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Translation in Culture - ebook/pdf
Translation in Culture - ebook/pdf
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Wydawca: Uniwersytet Śląski Język publikacji: polski
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T RA N S LATION IN CULTURE EDITED BY AGNIESZKA ADAMOWICZ-POŚPIECH, MARTA MAMET-MICHALKIEWICZ T R A N S L A T I O N I N C U L T U R E More about this book Price 22 ZŁ (+ VAT) ISSN 0208-6336 ISBN 978-83-8012-754-8 2016 TRANSLATIONinCULTURE.indd 1 22.09.2016 15:34 T RA N S LATION IN CULTURE strTYTULOWE.indd 2 07.05.2016 14:52 NR 3438 T RA N S LATION IN CULTURE EDITED BY AGNIESZKA ADAMOWICZ-POŚPIECH, MARTA MAMET-MICHALKIEWICZ Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego • Katowice 2016 strTYTULOWE.indd 1 07.05.2016 14:52 Editor of the series: Historia Literatur Obcych Magdalena Wandzioch Referee Mirosława Buchholtz Contents Translations in Culture (Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech, Marta Mamet-Michalkiewicz) 7 Tamara Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz The Translational Turn in Modernism Studies 13 Aniela Korzeniowska Award-Winning Scottish Poet and Writer Jackie Kay and the Translation of Her Multiple Voices 39 Anna Szczepan-Wojnarska Translating Translation – Thoughts on Lost in Translation by Eva Hoffman 59 Paweł Marcinkiewicz The End of Translation as a Culturally Significant Activity: The Polish Poetry Collections of W. S. Merwin and Jorie Graham 79 Tomasz Markiewka Scripture’s In-difference Inclusive Bible Translations and the Mechanisms of Gender-Related Manipulation 103 Marta Mamet-Michalkiewicz Open Sesame! The Polish Translations of The Thousand and One Nights 119 Agnieszka Pokojska Proportions of the Familiar and the Strange in Jasper Fforde’s Fictional World, from the Perspective of the Reader of the Original and the Polish Translation 135 Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech Revisiting G. B. Shaw’s Mrs Warren’s Profession. Differences in Cultural Reception and Trans- lation in England, the United States, and Poland 151 Kinga Lis Why Differ? – Divergent Lexical Choices in Two Middle English Prose Psalter Translations and Their raison d’être 173 Notes on the Authors 193 Index 197 Translations in Culture Since the cultural turn in translation studies, formulated by Susan Bass- nett and André Lefèvere (Bassnett and Lefèvere 1990), we have witnessed a flourishing of interest in the area of translation perceived as cultural phe- nomenon, a mediator between the Same – the source language/culture and the Other – the target language/culture. This awareness of perceiving an act of translation in terms of cultural transposition brings new perspectives and dilemmas and situates literary translation in the spotlight of literary studies. The translation of a literary text in the light of cultural awareness in translation studies has become, as Trivedi writes, “a transaction not be- tween two languages, or a somewhat mechanical sounding act of linguistic “substitution” […], but rather a  more complex negotiation between two cultures” (Trivedi 2005). In the light of the above, we can trace the specific areas in which changes induced by the growth of translation studies can be identified, to quote Lawrence Venuti: Translation changes the form, meaning, and effect of the source text, even when the translator maintains a  semantic correspondence that creates a reliable basis for summaries and commentaries. Translation changes the cultural situation where the source text originated through an investment of prestige or a creation of stereotypes. Translation changes the receiving cultural situation by bringing into existence something new and different, a  text that is neither the source text nor an original composition in the translating language, and in the process it changes the values, beliefs, and representations that are housed in institutions. (Venuti 2013, 10) Indeed, translation does change us and the world around us in an immense, though very often imperceptible way. Its influence is all-embracing and overarching. Yet, the changes it causes are an indispensable element for a group of people/nation’s development and survival. It has been