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James Fenimore Cooper
The Last of the Mohicans
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It is believed that the scene of this tale, and most of the information necessary to understand its
allusions, are rendered sufficiently obvious to the reader in the text itself, or in the accompanying
notes. Still there is so much obscurity in the Indian traditions, and so much confusion in the Indian
names, as to render some explanation useful.
Few men exhibit greater diversity, or, if we may so express it, greater antithesis of character, than
the native warrior of North America. In war, he is daring, boastful, cunning, ruthless, self-denying,
and self-devoted; in peace, just, generous, hospitable, revengeful, superstitious, modest, and
commonly chaste. These are qualities, it is true, which do not distinguish all alike; but they are so
far the predominating traits of these remarkable people as to be characteristic.
It is generally believed that the Aborigines of the American continent have an Asiatic origin. There
are many physical as well as moral facts which corroborate this opinion, and some few that would
seem to weigh against it.
The color of the Indian, the writer believes, is peculiar to himself, and while his cheek-bones have
a very striking indication of a Tartar origin, his eyes have not. Climate may have had great influence
on the former, but it is difficult to see how it can have produced the substantial difference which
exists in the latter. The imagery of the Indian, both in his poetry and in his oratory, is oriental;
chastened, and perhaps improved, by the limited range of his practical knowledge. He draws his
metaphors from the clouds, the seasons, the birds, the beasts, and the vegetable world. In this,
perhaps, he does no more than any other energetic and imaginative race would do, being compelled
to set bounds to fancy by experience; but the North American Indian clothes his ideas in a dress
which is different from that of the African, and is oriental in itself. His language has the richness
and sententious fullness of the Chinese. He will express a phrase in a word, and he will qualify the
meaning of an entire sentence by a syllable; he will even convey different significations by the
simplest inflections of the voice.
Philologists have said that there are but two or three languages, properly speaking, among all the
numerous tribes which formerly occupied the country that now composes the United States. They
ascribe the known difficulty one people have to understand another to corruptions and dialects. The
writer remembers to have been present at an interview between two chiefs of the Great Prairies west
of the Mississippi, and when an interpreter was in attendance who spoke both their languages. The
warriors appeared to be on the most friendly terms, and seemingly conversed much together; yet,
according to the account of the interpreter, each was absolutely ignorant of what the other said.
They were of hostile tribes, brought together by the influence of the American government; and it
is worthy of remark, that a common policy led them both to adopt the same subject. They mutually
exhorted each other to be of use in the event of the chances of war throwing either of the parties
into the hands of his enemies. Whatever may be the truth, as respects the root and the genius of the
Indian tongues, it is quite certain they are now so distinct in their words as to possess most of the
disadvantages of strange languages; hence much of the embarrassment that has arisen in learning
their histories, and most of the uncertainty which exists in their traditions.
Like nations of higher pretensions, the American Indian gives a very different account of his own
tribe or race from that which is given by other people. He is much addicted to overestimating his
own perfections, and to undervaluing those of his rival or his enemy; a trait which may possibly be
thought corroborative of the Mosaic account of the creation.
The whites have assisted greatly in rendering the traditions of the Aborigines more obscure by their
own manner of corrupting names. Thus, the term used in the title of this book has undergone the
changes of Mahicanni, Mohicans, and Mohegans; the latter being the word commonly used by the
whites. When it is remembered that the Dutch (who first settled New York), the English, and the
French, all gave appellations to the tribes that dwelt within the country which is the scene of this
story, and that the Indians not only gave different names to their enemies, but frequently to
themselves, the cause of the confusion will be understood.
In these pages, Lenni-Lenape, Lenope, Delawares, Wapanachki, and Mohicans, all mean the same
people, or tribes of the same stock. The Mengwe, the Maquas, the Mingoes, and the Iroquois, though
not all strictly the same, are identified frequently by the speakers, being politically confederated
and opposed to those just named. Mingo was a term of peculiar reproach, as were Mengwe and
Maqua in a less degree.
