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The impact of shale gas extraction on the socio-economic development of regions - an American success story and potential opportunities for Poland - ebook/pdf
The impact of shale gas extraction on the socio-economic development of regions - an American success story and potential opportunities for Poland - ebook/pdf
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The report is an attempt at a comprehensive analysis of economic and social considerations related to unconventional gas exploration and production in Poland and its individual regions. The report encompasses an impact assessment of the conventional gas production sector in Poland on local economic processes. Its findings, juxtaposed with experiences of the North American shale gas revolution, resulted in a list of possible benefits to socio-economic development of Polish regions stemming from the impact of the shale gas exploration and production sector. The present publication is a source of factual arguments which in the current, early stage of development of the shale gas sector in Poland, can be crucial for establishing a true, and thus positive, climate surrounding shale gas.

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The impact of shale gas extraction on the socio-economic development of regions – an American success story and potential opportunities for Poland Izabela Albrycht, Rafał Garpiel, Piotr Kosowski, Anna Łaszczuk, Adam Łazarski, Marcin Matyka, Łukasz Pokrywka, Stanisław Rzyski, Piotr Stankiewicz, Marcin Tarnawski The impact of shale gas extraction on the socio-economic development of regions – an American success story and potential opportunities for Poland Izabela Albrycht, Rafał Garpiel, Piotr Kosowski, Anna Łaszczuk, Adam Łazarski, Marcin Matyka, Łukasz Pokrywka, Stanisław Rzyski, Piotr Stankiewicz, Marcin Tarnawski If you appreciate the value of the presented Report as well as The Kosciuszko Institute’s mission, we kindly encourage you to support our future publishing initiatives by making a financial contribution to the association. The impact of shale gas extraction on the socio-economic development of regions – an American success story and potential opportunities for Poland Izabela Albrycht, Rafał Garpiel, Piotr Kosowski, Anna Łaszczuk, Adam Łazarski, Marcin Matyka, Łukasz Pokrywka, Stanisław Rzyski, Piotr Stankiewicz, Marcin Tarnawski Editor: Izabela Albrycht Edition completed: July 2012 Editorial assistant: Maria Guzewska © The Kosciuszko Institute 2012. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted in the original language without explicit permission provided that the source is acknowledged. Translation: Adam Łazarski (Chapters 1, 3, 4), Zuzanna Łopacińska-Piędel (Introduction, Key Findings and Recommendations, Chapters 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), Justyna Kruk (Chapter 5), DLA Piper (Chapter 12), Ben Koschalka (Chapter 13). Proofreading: Maria Guzewska, Zuzanna Łopacińska-Piędel Layout typesetting: Małgorzata Kopecka Print: Dante Media The Kosciuszko Institute ul. Lenartowicza 7/4 31-138 Kraków e-mail: ik@ik.org.pl +48 12 632 97 24 www.ik.org.pl ISBN: 978-83-63712-03-7 Contents Introduction Izabela Albrycht ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Key Findings and Recommendations for the Shale Gas Exploration and Production Sector in Poland from the Perspective of Local Governments Izabela Albrycht .................................................... 9 THE NORTH AMERICAN EXPERIENCES ...............................................................................................................19 1. The History of the Shale Gas Sector Development in the U.S. Adam Łazarski ...............................21 2. Benefits Stemming from Basing the Energy Sector in the U.S. on Shale Gas Marcin Tarnawski ..................................................................................................................................................27 Impact of Shale Gas on the U.S. Economy Adam Łazarski, Marcin Tarnawski .................................35 3. 4. Case Studies of the U.S. Regions with Shale Gas Plays Adam Łazarski ..............................................41 5. Attitudes of the U.S. Society and Local Communities Towards Shale Gas Extraction Piotr Stankiewicz, Stanisław Rzyski ............................................................................................51 6. Best Practice of the North American Shale Gas Sector in Enhancing Social and Cultural Potential and Relationship Building with Local Communities Piotr Stankiewicz, Stanisław Rzyski ..................................................................................................................61 7. Benefits from the Shale Gas Sector Development in Canada Marcin Tarnawski ...........................65 CHANCES FOR POLAND ..........................................................................................................................................75 8. History and Tradition of Natural Gas Extraction in Poland Piotr Kosowski .......................................77 9. Conventional and Unconventional Gas – Brief Description of Similarities and Differences Piotr Kosowski ........................................................................................................................81 10. Risk Areas with Possible Impact on the Importance of the Shale Gas Sector in Poland and its Effect on Real Values in the Economy Piotr Kosowski ............................................85 11. The Current System of Taxation of Hydrocarbons in Poland from the Perspective of Local Governments Anna Łaszczuk, Marcin Matyka – DLA Piper Wiater sp.k. ..............................89 12. Impact Assessment of Potential Benefits of Unconventional Gas Extraction for Socio-Economic Development of Regions in Poland, Including Regions where Conventional Gas Mines are Operating Łukasz Pokrywka .....................................................................95 13. The Influence of the Natural Gas Extraction Sector on the Socio-Economic Development of Regions from the Point of View of Local Communities Rafał Garpiel ........... 