wrongly assumed that there is a solid indivisible cultural repertoire that constitutes the core of the group’s identity (Even-Zohar 2010, 177). Paradoxically, as Itamar Even-Zohar argues, it is change that maintains the continuity of a group of people or nation: 8 TRANSLATIoNS IN CuLTuRe The gist of the argument is that since it is the multiplicity of repertoires which co-exist as permanent competitors that makes it possible for a sys- tem to change; and since change is necessary because systems necessar- ily clash and conflict with other systems, heterogeneity allows systems to carry on. (Even-Zohar, 178) Thus translation may be viewed as one of the forces that (re)shape the cul- tural repertoire of a collective entity and through the introduction of the new and foreign buttress its evolution and growth. The once provocative and now obvious claim made by Susan Bassnett and André Lefèvere that there had been a  shift of focus in translation studies from linguistically to culturally-oriented research is a fact. Harish Trivedi aptly observes that “it was precisely the formulation and recogni- tion of this cultural turn in translation studies that served to extend and revitalize the discipline and to liberate it from [linguistics]” (Trivedi 2005,  12). Since the 1990s we have witnessed a  growing interest in the fledgling discipline of translation studies: a  series of monographs and encyclopaedias have been published, new journals and a  new publishing house exclusively devoted to the new subject have been founded. In line with recent developments of the discipline, this volume also explores the theme of translation against cultural backdrop. It collects chapters which analyse different functions that translation performs in culture and its aim is to stimulate further discussion on the current stage and future perspec- tives of translation studies. Our volume opens with a comprehensive examination of the genesis of the cultural turn in translation studies and translational turn in cultural studies by Tamara Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz. Tracing the development and evolution of cultural and translation studies Brzostowska-Teresz- kiewicz argues that due to methodological changes gradually translation has moved from the peripheral to the central position in transnational Modernist studies. On the basis of a broad survey of recent publications on Modernism she recognizes a translational turn in Modernist studies: Modernist studies has undergone all the stages necessary to diagnose a “translational turn” in a given discipline: the expansion of the thematic field of research to encompass the history and poetics of literary transla- TRANSLATIoNS IN CuLTuRe 9 tion, the increasing metaphorization of the notion of translation in the narratives on intercultural expansion, transmission and transformation of Modernist art and the methodological refinement in the course of which the category of translation acquired an epistemological value and transdisciplinary application. (Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz in this volume) Against this theoretical backdrop of cultural turn in translation studies a case study may be placed: Aniela Korzeniowska’s exploration of the liter- ary output of a Scottish writer Jackie Kay. This paper attempts to answer two questions: how to translate multivoicedness of Kay’s poetry and why such a significant contemporary poet has hardly been known in Poland. To find the answers, Korzeniowska outlines the main themes of Kay’s works, such as identity, racism, gender, sexuality, and cultural difference. She ac- centuates the fact that Kay is a culture-specific writer since she uses both standard and nonstandard forms of English and Scottish English (Glaswe- gian, among others), which definitely pose a challenge to translators, and adds that almost all her poems translated into Polish were written in stand- ard English. Yet, one could surmise, “it is not so much the languages or the multiple voices Jackie Kay adopts in her writing that are truly problematic for the translator, but rather the frequent lack of detailed knowledge about why the given language or variety is being used in the given context.” Ko- rzeniowska concludes that Kay’s “choice of voice is culture-specific in itself and this is what may – but does not have to – defeat many a  translator” (Korzeniowska in this volume). Similarly to Jackie Kay, Eva Hoffman writes in a plurality of voices in search of a  new identity as a  Polish immigrant in Canada and the USA, which is perceptively analysed by Anna Szczepan-Wojnarska. For Hoffman, “the idea of writing as an integral part of herself is a  consequence of her ontological attitude towards a  language. To articulate herself means for her to exist” and “writing is for her a part of understanding herself, being herself, and some kind of translation therapy” (Szczepan-Wojnarska in this volume). There are other similarities between Kay and Hoffman. Both feel different, ostracised by the society, they share the guilt of being a stranger. As regards Hoffman, “the guilt of being a stranger is obviously visible in many ways, for example in the language (very limited or in the lack of language); in behaviour which might be taken as rude or even vulgar (such 10 TRANSLATIoNS IN CuLTuRe as a way of dancing); in the way of wearing clothes.” The impossibility of mediation between cultures is poignantly spelt out by Hoffman: “art of reality, keep going back and forth over the rifts, not to heal them but to see that I  – one person, first-person singular – have been on both sides” (Hoffman 1998, 273). Both authors, Kay and Hoffman, base their writings on autobiography, yet as Korzeniowska and Szczepan-Wojnarska show in their articles, these women transform personal experience into universal reflection on the themes of identity and racism, of being culturally different from the majority and searching for acceptance. The impossibility of mediation between cultures is also a  subject of Paweł Marcinkiewicz’s article titled “The End of Translation as a  Cultur- ally Significant Activity: The Polish Poetry Collections of W. S. Merwin and Jorie Graham.” Yet Marcinkiewicz, analysing the Polish translations of Merwin and Graham’s poetry collections, indicates the impossibility of mediation between cultures in a different light. Marcinkiewicz accentuates the issue of insufficient interpreting the polysystem of the source text which in consequence renders translation as “an arena of controversy between – as Stanley Fish calls them – “interpretive communities,” whose cultural and poetic principles make literary text less meaningful” (Marcinkiewicz in this volume). In the polysystem of translation into Polish Marcinkiewicz also discusses translators and editors who insufficiently interpret the poly- system of Polish literature. Depicting a  decreasing influence of cultural significance of translation in the polysystem of Polish literature and its contemporary peripheral position, Marcinkiewicz concludes his article with a statement that translation needs a generation change due to the fact that nowadays it functions differently than a decade ago. Tomasz Markiewka, tracing the developments in the field of Bible translation, also indicates the necessity of change in translation. Yet, when Marcinkiewicz focuses more on a  generation change of translators, Markiewka proposes a  change of translation strategies in order to tackle the problem of cultural differences. The author of “Scripture’s In-difference. Inclusive Bible Translations and the Mechanisms of Cultural Manipula- tion,” analysing the so-called “inclusive translations” of the Bible, comes to a conclusion that the inclusive strategy of translation is an example of cultural manipulation which aims at silencing the masculine elements when assuring gender inclusivity. TRANSLATIoNS IN CuLTuRe 11 Cultural manipulation is likewise the subject of the next chapter. In “Open Sesame! The Polish Translations of The Thousand and One Nights” Marta Mamet-Michalkiewicz discusses the twentieth-century Polish trans- lations of The Thousand and One Nights. Her comparative study of transla- tions of the book reveals its shortcomings and also the peripheral position in the polysystem of Polish literature. Mamet-Michalkiewicz indicates that the popularity of Scheherazade’s stories, such as about Sinbad or Aladdin, does not project onto at least superficial knowledge of the book. Undimin- ished fascination