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Ksi¹¿ka przeznaczona jest dla prawników oraz studentów prawa, którym
potrzebna jest znajomoœæ specjalistycznego prawniczego jêzyka angielskiego. Jej
zakres tematyczny obejmuje g³ównie instytucje prawa cywilnego, handlowego
i prawa pracy, a tak¿e podatki i rachunkowoœæ. Ksi¹¿ka mo¿e byæ pomoc¹
w przygotowaniach do zdawania egzaminów TOLES oraz Cambridge English:
The book is intended for lawyers and law students who need to communicate
in Legal English. The topics covered range from civil law, commercial law
and labour law to taxes and accounting. The book is also a valuable resource
for those preparing for the TOLES examinations as well as Cambridge English:
zdoby³a w Polsce wykszta³cenie jako prawnicz-
ka oraz lingwistka; ukoñczy³a tak¿e studia na Uniwersytecie Oksfordzkim. Ma
wieloletnie doœwiadczenie w nauczaniu jêzyka angielskiego. Obecnie prowadzi
zajêcia dla kandydatów na t³umaczy przysiêg³ych na studiach podyplomowych
oraz kursach specjalistycznych. Wspó³w³aœcicielka Szko³y dla t³umaczy i Biura
t³umaczeñ TexteM (
, PhD graduated in law and applied linguistics
in Poland. She also holds an MSc degree from the University of Oxford. She has
extensive experience as a teacher of English for special purposes. At present, she
teaches a variety of courses, working with lawyers, translators, and interpreters.
She is a co-owner of TexteM, where she is in charge of the School for Translators.
tel.: 22 31 12 222, fax: 22 33 77 601
9 7 8 8 3 2 5 5 6 5 8 0 0
Cena 99,00 z³
PRACTICAL ENGLISH FOR LAWYERS
Practical English for Lawyers
Wydawca: Anna Wieczorek
Redaktor językowy: Nicholas Faulkner
Projekt okładki: Robert Rogiński
© Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck 2014
Wydawnictwo C.H.Beck, Sp. z o.o.
ul. Bonifraterska 17, 00-203 Warszawa
Skład i łamanie: DTP Service
Druk i oprawa: Elpil, Siedlce
ISBN e-book: 978-83-255-6581-7
Preface / VII
Wstęp / IX
Bibliography / XI
Units / 1
Unit 1. Contract negotiation and draft ing / 3
Unit 2. Remedies for brea(cid:278) of contract / 19
Unit 3. Partnerships, companies, corporations / 33
Unit 4. Sto(cid:279) s and shares / 49
Minitest 1 / 62
Unit 5. Real estate / 65
Intellectual property / 79
Unit 7. Labour law / 91
Unit 8. Taxes / 105
Minitest 2 / 117
Unit 9. Accounting / 121
Unit 10. Public administration / 135
Unit 11. Civil law / 149
Unit 12. Crime / 163
Minitest 3 / 179
Unit 13. European Union / 183
Answer Key / 201
Practical English for Lawyers is a handbook for practicing lawyers and law students who
need to use not just general English, but also the specialized language of law. It is tailored
to be useful for those working within the Polish legal system, but in English. It focuses
on civil law, commercial law and labour law, as well as taxes and accounting.
The book is intended for self-study. It will also work well as an element of a language
course. Its primary aim is to introduce the reader to English vocabulary necessary to
describe the Polish legal system, to draft contracts, to analyse contracts draft ed by/for
foreigners, to draw up legal opinions, and to oﬀ er legal assistance in English. Its secondary
aim is to prepare the reader for the TOLES examinations and Cambridge English: Legal
Modern teaching approaches are applied throughout. The emphasis is on reader
autonomy, independent discovery of the rules of language, communication, and the
ability to really understand a text. Each unit contains a list of English legal terms together
with their Polish equivalents. However, especially for those following a self-study course,
a good dictionary will prove very helpful. The book will be most useful to students with
general English knowledge at Intermediate level or above (Council of Europe level B1
Warsaw, July 2014
Książka Practical English for Lawyers przeznaczona jest dla prawników i studentów
prawa, którym potrzebna jest znajomość nie tylko ogólnego języka angielskiego, ale
i specjalistycznego prawniczego. Zakres tematyczny książki obejmuje głównie instytucje
prawa cywilnego, handlowego i prawa pracy, a także podatków i rachunkowości.