The Mohicans were the possessors of the country first occupied by the Europeans in this portion of
the continent. They were, consequently, the first dispossessed; and the seemingly inevitable fate of
all these people, who disappear before the advances, or it might be termed the inroads, of
civilization, as the verdure of their native forests falls before the nipping frosts, is represented as
having already befallen them. There is sufficient historical truth in the picture to justify the use that
has been made of it.
Before closing this introduction, it will not be improper to say a word of an important character of
this legend, who is also a conspicuous actor in two other tales of the same writer. To portray an
individual as a scout in the wars in which England and France contended for the possession of the
American continent, a hunter in that season of activity which so immediately succeeded the peace
of 1783, and a lone trapper in the Prairies after the policy of the republic threw open those
interminable wastes to the enterprise of the half wild beings who hang between society and the
wilderness, is poetically to furnish a witness to the truth of those wonderful alterations which
distinguish the progress of the American nation, to a degree that has been hitherto unknown, and to
which hundreds of living men might equally speak. In this particular the fiction has no merit as an
Of the character in question, the writer has no more to say, than that he represents a man of native
goodness, removed from the temptations of civilized life, though not entirely forgetful of its
prejudices and lessons, exposed to the customs of barbarity, and yet perhaps more improved than
injured by the association, and betraying the weaknesses as well as the virtues both of his situation
and of his birth. It would, perhaps, have been more observant of reality to have been drawn him of
less moral elevation, but it would have also been less attractive, and the business of a writer of
fiction is to approach, as near as his powers will allow, to poetry. After this avowal, it is scarcely
necessary to add, that individual character had little to do with either the conception of the filling
up of this fanciful personage. It was believed that enough had been sacrificed to truth in preserving
the language and the dramatic keeping necessary to the part.
In point of fact, the country which is the scene of the following tale has undergone as little change,
since the historical events alluded to had place, as almost any other district of equal extent within
the whole limits of the United States. There are fashionable and well-attended watering-places at
and near the spring where Hawkeye halted to drink, and roads traverse the forests where he and his
friends were compelled to journey without even a path. Glen s has a large village; and while William
Henry, and even a fortress of later date, are only to be traced as ruins, there is another village on the
shores of the Horican. But, beyond this, the enterprise and energy of a people who have done so
much in other places have done little here. The whole of that wilderness, in which the latter incidents
of the legend occurred, is nearly a wilderness still, though the red man has entirely deserted this
part of the state. Of all the tribes named in these pages, there exist only a few half-civilized beings
of the Oneidas, on the reservations of their people in New York. The rest have disappeared, either
from the regions in which their fathers dwelt, or altogether from the earth.
There is one point on which we would wish to say a word before closing this preface. Hawkeye
calls the Lac du Saint Sacrement, the Horican . As we believe this to be an appropriation of the
name that has its origin with ourselves, the time has arrived, perhaps, when the fact should be
frankly admitted. While writing this book, fully a quarter of a century since, it occurred to us that
the French name of this lake was too complicated, the American too commonplace, and the Indian
too unpronounceable, for either to be used familiarly in a work of fiction. Looking over an ancient
map, it was ascertained that a tribe of Indians, called Les Horicans by the French, existed in the
neighborhood of this beautiful sheet of water. As every word uttered by Natty Bumppo was not to
be received as rigid truth, we took the liberty of putting the Horican into his mouth, as the
substitute for Lake George . The name has appeared to find favor, and all things considered, it
may possibly be quite as well to let it stand, instead of going back to the House of Hanover for the
appellation of our finest sheet of water. We relieve our conscience by the confession, at all events
leaving it to exercise its authority as it may see fit.
Mine ear is open, and my heart prepared:
The worst is wordly loss thou canst unfold: --
Say, is my kingdom lost ?
It was a feature peculiar to the colonial wars of North America, that the toils and dangers of the
wilderness were to be encountered before the adverse hosts could meet. A wide and apparently an
impervious boundary of forests severed the possessions of the hostile provinces of France and
England. The hardy colonist, and the trained European who fought at his side, frequently expended
months in struggling against the rapids of the streams, or in effecting the rugged passes of the
mountains, in quest of an opportunity to exhibit their courage in a more martial conflict. But,
emulating the patience and self-denial of the practiced native warriors, they learned to overcome
every difficulty; and it would seem that, in time, there was no recess of the woods so dark, nor any
secret place so lovely, that it might claim exemption from the inroads of those who had pledged
their blood to satiate their vengeance, or to uphold the cold and selfish policy of the distant monarchs
Perhaps no district throughout the wide extent of the intermediate frontiers can furnish a livelier
picture of the cruelty and fierceness of the savage warfare of those periods than the country which
lies between the head waters of the Hudson and the adjacent lakes.