with The Arabian Nights and exotic-fairytale-like Orient is the result of plethora of children’s adaptations of the book and Walt Disney’s popular productions. Michalkiewicz, analysing the Polish transla- tions of the book, describes the process of ‘fairytalisation’ of The Thousand and One Nights in the Polish culture and signalises a need of retranslation of the work. From the fictional world of the tales of The Thousand and One Nights Agnieszka Pokojska moves the reader of the present volume to the fictional world of Jasper Fforde. In “Proportions of the Familiar and the Strange in Jasper Fforde’s Fictional World, from the Perspective of the Reader of the Original and the Polish Translation” Pokojska analyses the difficulties of translation and reception of the Thursday Next books. She shares a convic- tion that the above do not constitute a continuum but distinct categories. Analysing the proportions between the familiar and the strange in the original and the Polish translation, Pokojska notes significant differences, concluding that the reception of Fforde’s novels in the Polish translation does not have the same effect as in the original. The issue of reception of the original and the translation is also raised by Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech in the article “Revisiting G. B. Shaw’s Mrs Warren’s Profession. Differences in Cultural Reception and Translation in England, the United States, and Poland.” She perceives the play as a means of propagating the then-revolutionary views on the role of women in soci- ety. Mrs Warren’s Profession was censored to stifle social debate in Britain and the US. Adamowicz-Pośpiech juxtaposes the downright condemnation of the play on the Isles with its reception and translation on the Continent which was much more favourable and popular. In Poland, though the drama was not censored, nonetheless its performance was abandoned due to political and ideological causes. The paper outlines the differences of the 12 TRANSLATIoNS IN CuLTuRe play’s reception and translation against the historical and cultural back- drop of the first decades of the twentieth century. Indirectly it is concerned with the debate over marriage and women’s legal rights that swept through Europe at that time. The final article consists in a linguistic rather than cultural analysis of psalter translations. In “Why Differ? – Divergent Lexical Choices in Two Middle English Prose Psalter Translations and Their raison d’être” Kinga Lis proposes to analyse the lexical divergences between supposedly uniform fourteenth-century Middle English Psalter renditions from Latin. Analys- ing apparent divergencies between the first fifty Psalms of the Early and the Late Wycliffite Psalters, Lis indicates intra- and extratextual variations signalising that these variations are translator-dependent. The present volume offers a wide range of methods of analysis of literary translation, divergent views on the place of translation in culture and how translations impact the receiving culture. Yet, we hope that the essays as a whole, will enrich and stimulate the development of cultural translation studies with new ideas and compelling interpretations. Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech Marta Mamet-Michalkiewicz Bibliography Bassnett, S., and A. Lefèvere. 1990. Translation, History and Culture. London: Pinter Pub Ltd. Even-Zohar, I. 2010. Papers in Culture Research. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University. Hoffmann, E. 1998. Lost in Translation. London: Vintage. Trivedi, H. 2005. “Translating Culture vs. Cultural Translation,” 91st Meridian 4: 11–20. Venuti, L. 2013. Translation Changes Everything: Theory and Practice. London, New York: Routledge. Notes on the Authors Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech Assistant professor of English literature and trans- lation studies at the University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. She has published four books on Joseph Conrad, British Modernism and translation studies, as well as a number of texts on R. Browning, T. S. Eliot, and W. Golding. Her research focuses on descriptive translation studies, British Modernism, modern and con- temporary British