,. a.set.of.negotiating.tools.that.are.at.the.lawyers’.disposal..We.are.well. aware.that.the.models.indicated.are.intertwined;.one.can.simultane- ously.use.the.methods.characteristic.of.different.models..The.choice. of.the.utilized.methods.is.always.conditioned.by.the.nature.of.the. case.negotiated..In.the.following.sections.of.this.chapter.we.shall.at- tempt.to.provide.some.arguments.backing.the.typology.we.develop;. however,.we.believe.that.other.approaches.are.also.defensible..Our. ambition.is.limited:.we.venture.to.show.what.kinds.of.methods.–.and. within.what.limits.–.can.be.used.in.legal.negotiations..Moreover,. we.are.also.positive.that.the.models.we.present.are.actually.used. in.real-life.cases..The.problem.we.try.to.pinpoint.concerns.the.level. 10 Chapter I. The Phenomenon of Negotiations of.methodological.awareness:.it.is.not.‘whether’.lawyers.use.certain. methods.of.negotiations,.but.rather.‘how’.they.do.so. It.is.of.little.help.to.look.at.the.existing.literature.on.legal.negotia- tion.since.it.is.so.vast..It.is.often.filled.with.terminological.chaos,.and. laissez-faireism which.is.difficult.for.a.legal.philosopher.to.accept..There. are.no.definitions.or.clear.typologies.based.on.acceptable.ontological. or.epistemological.criteria..Such.a.‘free.creation’.does.not.contribute. to.the.popularization.of.the.art.of.legal.negotiation,.often.–.and.un- fairly.–.connected.exclusively.to.some.psychological.or.eristic.meth- ods..Any.theoretical.proposal.pertaining.to.legal.negotiations.should. be.justifiable.methodologically..Each.and.every.one.of.them.needs. an.underlying.ontology.and.epistemology..Thus,.a.closer.inspection. of.the.possible.justifications.of.legal.negotiation.is.required. Our.proposal.is.to.identify.three.different.models.for.negotia- tions:.the.argumentation,.the.topic-rhetorical.and.the.economic..The. models.employ.different.criteria.for.negotiation:.the.argumentation. model.uses.the.criterion.of.rightness,.the.topic-rhetorical.–.the.crite- rion.of.efficacy,.while.the.economic.–.that.of.economic.efficiency..The. decision.as.to.which.of.the.models.shall.be.used.hangs.together.with. the.nature.of.the.negotiated.case,.our.interpretation.habits,.as.well. as.the.dynamics.of.the.negotiation.process..It.is.necessary.to.stress. once.more.that.we.are.not.trying.to.discover.new.lands..We.only. reconstruct.several.intuitions.deeply.rooted.in.the.structure.of.le- gal.thinking..We.are.fully.aware.that.in.the.so-called.hard.cases.one. is.forced.to.use.different.models.simultaneously,.testing.the.proposed. solution.from.all.possible.perspectives..One.should.expect.in.such. cases.that.the.negotiated.compromise.meets.the.minimal.requirements. of.rightness,.efficacy.and.economic.efficiency.. One.could.–.and.should.–.look.at.the.law.from.the.perspective. of.negotiation,.even.though.it.is.difficult.to.accept.for.a.positivist. science.of.the.law..The.contemporary.‘continental’.lawyer.is.any- thing.but.a.keen.negotiator..She.prefers.procedural.safety.and.the. judge.as.an.arbiter..Afraid.of.the.unforeseeable.results,.she.is.not. willing.to.negotiate..Nonetheless,.in.the.near.future,.she.is.destined. to.become.a.negotiator..With.the.current.dynamics.of.the.economic. 11 The Art of Legal Negotiations