The facilities which nature had there offered to the march of the combatants were too obvious to be
neglected. The lengthened sheet of the Champlain stretched from the frontiers of Canada, deep
within the borders of the neighboring province of New York, forming a natural passage across half
the distance that the French were compelled to master in order to strike their enemies. Near its
southern termination, it received the contributions of another lake, whose waters were so limpid as
to have been exclusively selected by the Jesuit missionaries to perform the typical purification of
baptism, and to obtain for it the title of lake du Saint Sacrement. The less zealous English thought
they conferred a sufficient honor on its unsullied fountains, when they bestowed the name of their
reigning prince, the second of the house of Hanover. The two united to rob the untutored possessors
of its wooded scenery of their native right to perpetuate its original appellation of Horican. 
Winding its way among countless islands, and imbedded in mountains, the holy lake extended a
dozen leagues still further to the south. With the high plain that there interposed itself to the further
passage of the water, commenced a portage of as many miles, which conducted the adventurer to
the banks of the Hudson, at a point where, with the usual obstructions of the rapids, or rifts, as they
were then termed in the language of the country, the river became navigable to the tide.
While, in the pursuit of their daring plans of annoyance, the restless enterprise of the French even
attempted the distant and difficult gorges of the Alleghany, it may easily be imagined that their
proverbial acuteness would not overlook the natural advantages of the district we have just
described. It became, emphatically, the bloody arena, in which most of the battles for the mastery
of the colonies were contested. Forts were erected at the different points that commanded the
facilities of the route, and were taken and retaken, razed and rebuilt, as victory alighted on the
hostile banners. While the husbandman shrank back from the dangerous passes, within the safer
boundaries of the more ancient settlements, armies larger than those that had often disposed of the
scepters of the mother countries, were seen to bury themselves in these forests, whence they rarely
returned but in skeleton bands, that were haggard with care or dejected by defeat. Though the arts
of peace were unknown to this fatal region, its forests were alive with men; its shades and glens
rang with the sounds of martial music, and the echoes of its mountains threw back the laugh, or
repeated the wanton cry, of many a gallant and reckless youth, as he hurried by them, in the noontide
of his spirits, to slumber in a long night of forgetfulness.
It was in this scene of strife and bloodshed that the incidents we shall attempt to relate occurred,
during the third year of the war which England and France last waged for the possession of a country
that neither was destined to retain.
The imbecility of her military leaders abroad, and the fatal want of energy in her councils at home,
had lowered the character of Great Britain from the proud elevation on which it had been placed by
the talents and enterprise of her former warriors and statesmen. No longer dreaded by her enemies,
her servants were fast losing the confidence of self-respect. In this mortifying abasement, the
colonists, though innocent of her imbecility, and too humble to be the agents of her blunders, were
but the natural participators. They had recently seen a chosen army from that country, which,
reverencing as a mother, they had blindly believed invincible--an army led by a chief who had been
selected from a crowd of trained warriors, for his rare military endowments, disgracefully routed
by a handful of French and Indians, and only saved from annihilation by the coolness and spirit of
a Virginian boy, whose riper fame has since diffused itself, with the steady influence of moral truth,
to the uttermost confines of Christendom. A wide frontier had been laid naked by this unexpected
disaster, and more substantial evils were preceded by a thousand fanciful and imaginary dangers.