drama. She is currently involved in the project Reception of British and Irish Writers in Europe. Agnieszka Pokojska Holds an MA in English philology from the Jagiellonian Univer- sity, Cracow, Poland. She is an acclaimed literary translator from English into Polish, most recently of works by Alice Munro, Colin Barrett, and Nathan Englander. She has been teaching literary and applied translation since 2001, at such higher-edu- cation institutions as the UNESCO Chair for Translation Studies and Intercultural Communication at the Jagiellonian University, the Tischner European University, Cracow, and the Institute of English Philology at the Jagiellonian University. Aniela Korzeniowska Professor in translation studies as well as head of the Depart- ment of Applied Linguistics and of the Scottish Studies Research Group at the Institute of English Studies, University of Warsaw. Over the last years she has been combining her interest in translation with issues concerning Scotland’s languages and literature, with emphasis on identity. Besides numerous articles published- within both translation and Scottish studies, her publications include Successful Polish-English Translation. Tricks of the Trade (co-authored by Piotr Kuhiwczak, 3rd ed. 2005), Explorations in Polish-English Mistranslation Problems (1998), Trans- lating Scotland. Nation and Identity (2008), Scotland in Europe / Europe in Scotland. Links – Dialogues – Analogies (2013), Facets of Scottish Identity (2013), and Scot- tish Culture. Dialogue and Self-Expression (2016), the last three co-edited with Izabela Szymańska. Anna Szczepan-Wojnarska (MA, Ph.D. and habilitation, Jagiellonian University, Cra- cow as well as MA, The Woolf Institute, Cambridge). Associate professor in lit- erature studies at Cardinal Wyszynski University in Warsaw. Since 2012 – Head 194 NoTeS oN THe AuTHoRS of Institute of Polish Philology and since 2014 Chair of Ph.D. Studies at Faculty of Humanities. Books published: “…you will get married to a fire” J. Liebert. The Experience of Transcendence in the Life and the Works of Jerzy Liebert (Cracow: Universitas, 2003); To Forgive God. A figure of Job in the literature related to WWII (Cracow: Universitas, 2008). Books edited: Biblical Job, Job in Culture (Warsaw: Cardinal Wyszynski UP, 2010), Translating Poetry – Negotiating Imagination (Warsaw: Cardinal Wyszynski UP, 2014). Research interests include: relations between literature and religion, literary anthropology and transcultural literary studies, translation theory, poetry of the twentieth and twenty-first century, Joseph Conrad’s and Jerzy Liebert’s oeuvre. Kinga Lis Ph.D. candidate in the Department of the History of English and Translation Studies at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. She works on historical psalter renditions, dealing with the lexical and etymological aspects of Middle English and Anglo-French psalter translations, their interdependencies and place with respect to the linguistic panorama of medieval England. Marta Mamet-Michalkiewicz Assistant professor at the University of Silesia, Cen- tre of Postcolonial Studies and Travel Literatures. She is the author of the book Between the Orient and the Occident: Transformations of “The Thousand and One Nights” (2011 2015), co-editor of the volume Urban Amazement (2015). She published in Przekładaniec and Rodopi/Cross Cultures Series. Her research interest include: literary translation and theory, postcolonial literatures and studies and also Orientalism in western humanities. Paweł Marcinkiewicz Associate professor at Opole University. His interests focus on American poetry and translation theory, and he is also a poet and translator. Recently he has published a  monograph on John Ashbery’s poetry “Colored Al- phabets’ Flutter.” John Ashbery and the Twentieth-Century American Avant-Gardes (Opole University Press 2012). In 2014, the New York Publishing House Spuyten Duyvil printed his selected poems The Day He’s Gone translated into English by Piotr Florczyk. His honors include the Polish Cultural Foundation Award and the Czesław Miłosz Award. Tamara Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz Literary theoretician, translation scholar and translator. Assistant professor at