115 Authors .......................................................................................................................................................................... 127 Introduction Izabela Albrycht – chairperson of the Kosciuszko Institute Examining the Unconventional Gas Revolution: From Global to Local The unconventional gas revolution, which originated in the U.S. and Canada, has spread across the world. It is now a global phenomenon. More and more countries are actively engaged in developing the shale gas sector, including the United Kingdom, China, Russia, India, Mexico and Argentina. These are just some of the countries that are likely to have a significant impact on the dynamics of regional and ultimately global energy markets. Albeit in each of these countries the shale gas sector’s development is conditioned by different factors, unconven- tional technologies of resources extraction will first revolutionize regional gas markets and within several years the revolution will encompass global gas, and then oil markets. Only time will tell which of these resource revolutions will have a stronger effect on global economic development. For now, only one thing is clear: neither Poland, nor Europe should turn their backs on possible energy, economic, social and political benefits that have so far been enjoyed by beneficiaries of shale revolutions. In the present report, which includes analysis of the history, market and socio-economic considerations of shale gas extraction in the U.S. and Canada, we also offer our readers the chance to move from global approaches to the unconventional gas sector, and to take a more local perspective. The shale success story started in U.S. states and Canadian provinces. Texas, Pennsylvania and British Columbia are where the revolution’s positive footprint was felt first and felt the strongest. Pomerania or the region of Lublin in the south-west of Poland is now likely to play an important role in the history of development of the shale gas sector in Poland, and Europe. The present report, a subsequent publication of the Kosciuszko Institute on unconventional gas, focuses above all on presenting the history of shale gas extraction in the U.S. and Canada, as well as the scale and types of social, economic and energy benefits stemming from its devel- opment, from both a national and regional perspective. The analysis of the benefits will be The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect any views held by the Kosciuszko Institute and the publication partners. They are published as a contribution to public debate. Authors are responsible for their own opinions and contributions and the authors do not necessarily support all of the opinions made by others in the report. based on the most recent economic data and results of social surveys of the positive percep- tions resulting from the shale gas sector’s operations on the American economy and society. The analysis of the U.S. shale gas sector will be the starting point for presenting the differences and similarities between the conventional and the unconventional gas sectors, and providing a list of risk areas that might significantly affect the development of the shale gas sector in Poland, and its broader impact on the economy. A substantial part of the publication is devoted to the analysis of the experiences of the Polish regions where conventional gas mines and underground gas storage facilities are located. The impact assessment demonstrates that there are significant socio-economic benefits for the regions stemming from the operations of the oil and gas extraction sector. This part of the report also includes a preliminary projection of the impact of shale gas devel- opment on the job market. Moreover, it includes a list of other probable socio-economic bene- fits resulting from the shale gas sector’s development in Poland, as well as a set of recommen- dations for Polish decision makers, aimed at generating added value from shale gas extraction for local governments, and achieving a maximal multiplier effect for the Polish economy. The final part of the present publication is devoted to a unique qualitative sociological research undertaken to examine the perception of benefits and benefits/losses stemming from conven- tional gas exploitation in Poland among local communities. The examination includes not only positive North American experiences, but also an anal- ysis of economic data from Polish extraction regions, coupled with results of interviews with members of local communities living in those regions show that operations of the natural gas sector may benefit socio-economic development of Polish regions in multiple ways. Results of studies and analyses undertaken by experts of the Kosciuszko Institute included in the present report provide substantial factual support for a positive view to be taken of current, early stage of the development of the shale gas sector in Poland. This factual assessment is well-worth reading and hopefully will impact upon the public debate. As the North American example shows, knowledge of benefits and consequences resulting from the shale gas exploration and production sector are likely to have a significant impact on the national debate. The Polish government, as well as NGOs and energy companies, bearing in mind the development of the unconventional gas sector, should make local communities and Polish citizens at large aware that they may become direct and indirect beneficiaries of the project, for example thanks to lower gas and energy prices, reduction of unemployment and higher revenues for local budgets. Engagement of Polish local communities in supporting the sector’s development is of key importance, in order to ensure a Polish shale gas success story. One of the foremost recommendations of the Kosciuszko Institute for the government