The alarmed colonists believed that the yells of the savages mingled with every fitful gust of wind
that issued from the interminable forests of the west. The terrific character of their merciless
enemies increased immeasurably the natural horrors of warfare. Numberless recent massacres were
still vivid in their recollections; nor was there any ear in the provinces so deaf as not to have drunk
in with avidity the narrative of some fearful tale of midnight murder, in which the natives of the
forests were the principal and barbarous actors. As the credulous and excited traveler related the
hazardous chances of the wilderness, the blood of the timid curdled with terror, and mothers cast
anxious glances even at those children which slumbered within the security of the largest towns. In
short, the magnifying influence of fear began to set at naught the calculations of reason, and to
render those who should have remembered their manhood, the slaves of the basest passions. Even
the most confident and the stoutest hearts began to think the issue of the contest was becoming
doubtful; and that abject class was hourly increasing in numbers, who thought they foresaw all the
possessions of the English crown in America subdued by their Christian foes, or laid waste by the
inroads of their relentless allies.
When, therefore, intelligence was received at the fort which covered the southern termination of the
portage between the Hudson and the lakes, that Montcalm had been seen moving up the Champlain,
with an army numerous as the leaves on the trees, its truth was admitted with more of the craven
reluctance of fear than with the stern joy that a warrior should feel, in finding an enemy within reach
of his blow. The news had been brought, toward the decline of a day in midsummer, by an Indian
runner, who also bore an urgent request from Munro, the commander of a work on the shore of the
holy lake, for a speedy and powerful reinforcement. It has already been mentioned that the
distance between these two posts was less than five leagues. The rude path, which originally formed
their line of communication, had been widened for the passage of wagons; so that the distance which
had been traveled by the son of the forest in two hours, might easily be effected by a detachment of
troops, with their necessary baggage, between the rising and setting of a summer sun. The loyal
servants of the British crown had given to one of these forest-fastnesses the name of William Henry,
and to the other that of Fort Edward, calling each after a favorite prince of the reigning family. The
veteran Scotchman just named held the first, with a regiment of regulars and a few provincials; a
force really by far too small to make head against the formidable power that Montcalm was leading
to the foot of his earthen mounds. At the latter, however, lay General Webb, who commanded the
armies of the king in the northern provinces, with a body of more than five thousand men. By uniting
the several detachments of his command, this officer might have arrayed nearly double that number
of combatants against the enterprising Frenchman, who had ventured so far from his reinforcements,
with an army but little superior in numbers.
But under the influence of their degraded fortunes, both officers and men appeared better disposed
to await the approach of their formidable antagonists, within their works, than to resist the progress
of their march, by emulating the successful example of the French at Fort du Quesne, and striking
a blow on their advance.
After the first surprise of the intelligence had a little abated, a rumor was spread through the
entrenched camp, which stretched along the margin of the Hudson, forming a chain of outworks to
the body of the fort itself, that a chosen detachment of fifteen hundred men was to depart, with the
dawn, for William Henry, the post at the northern extremity of the portage. That which at first was
only rumor, soon became certainty, as orders passed from the quarters of the commander-in-chief
to the several corps he had selected for this service, to prepare for their speedy departure. All doubts
as to the intention of Webb now vanished, and an hour or two of hurried footsteps and anxious faces
succeeded. The novice in the military art flew from point to point, retarding his own preparations
by the excess of his violent and somewhat distempered zeal; while the more practiced veteran made
his arrangements with a deliberation that scorned every appearance of haste; though his sober
lineaments and anxious eye sufficiently betrayed that he had no very strong professional relish for
the, as yet, untried and dreaded warfare of the wilderness. At length the sun set in a flood of glory,
behind the distant western hills, and as darkness drew its veil around the secluded spot the sounds
of preparation diminished; the last light finally disappeared from the log cabin of some officer; the
trees cast their deeper shadows over the mounds and the rippling stream, and a silence soon
pervaded the camp, as deep as that which reigned in the vast forest by which it was environed.
According to the orders of the preceding night, the heavy sleep of the army was broken by the
rolling of the warning drums, whose rattling echoes were heard issuing, on the damp morning air,
out of every vista of the woods, just as day began to draw the shaggy outlines of some tall pines of
the vicinity, on the opening brightness of a soft and cloudless eastern sky. In an instant the whole
camp was in motion; the meanest soldier arousing from his lair to witness the departure of his
comrades, and to share in the excitement and incidents of the hour. The simple array of the chosen
band was soon completed. While the regular and trained hirelings of the king marched with
haughtiness to the right of the line, the less pretending colonists took their humbler position on its
left, with a docility that long practice had rendered easy. The scouts departed; strong guards
preceded and followed the lumbering vehicles that bore the baggage; and before the gray light of
the morning was mellowed by the rays of the sun, the main body of the combatants wheeled into
column, and left the encampment with a show of high military bearing, that served to drown the
slumbering apprehensions of many a novice, who was now about to make his first essay in arms.