Książka nadaje się do wykorzystania do samodzielnej pracy, lecz może też stanowić
element kursu językowego. Pierwszym i najważniejszym jej celem jest poznanie przez
czytelnika słownictwa angielskiego pozwalającego na opisywanie polskiej rzeczywistości
prawnej, konstruowanie umów, analizę umów sporządzonych przez/dla obcokrajowców,
tworzenie opinii i udzielanie porad prawnych w języku angielskim. Drugim celem
może być przygotowanie czytelnika do zdawania egzaminów TOLES i Cambridge
English: Legal (ILEC).
Publikacja oparta jest o nowoczesne metody nauczania języków obcych. Nacisk zatem
kładziony jest na autonomię uczącego się, samodzielne dochodzenie do zasad rządzących
językiem, komunikatywność oraz rozwĳ anie sprawności rzeczywistego rozumienia tekstu.
Każdy rozdział zawiera listę prezentowanych w nim terminów wraz z tłumaczeniem na
język polski, jednak przydatny będzie dobry słownik. Dla owocnego korzystania z książki
niezbędne jest opanowanie ogólnego języka angielskiego na poziomie Intermediate lub
wyższym (poziom Rady Europy B1 lub wyższy).
Warszawa, lipiec 2014 r.
K. Adams, A Manual of Style for Contract Draft ing, American Bar Association 2008.
M. J. Allen, Textbook on Criminal Law, Oxford 2005.
R. Cooter, T. Ulen, Law Economics, London 2004.
D. Cott on, Business Class, London 1991.
M. Fox, Ch. Bell, Learning legal skills, Oxford 1991.
B. A. Gardener (ed.), Black’s Law Dictionary, Thomson West 2004.
B. A. Gardener, Legal Writing in Plain English: A Text With Exercises, Chicago 2001.
R. Haigh, Legal English, Routledge Cavendish 2004.
I. MacKenzie, Financial English, Heinle 2002.
E.A. Martin and J. Law (eds), Oxford Dictionary of Law, Oxford 2006.
B. Mascull, Business Vocabulary in Use Advanced, Cambridge 2002.
B. Mascull, Business Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge 2002.
D. Parkinson (ed.), Oxford Business English Dictionary for Learners of English, Oxford 2005.
H. A. Robert (ed.) Principles of Contract Law, West 2004.
F. Rose (ed.) Blackstone’s Statutes on Contract, Tort and Restitution, Oxford 2006.
G. Rivlin, Understanding the law, Oxford 2006.
F. Rose, Blackstone’s Statutes Commercial Consumer Law, Oxford 2006.
R. C. Wydick, Plain English for Lawyers, Carolina 1998.
E. Ożga, The Great Dictionary of Law and Economics, English-Polish, Warsaw 2006.
E. Ożga, The Great Dictionary of Law and Economics, Polish-English, Warsaw 2009.
R. Kozierkiewicz, Dictionary of Accounting, Audit and Tax Terms. English-Polish, Polish-English /
Słownik rachunkowości, audytu i podatków. Angielsko-polski, polsko-angielski, Warsaw 2008.
R. Kozierkiewicz, Dictionary of Tax Terms. English-Polish, Polish-English / Słownik terminologii
podatkowej angielsko-polski, polsko-angielski, Warsaw 2006.
R. Kozierkiewicz, Dictionary of Real Estate Market. English-Polish, Polish-English / Słownik rynku
nieruchomości. Angielsko-polski, polsko-angielski, Warsaw 2008.
E. Myrczek, Dictionary of Law Terms English-Polish, Polish-English / Słownik terminologii praw-
niczej angielsko-polski, polsko-angielski, Warsaw 2006.
E. Myrczek, Lexicon of Law Terms, Warsaw 2007.
J. Jaślan, H. Jaślan, Słownik terminologii prawniczej i ekonomicznej angielsko-polski, Warsaw 2005
J. Pieńkos, Polsko-angielski słownik prawniczy, Cracow 2002.
L. Berezowski, Jak czytać i rozumieć angielskie umowy?, Warsaw 2009.
L. Berezowski, Jak czytać i rozumieć angielskie dokumenty sądowe w sprawach cywilnych?,
R. Lewandowski, Polish Commercial Law: An Introduction, Warsaw 2007.
Contract negotiation and drafting
Reading 1 A Hard Bargain
George Bracer is in charge of organising a series of summer concerts of classical music in
the garden of the city hall. It is now early spring. The musicians have already been booked
to perform, but this is just the beginning of George’s hard work. A stage needs to be built
in the garden; chairs for the audience need to be procured; a catering company must be
engaged to provide food and drinks. Today, George has a second meeting with Joan and
Jacob, who represent the construction company responsible for building the stage.