Historical Poetics Department, Institute of NoTeS oN THe AuTHoRS 195 Literary Research, Polish Academy of Sciences and Humanities. President of the “Center for International Polish Studies” Foundation. Laureate of The Minister of Science and Higher Education Scholarship for Eminent Young Scientists and The Foundation for Polish Science Scholarships. Her monograph Ewolucje teorii. Biologizm w  modernistycznym literaturoznawstwie rosyjskim [Evolutions of Theory. Biologism in Russian Modernist Literary Scholarship] (2011) was granted the award of The Foundation for Polish Science. Her current long-term research project concerns Modernist models of literary translation. Tomasz Markiewka Studied Polish philology at the Catholic University of Lublin. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Silesia (2002); since 2007 he has worked at the University of Bielsko-Biała (Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna); in 2015 he worked at Cleveland State University (USA) as a Kościuszko Foundation grantee. He has published numerous articles on literary theory, comparative lit- erature, translation, and the literary oeuvre of the Polish historical novelist Teodor Parnicki. His publications include critical editions of Parnicki’s Diaries from the 1980s (2008) and his never before published debut novel from 1929 Three Minutes past Three (2015). Index Achurch, Janet Adamowicz-Pośpiech, Agnieszka 153 11, 12, 151–173, 193 183, 190 72, 76 93 Adams, Michael Adorno, Theodor Ammons, Archie Apter, Emily 21, 30 Aristophanes 156 Armantrout, Rae Armitage, Simon Ashbery, John Ashley, Katherine Auerbach, Erich 21 Austen, Jane 147, 148 Avtonomova, Natalia 92 84 81, 84, 194 49, 50, 56 27, 30 Bachmann-Medick, Doris 17, 18, 19, 28, 30, 31 31 79, 80, 81, 100, 101, 116 Bahun, Sanja Baker, Mona Balakian, Anna 35 Balzac, Honore 156 Bammer, Angelika Bantleon, Katharina Barańczak, Stanisław 66, 76 37 34, 82, 83, 84, 85, 99, 100, 145 26 192 Barnes, Djuna Barret, Colin Barrett-Browning, Elizabeth Bassnett, Susan 168–169 Bauman, Zygmunt 62, 67, 68, 76 143 7, 8, 12, 14, 17, 20, 31, 166, 21, 31 13, 27, 28, 31 22, 31 71, 76 120, 129, 131 27, 32 83, 99 84, 92 70, 71, 76 91, 93, 96 ,101 21, 31 Beasley, Rebecca Beaumont, Daniel Begam, Richard Benveniste, Émile Bérard, Victor 26 Bergson, Henri 26, 93 Berman, Jessica 21, 22, 31 Bermann, Sandra 21, 31 Bernard, Jessie 169 Bernheimer, Charles Bernstein, Charles Besemeres, Mary Biedrzycki, Miłosz Bilczewski, Tomasz Birkett, Jennifer Bishop, Elizabeth Blair, Tony Bloch-Rozmej, Anna Bocola, Sandro 32 Boehmer, Elleke 22, 32 Bolecki, Włodzimierz Booth, Howard J. 22, 32 Brecht, Bertold 154, 169 Brodsky, Joseph 79, 82 Brough, Fanny 155 Broeck, R. van den Brontë, Charlotte Brooker, Peter 22, 32, 34 Brown, George Mackay Brown, J. Dillon 22, 32 Browning, Robert 193 Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz, Tamara 34 145, 148 19, 20, 32 80 191 50 9, 13–38, 194 8, 198 INDex 80 50 Buber, Martin 60 Buchanan, George Buchta, Magdalena Buden, Boris Bukowski, Charles Bullock, Philip Ross Burns, Robert 46, 47, 56 Burton, Richard Francis 100 31 13, 31 123, 129, 131 84, 85, 101 Cage, John Caneda-Cabrera, M. Teresa Carroll, Lewis (Charles Lutwidge Dodg- 27, 28, 32 son) 144 109, 110, 116 Carson, Donald Arthur Catford, John Cunnison 15, 32 Caughie, Pamela L. Cejpek, Jiri 122, 131 Charzyńska-Wójcik, Magdalena 173, 174, 33 175, 176, 177, 182, 189, 190 100, 156 29, 30, 32 160 162, 169 136, 148 Chaucer, Geoffrey Chaudhuri, Supriya Chekhov, Anton 26 Chmieliński, Józef Chojnacka, Anna Chrobak, Marzena Chruściel, Ewa 91, 93, 94, 96, 100, 101 Clifford, James 48 Comstock, Anthony Cowie, Anthony Paul Craig, Edward Gordon Crocus, Cornelius 80 Culler, Jonathan 27, 33 cummings, e.e. 84 Czapkiewicz, Andrzej 156 180 26 124, 125, 131 Dalgarno, Emily Daly, Arnold 156 24, 25, 33 21, 33 67, 80, 148 191 84, 85, 99 61 160, 169 146, 147 18, 19, 33 33 76 173, 190 Damrosch, David Dante, Alighieri Davis, Norman Dehnel, Jacek Delanty, Gerard Delisle, Jean Denby, Edwin 81 Derrida, Jacques Dębnicki, Antoni Dickens, Charles Dizdar, Dilek Donchin, Georgette Donovan, Anne 56 Doorslaer, L. van 33 Dostoevsky, Fyodor Doucette, Erica 31 Doyle, Laura 22, 33 Drawicz, Andrzej Du Gay, Paul 62, 76 Dujardin, Edouard