While in view of their admiring comrades, the same proud front and ordered array was observed,
until the notes of their fifes growing fainter in distance, the forest at length appeared to swallow up
the living mass which had slowly entered its bosom.
The deepest sounds of the retiring and invisible column had ceased to be borne on the breeze to the
listeners, and the latest straggler had already disappeared in pursuit; but there still remained the
signs of another departure, before a log cabin of unusual size and accommodations, in front of which
those sentinels paced their rounds, who were known to guard the person of the English general. At
this spot were gathered some half dozen horses, caparisoned in a manner which showed that two,
at least, were destined to bear the persons of females, of a rank that it was not usual to meet so far
in the wilds of the country. A third wore trappings and arms of an officer of the staff; while the rest,
from the plainness of the housings, and the traveling mails with which they were encumbered, were
evidently fitted for the reception of as many menials, who were, seemingly, already waiting the
pleasure of those they served. At a respectful distance from this unusual show, were gathered divers
groups of curious idlers; some admiring the blood and bone of the high-mettled military charger,
and others gazing at the preparations, with the dull wonder of vulgar curiosity. There was one man,
however, who, by his countenance and actions, formed a marked exception to those who composed
the latter class of spectators, being neither idle, nor seemingly very ignorant.
The person of this individual was to the last degree ungainly, without being in any particular manner
deformed. He had all the bones and joints of other men, without any of their proportions. Erect, his
stature surpassed that of his fellows; though seated, he appeared reduced within the ordinary limits
of the race. The same contrariety in his members seemed to exist throughout the whole man. His
head was large; his shoulders narrow; his arms long and dangling; while his hands were small, if
not delicate. His legs and thighs were thin, nearly to emaciation, but of extraordinary length; and
his knees would have been considered tremendous, had they not been outdone by the broader
foundations on which this false superstructure of blended human orders was so profanely reared.
The ill-assorted and injudicious attire of the individual only served to render his awkwardness more
conspicuous. A sky-blue coat, with short and broad skirts and low cape, exposed a long, thin neck,
and longer and thinner legs, to the worst animadversions of the evil-disposed. His nether garment
was a yellow nankeen, closely fitted to the shape, and tied at his bunches of knees by large knots of
white ribbon, a good deal sullied by use. Clouded cotton stockings, and shoes, on one of the latter
of which was a plated spur, completed the costume of the lower extremity of this figure, no curve
or angle of which was concealed, but, on the other hand, studiously exhibited, through the vanity
or simplicity of its owner.
From beneath the flap of an enormous pocket of a soiled vest of embossed silk, heavily ornamented
with tarnished silver lace, projected an instrument, which, from being seen in such martial company,
might have been easily mistaken for some mischievous and unknown implement of war. Small as
it was, this uncommon engine had excited the curiosity of most of the Europeans in the camp,
though several of the provincials were seen to handle it, not only without fear, but with the utmost
familiarity. A large, civil cocked hat, like those worn by clergymen within the last thirty years,
surmounted the whole, furnishing dignity to a good-natured and somewhat vacant countenance, that
apparently needed such artificial aid, to support the gravity of some high and extraordinary trust.
While the common herd stood aloof, in deference to the quarters of Webb, the figure we have
described stalked into the center of the domestics, freely expressing his censures or commendations
on the merits of the horses, as by chance they displeased or satisfied his judgment.