and.social.changes,.the.perspective.of.winning.a.costly.trial.which. lasts.several.years.is.unacceptable..We.require.immediate.outcomes,. not.legal.rituals..Thus,.we.need.to.become.negotiators.searching.for. the.compromise.at.any.price,.saving.both.ourselves.and.our.clients. money.and.time..This.much.is.unquestionable..Moreover,.negotia- tions.should.not.be.located.at.the.distant.borders.of.legal.practice.by. identifying.some.spheres.in.which.negotiation.is.possible..One.can. negotiate.at.any.time.and.any.type.of.legally.relevant.problem,.as.well. as.at.any.stage.of.the.proceedings..Of.course,.the.choice.of.negotia- tion.for.dispute.resolution.does.not.relieve.us.from.obligations.to.the. existing.laws.and.from.applying.the.criteria.of.correctness.demanded. by.the.process.of.negotiating. And.a.final.question:.do.the.authors.have.the.competence.in.the. discipline.they.are.willing.to.describe?.All.possible.answers.are.wrong. here..We.can.only.point.out.that.we.have.been.preoccupied.with.the. methodological.problems.pertaining.to.legal.negotiations.for.some. time.now1,.and.at.least.one.of.us.has.been.using.negotiation.methods. in.legal.practice.for.many.years. 1. The negotiable law It.is.our.goal.to.show.that.the.law.–.out.of.its.very.ontological.and. epistemological.nature.–.has.a.negotiation.sense..In.the.philosophy. of.law,.discussions.have.often.centred.on.the.‘dialogical’.or.‘discur- sive’.character.of.the.law..The.dialogical.dimension.of.the.law.has. been.analyzed,.inter alia,.by.the.representatives.of.phenomenology. 1. The.most.important.monographs.include:.J..Stelmach,.Współczesna filozofia interpretacji prawniczej (Contemporary Philosophy of Legal Interpretation),.Kraków.1996;. J..Stelmach,.Kodeks argumentacyjny dla prawników (Argumentation Code for Lawyers),. Kraków 2002; J. Stelmach, B. Brożek, Methods of Legal Reasoning,.Dordrecht.2006;. B. Brożek, Defeasibility of Legal Reasoning, Kraków 2004; B. Brożek, Rationality and Discourse. Towards a Normative Model of Applying Law,.Warszawa.2007;.J..Stelmach,. B. Brożek, W. Załuski, Dziesięć wykładów o ekonomii prawa (Ten Lectures on the Economics of Law),.Warszawa.2007.. 12 Chapter I. The Phenomenon of Negotiations and.hermeneutics2. In.particular,.they.have.indicated.that.when.there. is.a.promise,.there.must.be.an.attempt.to.fulfill.it;.when.there.is.a.ques- tion,.there.must.be.an.answer;.when.there.is.a.claim,.there.must.be. a.corresponding.obligation..Contemporary.theories.of.legal.argumen- tation.in.turn,.stress.the.discursive.nature.of.the.law3..The.acceptance. of.the.views.pertaining.to.the.dialogical.or.discursive.character.of.the. law.enables.one.to.recognize.the.special.status.of.the.problem.of.legal. negotiation,.i.e..to.connect.it.directly.to.the.‘basic.discussion’.concern- ing.the.ontological.and.epistemological.nature.of.the.law.. Any.account.that.takes.legal.negotiations.as.a.problem.of.its. own,.and.the.consequent.rejection.of.ontological.and.methodologi- cal.justifications.must.lead.to.the.marginalization.of.negotiations. in.legal.practice..This.is.the.modus operandi.of.the.critics.of.employing. negotiation.techniques.in.the.law..They.tend.to.look.at.negotiations. as.a.kind.of.method.which.is.of.secondary.importance.compared. to.the.standard,.dogmatic.methods.that.are.grounded.in.the.long,. positivist.tradition..One.makes.recourse.to.negotiations.only.after. ‘basic.methods’.fail,.when.all.paradigmatic,.formal.tools.have.been. tested..Instead.at.the.beginning.of.the.dispute,.when.the.conflict.has. not.yet.escalated,.negotiations.are.deployed.only.at.a.later.stage,.often. when.it.is.impossible.to.reach.an.‘effective.compromise’..There.are. at.least.three.reasons.for.this..Firstly,.a.broader.philosophical.perspec- tive.is.neglected..In.legal.practice.certain.more.general.theses.(what. is.the.law?.what.are.legal.methods?).are.usually.taken.for.granted,. accepted.‘once.and.for.all’.through.tradition,.standards.of.legal.edu- cation.or.trained.habits..Usually,.these.are.positivist.standards.and. habits..No.one.realises.that.legal.philosophy.has.developed.many. competing.conceptions..Secondly,.it.often.transpires.because.of.the. 2. Cf..H.G..Gadamer, Wahrheit und Methode. Ergänzungen. Register.(in:).Gesammelte Werke,.vol..II,.Tübingen.1986;.A..Reinach,.Zur Phänomenologie des Rechts. Die apriorischen Grundlagen des bürgerlichen Rechts,.2nd.ed.,.München.193;.A..Kaufmann,.Beiträge zur juristischen Hermeneutik,.Köln–Berlin–Bonn–München.1984. 