is to prepare and implement a factual and not emotional information campaign on socio- economic impact of the shale gas sector aimed at enhancing the development of this partic- ular economy sector. Other key recommendations include: incorporating shale gas into Polish energy strategy as the second resource, after coal (in the present document entitled “Energy Policy of Poland until 2030” there is not a single word about shale gas!); the need to intensify legislative work on establishing simple and sensible legal and tax regulations, as well as a clear and effective division of competences and responsibilities for supporting the shale sector’s development at the level of central administration; the need to provide training and educa- tion for young engineers and technicians, and create a shale gas R D sector supporting the extraction sector that might be financed by the EU and energy companies; the need to ensure development opportunities of the shale sector from the financial point of view through crea- tion of a healthy investment climate. The contract signed on 4th July 2012 by PGNiG SA, KGHM Polska Miedź SA, PGE SA, Tauron Polska Energia SA and Enea SA on exploration and production of shale gas (so-called KCT contract; the name stems from the names of the rig pads located in the Wejherowo concession area of PGNiG SA: Kochanowo, Częstkowo, Tępcz) is a significant milestone. The development of the shale gas sector in Poland is an unprecedented invest- ment. It requires an approach that would make it possible to achieve both scale effect and synergy. Further steps should be undertaken promptly with the aim of creating the optimum conditions for long-term development of the shale gas exploration and production sector in Poland. The key role in this respect will be played by the necessary know-how acquired by national oil and gas companies, which can be fostered through partnerships with international oil and gas companies with a proven extraction track record in North America. From the point of view of the Polish companies, this can bring additional benefits including risk mitigation, if the cooperation entails exchanging shares in concessions. Only then will the Polish state be able to take on its shoulders the organizational and financial burden of the enormous invest- ments required, including drilling hundreds of wells and the development of the transmission infrastructure. As the commendable history and tradition of natural gas extraction in Poland, also described in the present report, shows that our country can in some respects become the pioneer of shale gas development in Europe and within a few years may feel the positive effects of its shale success story. We should all be aware that we could all be winners in the global uncon- ventional energy revolution. The benefits for the regions, as well as the whole economy at large, stemming from the shale gas sector’s development, should be an additional stimulus for the Polish government to boost the long-term strength of the economy. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their contribution. 6 Izabela Albrycht Introduction 7 Key Findings and Recommendations for the Shale Gas Exploration and Production Sector in Poland from the Perspective of Local Governments* Izabela Albrycht The analysis of economic and social considerations related to exploration and exploitation of uncon- ventional gas in Poland and its individual regions, performed for the purpose of the current report, shows that the shale gas exploration and production sector, currently in its infancy, may become a chance for development of the Polish economy and local governments. It is very probable that North American experiences and positive socio-economic and political effects of the shale gas revolution could be present, albeit on a smaller scale, in Poland. Not only the oil and gas companies, but also local communities, state authorities, small and medium- sized companies and individual customers benefited from the shale boom in the U.S.A s a result the whole U.S. economy benefited from that process. The U.S. situation may be best described by the term “win-win”, i.e. bilateral, or in that case multilateral, victory. The shale gas success, achieved thanks to the win-win strategy, can be repeated in Poland. It is even more probable, as Poland has a long tradition of hydrocarbon extraction, and thus gains benefits from conventional gas production, which should be emphasized to stakeholders and beneficiaries of the new unconventional exploration and production sector. Impact Assessment of the Natural Gas Sector in Poland, Including Conventional Gas Mines and Underground Gas Storage Facilities on the Local Economic Processes The impact assessment of the natural gas extraction sector on the local economic processes in Poland, prepared by the Kosciuszko Institute, included two Big Regions. The Northern Region encom- passed mostly: the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the West Pomeranian Voivodeship and the Kuyavian- Pomeranian Voivodeship, while the Southern Region: mostly the Sub-Carpathian Voivodeship. Within the Big Regions, small regions (gminas and poviats, i.e. the two smallest administrative units in Poland) with gas mines or underground gas storage facilities were taken into consideration. Big Regions differ between each other not only as to their characteristics, but also the level of develop- ment, geopolitical location and historical conditions, which still impact their level of development. Moreover, the extent to which the extraction sector is developed is of major importance: its long- standing presence in the Southern Region and the dynamic growth in the Northern Region. Revenues of Local Governments Wealth of the Society Gminas obtain their own revenues from their share in income taxes (PIT and CIT), as well as real estate tax, exploitation fee (on the basis of the Act on the Geological and Mining Law), and local taxes. In the majority of gminas included in the impact assessment, the presence of a gas mine or an underground gas storage facility increases the gmina’s own revenues. The index representing own income per capita in such regions is approx. 