This beast, I rather conclude, friend, is not of home raising, but is from foreign lands, or perhaps
from the little island itself over the blue water? he said, in a voice as remarkable for the softness
and sweetness of its tones, as was his person for its rare proportions; I may speak of these things,
and be no braggart; for I have been down at both havens; that which is situate at the mouth of
Thames, and is named after the capital of Old England, and that which is called Haven , with the
addition of the word New ; and have seen the scows and brigantines collecting their droves, like
the gathering to the ark, being outward bound to the Island of Jamaica, for the purpose of barter and
traffic in four-footed animals; but never before have I beheld a beast which verified the true scripture
war-horse like this: He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength; he goeth on to meet the
armed men. He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of
the captains, and the shouting It would seem that the stock of the horse of Israel had descended to
our own time; would it not, friend?
Receiving no reply to this extraordinary appeal, which in truth, as it was delivered with the vigor of
full and sonorous tones, merited some sort of notice, he who had thus sung forth the language of
the holy book turned to the silent figure to whom he had unwittingly addressed himself, and found
a new and more powerful subject of admiration in the object that encountered his gaze. His eyes
fell on the still, upright, and rigid form of the Indian runner, who had borne to the camp the
unwelcome tidings of the preceding evening. Although in a state of perfect repose, and apparently
disregarding, with characteristic stoicism, the excitement and bustle around him, there was a sullen
fierceness mingled with the quiet of the savage, that was likely to arrest the attention of much more
experienced eyes than those which now scanned him, in unconcealed amazement. The native bore
both the tomahawk and knife of his tribe; and yet his appearance was not altogether that of a warrior.
On the contrary, there was an air of neglect about his person, like that which might have proceeded
from great and recent exertion, which he had not yet found leisure to repair. The colors of the war-
paint had blended in dark confusion about his fierce countenance, and rendered his swarthy
lineaments still more savage and repulsive than if art had attempted an effect which had been thus
produced by chance. His eye, alone, which glistened like a fiery star amid lowering clouds, was to
be seen in its state of native wildness. For a single instant his searching and yet wary glance met the
wondering look of the other, and then changing its direction, partly in cunning, and partly in disdain,
it remained fixed, as if penetrating the distant air.
It is impossible to say what unlooked-for remark this short and silent communication, between two
such singular men, might have elicited from the white man, had not his active curiosity been again
drawn to other objects. A general movement among the domestics, and a low sound of gentle voices,
announced the approach of those whose presence alone was wanted to enable the cavalcade to move.
The simple admirer of the war-horse instantly fell back to a low, gaunt, switch-tailed mare, that was
unconsciously gleaning the faded herbage of the camp nigh by; where, leaning with one elbow on
the blanket that concealed an apology for a saddle, he became a spectator of the departure, while a
foal was quietly making its morning repast, on the opposite side of the same animal.
A young man, in the dress of an officer, conducted to their steeds two females, who, as it was
apparent by their dresses, were prepared to encounter the fatigues of a journey in the woods. One,
and she was the more juvenile in her appearance, though both were young, permitted glimpses of
her dazzling complexion, fair golden hair, and bright blue eyes, to be caught, as she artlessly
suffered the morning air to blow aside the green veil which descended low from her beaver.
The flush which still lingered above the pines in the western sky was not more bright nor delicate
than the bloom on her cheek; nor was the opening day more cheering than the animated smile which
she bestowed on the youth, as he assisted her into the saddle. The other, who appeared to share
equally in the attention of the young officer, concealed her charms from the gaze of the soldiery
with a care that seemed better fitted to the experience of four or five additional years. It could be
seen, however, that her person, though molded with the same exquisite proportions, of which none
of the graces were lost by the traveling dress she wore, was rather fuller and more mature than that
of her companion.
No sooner were these females seated, than their attendant sprang lightly into the saddle of the war-
horse, when the whole three bowed to Webb, who in courtesy, awaited their parting on the threshold
of his cabin and turning their horses heads, they proceeded at a slow amble, followed by their train,
toward the northern entrance of the encampment. As they traversed that short distance, not a voice
was heard among them; but a slight exclamation proceeded from the younger of the females, as the
Indian runner glided by her, unexpectedly, and led the way along the military road in her front.