‘Joan, Jacob, it is a pleasure to welcome you here today’, he greets them as they enter
his oﬃ ce and make themselves comfortable. ‘Thank you very much for coming at such
short notice. As you know, the schedule is tight, so we need to make some important
decisions here today. As our ﬁ rst order of business, can we agree on a procedure for
‘Sure, George, good idea’, Joan nods her head. ‘If I may suggest, let’s see what options
we have ﬁ rst, then you might have to give us a moment to consult with headquarters.
Ultimately, we should be able to make all the decisions here today, without any need for
further meetings. Is that compatible with what you would like to see?’
‘Yes, that’s perfect’, agrees George.
‘Right. Now, at our last meeting we discussed the ﬁ nal deadline for the project. As far
as I remember, you suggested that we should agree on 30 May. We’ve given it a lot of
thought and we reckon it is not realistic. We will not comfortably ﬁ nish our side of the
project before 25 June. The ﬁ rst concert is planned for 27 June, so we would still be well
within the time frame,’ Jacob points to the dates on the small calendar on the desk.
‘I am not sure I fully understand your point. Do you mean the building work will not
be ﬁ nished earlier than 25 June?’ enquires George.
‘No, not exactly. The builders should be able to complete the construction on 7 June.
However, we need to allow extra time for the building inspector’s visit and for clearing
all the paperwork. Also, the tools and vehicles will need to be removed, the site cleaned
up, the grass restored – all of that will need time too.’
‘I understand that. However, I cannot accept a schedule where only two days are left
between you ﬁ nishing and the ﬁ rst concert beginning. Then again, as far as my suggestion
was concerned – the 30 May deadline – it referred only to the construction work itself.
I would be willing to give you an extra two weeks, i.e. until 14 June, for the other aspects
of your work that you just mentioned.’
‘I see’, Joan cocks her head. ‘From where we stand, a bett er idea would be to push the
construction deadline a bit further – some of this work just can’t be rushed, no matt er
how hard the builders work: elements require time to set, and so on. On the other hand,
we might be able to compensate by shortening the extra time aft erwards.’
‘Could you be a litt le more speciﬁ c?’
‘Let me have a word with the construction team leader, ok?’ Jacob reaches for his mobile
phone and speaks to someone quickly. When he gets oﬀ the phone, he is ready to rephrase
his oﬀ er. ‘Let me make an alternative proposal’, he says. ‘The construction work will go
on until 7 June as planned. However, we will then work at maximum capacity to shorten
the time for the extra tasks. This way, we can plan the ﬁ nal deadline for 20 June. Would
that be acceptable to you?’
George considers this for a moment, pen and calendar in hand. He does not seem
convinced. Finally, he says: ‘The bott om line is, I am not comfortable with having the
ﬁ nal deadline so close to the date of the ﬁ rst concert. It leaves me no room for manoeuvre
in case anything goes wrong. I’d be prepared to give you more time – say, until 5 June – for
the construction, and then a maximum of two weeks for the remaining tasks. This way,
we should be ﬁ nished on 18 June. Would you be prepared to accept such a timeline?’
Joan looks at Jacob. ‘You drive a hard bargain, George!’ they laugh. ‘We should be able
to be ready by then, but under one condition.’
‘What is that?’
‘The cleaning crew would have to be working overtime for these two weeks. This means
our overall price for the project would go up slightly, compared to the estimate we
provided, to reﬂ ect the higher payments that would have to be made.’
‘That’s fair’, concedes George. ‘Let’s just conﬁ rm the details then. Your price estimate
would remain the same, with the exception of labour costs, which would increase
‘Say, 5 ,’ proposes Joan. ‘And yes, the other elements would not be aﬀ ected.’
‘I believe we have an agreement here – 5 is acceptable.’