5-15 higher than in comparable gminas in the given voivodeship. In Dębno (myśliborski poviat, West Pomeranian Voivodeship), where an oil and gas mine is located, gmina’s own revenues are 18 higher and total revenues are 5 higher than in other gminas in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. An average share of exploitation fee in gminas’ revenues in Poland reaches approx. 0.4 . For compar- ison, in: • Dębno, the share exceeds 12 (8.3 million PLN in 2010), • Kościan (kościański poviat, the Greater Poland Voivodeship) the share equals 3.3 (1.2 million PLN in 2010), • Mogilno (mogileński poviat, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship) the share equals 1.7 (1.1 million PLN in 2010). High tax revenues for local budgets, however, start a mechanism of revenue redistribution, commonly known as the “Robin Hood fee” (Polish: “janosikowe”). Gminas where gas mines and underground gas storage facilities are located obtain relatively low sums in subsidies. Moreover, they are a net payer for the inter-regional redistribution system. Only Dębno, where the biggest oil and gas mine in Poland is operating, has revenues approx. 5 higher than other similar regions in the voivodeship. On the basis of available data it is not possible to analyze solely the impact of natural gas extraction (without oil extraction) on local governments’ budgets. Expenses of Local Governments From the point of view of mid- and long-term regional development, it is important for the local governments to allocate more to investments that foster development, i.e. ones that can improve the quality of life and attract big companies to local markets. In the Southern Region, gminas where gas mines or underground gas storage facilities are located earmark 22.1 of their total expenses to investments, whereas the remaining comparable gminas in the Region only 17.5 . In the Northern Region, activities of local governments which benefit from the presence of gas mines or underground gas storage facilities are noticeable. In the Greater Poland Voivodship, such gminas allocate on average 15 of their expenditures to investments, whereas other similar local govern- ments – 14 . Attention should be drawn to great variability of the index: the values in individual gminas vary from 1 to 42 . In Mogilno (underground gas storage facility), investment activity of the local government is even more noticeable: investment expenditures account for 21.5 of total expenses, with the average in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship being 18 . Revenues of local governments from income taxes, apart from their fiscal function, are also a source of information about the pay grades. In the Southern Region, an average pay in gminas where gas mines or underground gas storage facilities are located is approx. 12 higher than in similar gminas in the Sub-Carpathian Voivodeship. Local payrolls in gminas where the extraction sector is operating are similar to comparable gminas without gas mines. Only in Mogilno (underground gas storage facility) is the average pay approx. 7 higher than in the case of similar gminas in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. Labor Market The impact assessment conducted shows that the functioning of a gas mine and an underground gas storage facility does not necessarily translate into a significant improvement on the local labor market. Undoubtedly, it can increase the likelihood of job creation. In the Southern Region, in poviats where gas mines or underground gas storage facilities are located, average unemployment rate (in the years 2004-2011) was approx. 18 , whereas in the remaining poviats (without operations of PGNiG SA) it equaled 15 . In the Northern Region, in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the situation on local job markets improves significantly when oil and gas companies intensify their operations: average unemployment rate in such regions equaled 8.5 versus 10.3 in other poviats. In the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in myśliborski poviat (BMB gas field), average unemployment rate was 18.2 , while in other poviats of the voivodeship it equaled 22.3 . In other regions, the presence of a gas mine or underground gas storage facilities does not translate into a considerable improvement on the labor market: in mogileński poviat, the average unemployment rate was insignificantly higher than the voivodeship average. The situation is similar in milicki and górowski poviats (Lower Silesian Voivodeship). Economic Entities The condition on the local labor market is profoundly impacted by the number of economic entities who are potential employers in the region. In 2010, in the Sub-Carpathian Voivodeship, in poviats where gas mines or underground gas storage facilities operate, the number of economic entities per 10,000 inhabitants equaled 619, whereas in other poviats – 724. The index of newly registered enti- ties was similar: 65 versus 79 per 10,000 inhabitants respectively. The correlations prove that in the Southern Region, despite the presence of gas deposits, there are no stimuli for setting up companies. Such a low level of economic activization has a negative impact on the local labor markets. Therefore, high unemployment rates in the region should be linked to the shortage of companies. The situation in Greater Poland is totally different: poviats where the extraction sector is present have a higher number of economic entities than other. Voivodeship-wise, in 2010, the number of entities per 10,000 inhabitants equaled 875, and in regions with an existing extraction sector – 965. The dyna- mism of establishing new companies is also higher: 96 versus 97 newly created entities per 10,000 inhabitants. 10 Izabela Albrycht Key Findings and Recommendations 11
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