Though this sudden and startling movement of the Indian produced no sound from the other, in the
surprise her veil also was allowed to open its folds, and betrayed an indescribable look of pity,
admiration, and horror, as her dark eye followed the easy motions of the savage. The tresses of this
lady were shining and black, like the plumage of the raven. Her complexion was not brown, but it
rather appeared charged with the color of the rich blood, that seemed ready to burst its bounds. And
yet there was neither coarseness nor want of shadowing in a countenance that was exquisitely
regular, and dignified and surpassingly beautiful. She smiled, as if in pity at her own momentary
forgetfulness, discovering by the act a row of teeth that would have shamed the purest ivory; when,
replacing the veil, she bowed her face, and rode in silence, like one whose thoughts were abstracted
from the scene around her.
Sola, sola, wo ha, ho, sola!
While one of the lovely beings we have so cursorily presented to the reader was thus lost in thought,
the other quickly recovered from the alarm which induced the exclamation, and, laughing at her
own weakness, she inquired of the youth who rode by her side:
Are such specters frequent in the woods, Heyward, or is this sight an especial entertainment
ordered on our behalf? If the latter, gratitude must close our mouths; but if the former, both Cora
and I shall have need to draw largely on that stock of hereditary courage which we boast, even
before we are made to encounter the redoubtable Montcalm.
Yon Indian is a runner of the army; and, after the fashion of his people, he may be accounted a
hero, returned the officer. He has volunteered to guide us to the lake, by a path but little known,
sooner than if we followed the tardy movements of the column; and, by consequence, more
I like him not, said the lady, shuddering, partly in assumed, yet more in real terror. You know
him, Duncan, or you would not trust yourself so freely to his keeping?
Say, rather, Alice, that I would not trust you. I do know him, or he would not have my confidence,
and least of all at this moment. He is said to be a Canadian too; and yet he served with our friends
the Mohawks, who, as you know, are one of the six allied nations. He was brought among us, as I
have heard, by some strange accident in which your father was interested, and in which the savage
was rigidly dealt by; but I forget the idle tale, it is enough, that he is now our friend.
If he has been my father s enemy, I like him still less! exclaimed the now really anxious girl. Will
you not speak to him, Major Heyward, that I may hear his tones? Foolish though it may be, you
have often heard me avow my faith in the tones of the human voice!
It would be in vain; and answered, most probably, by an ejaculation. Though he may understand
it, he affects, like most of his people, to be ignorant of the English; and least of all will he
condescend to speak it, now that the war demands the utmost exercise of his dignity. But he stops;
the private path by which we are to journey is, doubtless, at hand.
The conjecture of Major Heyward was true. When they reached the spot where the Indian stood,
pointing into the thicket that fringed the military road; a narrow and blind path, which might, with
some little inconvenience, receive one person at a time, became visible.
Here, then, lies our way, said the young man, in a low voice. Manifest no distrust, or you may
invite the danger you appear to apprehend.
Cora, what think you? asked the reluctant fair one. If we journey with the troops, though we may
find their presence irksome, shall we not feel better assurance of our safety?
Being little accustomed to the practices of the savages, Alice, you mistake the place of real danger,
said Heyward. If enemies have reached the portage at all, a thing by no means probable, as our
scouts are abroad, they will surely be found skirting the column, where scalps abound the most. The
route of the detachment is known, while ours, having been determined within the hour, must still
Should we distrust the man because his manners are not our manners, and that his skin is dark?
coldly asked Cora.
Alice hesitated no longer; but giving her Narrangansett* a smart cut of the whip, she was the first
to dash aside the slight branches of the bushes, and to follow the runner along the dark and tangled
pathway. The young man regarded the last speaker in open admiration, and even permitted her
fairer, though certainly not more beautiful companion, to proceed unattended, while he sedulously
opened the way himself for the passage of her who has been called Cora. It would seem that the
domestics had been previously instructed; for, instead of penetrating the thicket, they followed the
route of the column; a measure which Heyward stated had been dictated by the sagacity of their
guide, in order to diminish the marks of their trail, if, haply, the Canadian savages should be lurking
so far in advance of their army. For many minutes the intricacy of the route admitted of no further
dialogue; after which they emerged from the broad border of underbrush which grew along the line
of the highway, and entered under the high but dark arches of the forest. Here their progress was
less interrupted; and the instant the guide perceived that the females could command their steeds,
he moved on, at a pace between a trot and a walk, and at a rate which kept the sure-footed and
peculiar animals they rode at a fast yet easy amble. The youth had turned to speak to the dark-eyed
Cora, when the distant sound of horses hoofs, clattering over the roots of the broken way in his rear,
caused him to check his charger; and, as his companions drew their reins at the same instant, the
whole party came to a halt, in order to obtain an explanation of the unlooked-for interruption.