3. Cf..Ch..Perelman, Logique juridique: Nouvelle rhetorique,.Paris.1999;.R..Alexy,. A Theory of Legal Argumentation: The Theory of Rational Discourse as Theory of Legal Justification,.Oxford.2010. 13 The Art of Legal Negotiations lack.of.competence:.lawyers.may.not.be.keen.negotiators,.as.they.do. not.know.how.to.negotiate..They.are.afraid.of.leaving.the.‘safety.net’. provided.by.the.provisions.of.the.law..The.lawyer.knows.how.to.write. a.complaint,.is.well.prepared.when.it.comes.to.the.nuances.of.legal. procedure,.easily.accommodates.the.stress.connected.with.a.legal. trial..Meanwhile,.she.does.not.want.to.negotiate,.to.engage.in.any. activity.which.–.in.addition.to.the.knowledge.of.the.law.–.requires. additional.skills,.only.indirectly.connected.with.her.legal.background. (i.e.,.skills.pertaining.to.logic,.rhetoric,.psychology.or.economics).. Finally,.it.may.be.due.to.her.professional.opportunism..When.your. work.brings.the.required.level.of.income.and.satisfaction,.there.is.no. need.to.change.anything,.to.take.a.risk.without.a.guarantee.of.suc- cess..One.can.speak.also.of.yet.another,.more.cynical.justification.. Well.prepared.and.conducted.negotiations.may.lead.to.the.quick. resolution.of.the.dispute..Therefore,.we.have.a.choice:.negotiations. leading.to.a.quick.and.economically.effective.compromise,.or.a.court. trial:.long,.ineffective.and.costly..All.would.seem.to.indicate.that.the. former.alternative.is.better..In.practice.however.(at.least.in.civil.law. systems),.the.‘negotiations.variant’.is.quite.rare:.ultimately,.one.needs. to.earn.money!.And.negotiations.–.making.the.dispute.a.short.episode. –.are.less.likely.to.bring.income..This.opportunistic.point.of.view.is.re- inforced.by.the.legal.system.itself..In.particular,.it.is.impossible.(at.least. in.Poland).to.collect.success.fees.or.bonuses,.which.in.a.natural.way. leads.to.the.dominance.of.ritualized.legal.behaviour,.for.which.there. is.an.official.tariff..That.is.why.we.would.like.to.look.at.the.problem. of.legal.negotiations.from.a.more.general,.philosophical.perspective,. binding.together.the.discussion.over.the.models.of.negotiations.with. more.fundamental,.ontological.and.epistemological.questions.pertain- ing.to.the.‘nature.of.law’.. [The open-endedness of legal interpretation] In.contrast.to.Dwor- kin,.we.do.not.believe.that.there.exists.a.single.correct.answer.to.any. legal.question,.especially.in.hard.cases..The.acceptance.of.such.a.view. leads.us.back.to.19th.century.positivism..The.judge.is.no.Hercules,.but. an.interpreter.who.strives.to.find.the.best.solution.to.the.case.at.hand.. 14 Chapter I. The Phenomenon of Negotiations The.open-endedness.of.legal.interpretation.is.equivalent.to.the.open- endedness.of.legal.negotiations..If.we.accepted.the.one.right.answer. thesis,.any.conception.of.legal.negotiations.would.be.senseless..But. in.hard.cases.we.are.dealing.with.some.questions.and.some.possible. answers.–.the.space.between.the.question.of.interpretation.and.its. possible.answers.is.the.‘negotiation.space’.. The.theses.pertaining.to.the.open-endedness.of.legal.interpre- tation.and.to.the.definition.of.law.as.a.‘negotiable.phenomenon’. mutually.reinforce.each.other..On.the.one.hand,.legal.interpretation. is.open-ended.as.the.law.has.a.negotiable.structure;.on.the.other,.if.one. assumes.that.the.primary.sense.of.the.law.is.negotiating,.one.needs. to.accept.the.open-endedness.of.legal.interpretation..Indeed,.we.are. reaching.out.here.to.the.same.epistemological.and.ontological.intui- tions..The.open-endedness.of.legal.interpretation.gives.the.interpreter. unlimited.freedom..Of.course,.such.a.claim.would.undoubtedly.be. rejected.by.adherents.of.the.positivist.paradigm..The.problem.lies,. however,.in.the.question.of.whether.the.positivist.paradigm.is.the. only.acceptable.one..Yet.does.the.negotiator.possess.unlimited.free- dom?.A.positive.answer.to.this.question.requires.further.comment.. We.are.fully.aware.of.the.numerous.limitations.imposed.on.the.in- terpreter.by,.inter alia,.the.ius cogens.legal.rules..The.freedom.of.an. interpreter.