Durkheim, Émile 148 82 26 76 143 25, 26, 43, 193 22, 33 Eatough, Matt 31, 37 Edwards, Brent Hayes Eliot, George (Mary Ann Evans) Eliot, Thomas Stearns Elmslie, Kenward 81 Eltis, Sos Engelking, Leszek Erasmus, Desiderius Espasa, Eva 166, 169 Even-Zohar, Itamar 53, 56, 79, 81, 91, 100 50, 100 104 169 7, 8, 12, 14, 21, 33, 52, Eysteinsson, Astradur 32 Featherstone, Mike Feldman, Ferdynand 60 160 INDex Fforde, Jasper 11, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142–149 169 Field, Bradford S. Figiel, Izabela 50 Flint, Frank Stewart 26 Forshall, Josiah 174, 190 Freud, Sigmund 61 Friedman, Jonathan Friedman, Susan Stanford 60 30, 33 22, 24, 28, 29, 22 33 22, 33 50 64, 65, 76 14, 17, 33 120, 124, 126, 132 169 Gambier, Yves Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar Genette, Gerard Gentzler, Edwin Gerhardt, Mia Gibert, Miriam Gillies, Mary Ann Godyń, Mieczysław Goffman, Erving 76 Gold, Victor 111 Goldsmith, Kenneth Golding, William Goodhart, George Gourmont, Remy de Górnicki, Łukasz Górski, Ryszard Granville-Barker, Harley Graham, Jorie Green, Jonathon Greenblatt, Stephen Grudem, Wayne Gutorow, Jack 193 155 26 80, 160 168 156, 169 80 111, 116 84, 85 155 84 Hall, Stuart Hardy, Thomas 62, 76 146 10, 79, 86, 91–95, 97–102 199 174, 176, 189, 190 144 35 83, 84, 99 60, 61 156 86, 87, 102 34, 37 Hargreaves, Henry Hart, Matthew 34 Hass, Robert 85, 88 Hathaway, Anne Hawley, John C. Heaney Seamus Heidegger, Martin Hemingway, Ernest Herbert, Zbigniew Herbrechter, Stefan Herder, Johann Gottfried von Hermans, Theo 14, 15, 22, 34, 168 Heydel, Magda 15, 16, 17, 34, 55, 56 Hirsch, Edward 101 Hirsch, Marianne Hobson, M. Barbara Hoffman, Eva Holmes, James S. Hołobut, Agata 88 Honet, Roman 99 Hugo, Victor 156 Huyssen, Andréas 159, 169 9, 10, 12, 59–78 66, 86 34 34 73 26, 152, 154, 156, 158, 168 Ibsen, Henrik Infante, Ignacio Innes, Christopher Irwin, Robert 120, 132 169 23, 24, 25, 34 Jacobus, Lee A. Jarniewicz, Jerzy 100 156–159, 169 50, 53, 55, 56, 84, 85, 86, Jarnot, Lisa Jay, Martin Jay, Paul Jerome, St. 84 27, 34 22, 34 103, 104 200 Jettmarová, Zuzanna 34 Johnson, Samuel (doctor) Joyce, James 25, 26 142 177, 191 84 169 147 34 9, 10, 39, 40–57 Kaczorowska, Monika Kafka, Franz Kaindl, Klaus Kalinowski, Marian Leon Kałwa, Dobrochna 168, 169 Kar, Prafulla C. 36 Karátson, André 30, 35 Karolides, Nicholas J. Katz, Daniel 24, 25, 35 Kay, Jackie Kennedy, Maev 148 Kibbee, Douglas A. Klaus, Carl H. 169 Klata, Jan 167 Kleinzahler, August Knight, Julius 155 Koch, Kenneth 84 Kochanowski, Jan Koelb, Clayton 33 Kołodziejczyk, Elżbieta Korzeniowska, Aniela Kraskowska, Ewa 32 Krechowiecki, Adam Krishnaswamy, Revathi Kristeva, Julia 64, 77 Krupnik, Mark 66 Krynicki, Ryszard Kubiak, Władysław Kuchtówna, Lidia Kumor, Stanisława Kundera, Milan 72 Kurath, Hans 191 80 25, 34 127, 131 50 9, 10, 39–58 162, 169 23, 24, 35 82 121–123, 125, 131 168, 169 159, 161, 162, 168 INDex 30, 35 Lahoda, Vojtěch Lambert, Jose 34 Lampe, Geoffrey William Hugo 190, 191 84, 85, 99, 101 Larkin, Philip Lash, Scott 60 Lawrence, David Herbert Lefèvere, André 26 7, 8, 12, 14, 17, 20, 31, 36, 168 120–122, 124, 125, 132 50 12, 173–192 61 Levinas, Emmanuel Lewicki, Tadeusz Lipińska, Dorota Lis, Kinga Liska, Vivian Lupa, Krystian 167 Luther, Martin 103, 104 Lyn, Hejinian 84 Lyra, Nicholas of 32 189, 191 MacCaig, Norman 50 Mackay, Brown George Madden, Frederic Maeterlinck, Maurice Maj, Bronisław Mamet-Michalkiewicz, Marta 11, 12, 119– 50 174, 190 26 91 133 26 165, 170 15, 22, 35 Mansfield, Katherine Mao, Douglas Maresz, Barbara Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso Maupassant, Guyde Maurier du, Daphne Maurras, Charles 26 McAllister Kuhn, Sherman McInstosh, Madge Merwin, W. S. 153 146 155 26 191 10, 79, 86–91, 94, 101, 102 INDex 201 26 158, 168, 170 26 Meyerhold, Vsevolod Mill, John Stuart Mina, Loy Moore, Marianne 93 Moretti, Franco 21, 35 Morgan, Edwin 50 Moses, Michael 22, 31 Mroczek, Aleksandra Mueller, Joanna Muhsin, Mahdi Müller, Ina 20, 35 Munday, Jeremy 53, 56 98 128, 129, 132 15, 35, 107, 116 80 35, 105, 107 Naogeorgus, Thomas Nida, Eugene Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Noakes, Susan 33 Nord, Christiane 96, 101 Norwid, Cyprian Kamil Nycz, Ryszard 16, 27, 35 100 60, 81 O’Hara, Frank Olasik, Marta