‘So, are we ﬁ nished with that point? If so, let’s go on to the next one.’
George, Joan and Jacob still have a few points to negotiate, but they are all quite sure
that they can ﬁ nd common ground – ﬁ nd a way of accommodating the interests of both
Reading 2 Negotiations Useful Phrases
To open (= start) a negotiation, you can use the following phrases:
I would like to welcome you to this introductory meeting / to today’s meeting / to our
ﬁ nal meeting.
It’s a pleasure to welcome you here today / to welcome you on behalf of our team / to
welcome you to our headquarters.
I would like to begin by suggesting an agenda / by putt ing forward a suggestion for
an agenda / by going over our agenda for today.
To make sure that a suggestion is acceptable to the other party, or to check whether the
other party has anything to add at a given point, you can ask:
How does that ﬁ t in with your objectives? Is it acceptable?
Does that meet your expectations?
Is there anything you would like to change at this point?
Would you like to introduce any amendments to our decisions so far?
If you need clariﬁ cation (= explanation) of some point, the following phrases can be
Could you be a litt le more speciﬁ c?
Could you clarify this point for me?
Could you perhaps give some more details concerning this point?
What exactly do you mean by this?
Could you explain in more detail how you imagine this in practice?
Here are some useful phrases for the bargaining phase of the negotiation (= when it is
time to make the decisions who will do what, and in exchange for what):
We have given a lot of though to what you propose, and we are now ready to
As far as your proposal is concerned, we believe that it needs to be discussed further /
that it puts us at a slight disadvantage / that it might work for us, with a few small
We would be willing to accept it, provided that you lower the price by 5 / give us an
extra month / extend the deadline a little further.
We’d be prepared to accept your suggestion, on one condition.
We would like to offer an alternative / to make an alternative proposal.
We feel that there should be some trade-off if we agree. Therefore, we suggest…
What would you be willing to offer in return?
To decline an offer (= to say NO), you can use the following phrases:
I’m afraid your offer doesn’t go far enough.
Unfortunately, we must decline your offer, for the following reason(s).
I’m sorry, but we cannot accept this.
To accept an offer (= to say YES), you can use the following phrases:
We are happy to accept this agreement.
Yes, this is perfectly acceptable to us.
I believe we have an agreement.
We have a deal.
It’s a deal.
If a participant of a negotiation is digressing (= moving away from the main subject)
and you feel this is not an appropriate moment for that particular discussion, use one
of these phrases:
Can we leave that for later and first look at point 2 of the agenda / and finish this
discussion first / and give consideration to these concerns first?
Could we deal with the employment matters first / with the questions raised by John
first / with Evelyn’s suggestion first?
Fill the gaps with appropriate words. The first letter of each required word has been already given. All
the words you need for this exercise have been used in Reading 1 A hard bargain and Reading 2
Negotiations Useful Phrases.
Example: Good morning everyone! It is my pleasure to welcome you here today on behalf of Excellence Ltd.
1. Is our proposal c.................. with what you would like to see?
2. I would like to begin by suggesting the following a ..................: first, labour issues, then the dividend
payments, and finally the suggested takeover bid.
3. As far as your suggestion is c.................., I believe we can move the deadline two days forward –
would that be acceptable to you?
4. I would be w.................. to accept this change on the condition that you keep us fully informed
about the progress of the work.
5. Could you be a bit more s..................? I am not sure I’m picturing the details of that correctly.
6. Could you c.................. this for me, please? I am afraid it is difficult for me to follow since I have
little background in this area.
7. If this is not in line with what you expected, let me make an a.................. proposal.
8. The b.................. line is, we need to be ready for the beginning of the Olympic Games.
9. This solution offers no flexibility and gives us no room for m.................. in case any problems
10. I think we would need a t..................-o.................. here. If we agree to do as you ask, what can
you offer in exchange?
11. I am afraid I must d.................. your offer – accepting it would mean that our people have to work
24/7, and we cannot afford that.
12. Marvellous! That’s exactly what I was looking for. We have a d..................!
13. He is a very tough negotiator and he is famous for always d.................. a very hard bargain, for
which he is both adored and widely hated.
14. Can we l.................. this point for later? I understand that it is valid, but there are other issues we
need to discuss first.
15. The key to successful negotiation is finding c.................. ground and looking for solutions that
would satisfy both parties.
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