(or.a.negotiator).is.characteristic,.however,.of.the.initial. phase.of.conflict.resolution:.the.phase.of.negotiations,.driven.by.the. criteria.of.rightness,.efficacy.or.economic.efficiency..It.is.the.consecu- tive.phase.which.is.more.formal.(dogmatic)..It.serves.to.ensure.that. the.agreement.reached.complies.with.existing.legal.regulations..In. negotiations.one.takes.into.account.various.reasons,.of.which.the.legal. are.only.one.type..The.search.for.an.optimal.solution.may.be.guided. by.legal,.but.also.ethical,.psychological.or.economic.justifications.. It.is.in.this.space,.and.only.this,.that.the.negotiator.has.unlimited. freedom..This.stance,.however,.cannot.be.accepted.by.legal.positiv- ists.since.positivism.makes.us.reason.in.terms.of.a.legal.rule.–.not. the.case.interpreted..The.process.of.interpretation.is.confined.to.the. establishment.of.the.‘real’.or.‘intended’.meaning.of.a.legal.rule..In. consequence,.the.negotiation.space.disappears;.everything.is.deter- 1 The Art of Legal Negotiations mined.by.pre-existing.legal.rules..What.positivists.call.‘negotiations’. are.perhaps.anything.but.negotiations..These.quasi-negotiations.can. best.be.described.as.a.dispute.between.two.‘Herculeses’,.who.both. formulate.‘right.answers’,.defend.them.fiercely.and.then....Then.the. case.goes.to.court.and.stays.there.for.years. [What is a legal rule?] One.of.the.‘myths’.of.legal.positivism.–.the. thesis.that.the.law.is.reducible.to.the.concept.of.a.legal.rule.–.is.a.source. of.recurring.discussions.and.misunderstandings,.including.debates. over.legal.negotiations..Positivists.regard.legal.rules.as.the.only.accept- able.source.of.establishing.rights.and.obligations..In.consequence,.legal. rules.are.apodictic:.they.‘operate’.in.an.all-or-nothing.fashion4..Such. an.understanding.of.a.legal.rule.leads,.however,.to.the.disappearance. of.the.problem.of.negotiations:.there.is.nothing.to.negotiate.–.we.either. have.a.claim.or.not..There.is.no.room.in.which.the.negotiation.space. can.appear.–.everything.is.predetermined.by.the.law..Fortunately,.this. is.not.the.case..We.accept.here.a.thesis.that.the.law.can.be.characterized. by.its.open-endedness..In.connection.to.this,.we.believe.that.any.legal. rule.can.be.fulfilled.to.different.degrees..It.is.especially.true.of.situa- tions.in.which.we.negotiate..In.the.negotiation.phase.of.a.conflict.we. may.consider.legal.rules.as.realizing.different.degrees.of.rightness,. efficacy.or.economic.efficiency..It.follows.that.one.cannot.distinguish. between.legal.rules.and.principles.by.recourse.to.the.criterion.of.ful- fillment..In.the.process.of.negotiations.we.utilize.both.legal.rules.and. legal.principles,.as.well.as.other.standards..Our.choice.and.the.order. of.their.application.depends.solely.on.the.way.negotiations.proceed..Ul- timately,.we.accept.or.reject.them.on.the.basis.of.the.same.criteria..The. resignation.from.an.apodictic.understanding.of.a.legal.rule.enables.us. to.apply.to.legal.rules.the.same.measures.we.apply.to.principles.or.other. standards..Thus,.the.negotiation.space.is.significantly.widened.. There.is.one.consequence.that.follows.from.this.since,.in.the. theory.of.legal.argumentation,.a.view.is.defended.that.legal.discourse. 4. Cf..R..Dworkin,.Taking Rights Seriously,.Cambridge,.Mass..1978. . Cf..ibidem. 16
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The art of legal negotiations
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