Olszewska, Izabela 81, 82 51, 53, 57 32 182 86, 101 84 84, 85 35 Padgett, Ron Parry, Amie Paues, Anna Carolina Perelman, Bob Perloff, Marjorie Peters, Sally Piette, Adam Pinault, Daniel Plato Plutarch of Chaeronea Pokojska, Agnieszka 152, 170 26, 27, 35 93 125, 128, 132 80 135–149 Pound, Ezra Powell, Kerry Proust, Marcel Puchner, Martin 25, 26, 37, 86, 93 155, 156, 169–170 26 22, 35 34, 37 125, 126, 131 22–24, 35 34 80 156 Rabaté, Jean-Michel Rebelais, François Radziwiłł, Krzysztof Ramazani, Jahan Reid, Richard 25 Rej, Mikołaj Riccardi, Alessandra Rigby, Nigel Rivkin, Julie Roditi, Edouard Rothko, Mark Rothwell, William Ross, Joe Rotterowa, Amelia 161 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Różewicz, Tadeusz 83 Rushdie, Salman Ryan, Michael 22, 32 60, 61 35 92, 93 77 60, 61 84 176, 191 61 20, 35 22 68, 69, 77 65, 77 Said, Edward W. Salevsky, Heidemarie Santos, Irene Ramalho Sarup, Madan Saussure, Ferdinand de Schleiermacher, Friedrich Schlesinger, Miriam Schuyler, James Seneca Shakespeare, William Shaw, Bernard Shepherd, Geoffrey 11, 151–171 81, 85 80 80 176, 191 60, 71 104, 123 137, 138, 144, 145 14, 17, 30, 34, 36 202 85 154, 168 68, 77 160, 170 81–86, 99, 101 81, 82, 99 51 27, 32 84, 92 107, 116 191 18, 36 Silberman, Marc Silliman, Ron Simon, Sherry Simpson, John Singh, Rajendra Słomczyński, Maciej Słowacki, Juliusz 100 Smith, Ali 47 Smith, Bessie Smith, Stan Snell-Hornby, Mary Sollors, Werner Solski, Ludwik Sommer, Piotr Sosnowski, Andrzej Spahr, Juliana Staff, Leopold Stanislavsky, Konstantin Stein, Gertrude Steiner, George Stevens, Wallace Steyn, Juliet 77 Stiller, Robert Reuven St–Pierre, Paul 36 Strindberg, August Stuart, Cosmo 155 Sturge, Kate 31 Sword, Helen 22, 33 Szczepan-Wojnarska, Anna 26 107 85 84 99 26 194 167 Szczepkowska, Joanna Szydłowska, Mariola 169 Szymańska, Izabela 193 Szymańska, Katarzyna 85 Święch, Jerzy 14, 36 127, 128, 131 158, 168, 170 9, 10, 59–71, INDex 83 131 79–81, 101 37 161, 170 22, 32, 34 87, 101 Tabakowska, Elżbieta Taber, Charles R. 35 Tarnowski, Marceli Thacker, Andrew Theune, Michael Thoss, Jeff Thullie, M. Tkaczyszyn-Dycki, Eugeniusz Toury, Gideon Trapszo, Irena Tristan, Flora Trivedi, Harish Turner, Tina 143 Turska, Marta 32 Tymoczko, Maria 15, 16, 21, 33, 36, 80 160 159, 170 15–17, 36 7, 8, 12, 14, 17, 21, 36 Vaughan, Henry Venuti, Lawrence 83 7, 12, 94, 100 15, 22, 35, 36 Walcott, Derek 84, 99 Walkowitz, Rebecca L. Wansley, Sarah 154, 170 Watkins, Dudley D. 43 Watson, Roderick 40, 56 Webb, Beatrice 153 Webersfeld, Edward Weiner, Edmund 191 Weintraub, Rodelle Werner, Michael West, Russel 18, 37 Whitaker, William Wilde, Oscar 156 Wilkins, David Wilson, Fiona Winkiel, Laura 173, 191 40–42, 57 22, 33 29, 36 160, 162, 170 152, 170 177, 178, 191 INDex 203 28, 31, 33, 37 82 Wirpsza, Witold Wolf, Werner 37 Wollaeger, Mark A. Wood, Michael 21, 31 Woodsworth, Judith Woodward, Kathryn Woolf, Virginia Wójcik, Jerzy 191 173 77, 191 24, 26, 33 Xie, Ming 37 Yao, Steven G. Yeats, William Butler 26 14, 22, 24–26, 33, 37 81, 82 Zadura, Bohdan Zagajewski, Adam Zawadzki, Jarek Zimmerman, Bénédict 100 82, 91 29, 36 Compiled by Agnieszka Adamowicz-Pośpiech Copy editing Gabriela Marszołek Cover design Piotr Kossakowski Proofreading Joanna zwierzyńska Text make-up Paulina Dubiel Typesetting Bogusław Chruściński Copyright © 2016 by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego All rights reserved ISSN 0208-6336 ISBN 978-83-8012-753-1 (print edition) ISBN 978-83-8012-754-8 (electronic edition) Publisher Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu śląskiego ul. Bankowa 12B, 40-007 Katowice www.wydawnictwo.us.edu.pl e-mail: wydawus@us.edu.pl First impression. Printed sheets: 12.75. Publishing sheets: 14.0. Price 22 zł (+ VAT) This publication has been typeset in the Minion Pro and Myriad Pro typeface and published on Offset paper grade III, 90 g. Printing and binding: „TOTEM.COM.PL” Sp.K. (ul. Jacewska 89, 88-100 Inowrocław) T RA N S LATION IN CULTURE EDITED BY AGNIESZKA ADAMOWICZ-POŚPIECH, MARTA MAMET-MICHALKIEWICZ T R A N S L A T I O N I N C U L T U R E More about this book Price 22 ZŁ (+ VAT) ISSN 0208-6336 ISBN 978-83-8012-754-8 2016 TRANSLATIONinCULTURE.indd 1 22.09.2016 15:34
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