In a few moments a colt was seen gliding, like a fallow deer, among the straight trunks of the pines;
and, in another instant, the person of the ungainly man, described in the preceding chapter, came
into view, with as much rapidity as he could excite his meager beast to endure without coming to
an open rupture. Until now this personage had escaped the observation of the travelers. If he
possessed the power to arrest any wandering eye when exhibiting the glories of his altitude on foot,
his equestrian graces were still more likely to attract attention.
Notwithstanding a constant application of his one armed heel to the flanks of the mare, the most
confirmed gait that he could establish was a Canterbury gallop with the hind legs, in which those
more forward assisted for doubtful moments, though generally content to maintain a loping trot.
Perhaps the rapidity of the changes from one of these paces to the other created an optical illusion,
which might thus magnify the powers of the beast; for it is certain that Heyward, who possessed a
true eye for the merits of a horse, was unable, with his utmost ingenuity, to decide by what sort of
movement his pursuer worked his sinuous way on his footsteps with such persevering hardihood.
The industry and movements of the rider were not less remarkable than those of the ridden. At each
change in the evolutions of the latter, the former raised his tall person in the stirrups; producing, in
this manner, by the undue elongation of his legs, such sudden growths and diminishings of the
stature, as baffled every conjecture that might be made as to his dimensions. If to this be added the
fact that, in consequence of the ex parte application of the spur, one side of the mare appeared to
journey faster than the other; and that the aggrieved flank was resolutely indicated by unremitted
flourishes of a bushy tail, we finish the picture of both horse and man.
The frown which had gathered around the handsome, open, and manly brow of Heyward, gradually
relaxed, and his lips curled into a slight smile, as he regarded the stranger. Alice made no very
powerful effort to control her merriment; and even the dark, thoughtful eye of Cora lighted with a
humor that it would seem, the habit, rather than the nature, of its mistress repressed.
Seek you any here? demanded Heyward, when the other had arrived sufficiently nigh to abate his
speed; I trust you are no messenger of evil tidings?
Even so, replied the stranger, making diligent use of his triangular castor, to produce a circulation
in the close air of the woods, and leaving his hearers in doubt to which of the young man s questions
he responded; when, however, he had cooled his face, and recovered his breath, he continued, I
hear you are riding to William Henry; as I am journeying thitherward myself, I concluded good
company would seem consistent to the wishes of both parties.
You appear to possess the privilege of a casting vote, returned Heyward; we are three, while you
have consulted no one but yourself.
Even so. The first point to be obtained is to know one s own mind. Once sure of that, and where
women are concerned it is not easy, the next is, to act up to the decision. I have endeavored to do
both, and here I am.
If you journey to the lake, you have mistaken your route, said Heyward, haughtily; the highway
thither is at least half a mile behind you.
Even so, returned the stranger, nothing daunted by this cold reception; I have tarried at Edward
a week, and I should be dumb not to have inquired the road I was to journey; and if dumb there
would be an end to my calling. After simpering in a small way, like one whose modesty prohibited
a more open expression of his admiration of a witticism that was perfectly unintelligible to his
hearers, he continued, It is not prudent for any one of my profession to be too familiar with those
he has to instruct; for which reason I follow not the line of the army; besides which, I conclude that
a gentleman of your character has the best judgment in matters of wayfaring; I have, therefore,
decided to join company, in order that the ride may be made agreeable, and partake of social
A most arbitrary, if not a hasty decision! exclaimed Heyward, undecided whether to give vent to
his growing anger, or to laugh in the other s face. But you speak of instruction, and of a profession;
are you an adjunct to the provincial corps, as a master of the noble science of defense and offense;
or, perhaps, you are one who draws lines and angles, under the pretense of expounding the
The stranger regarded his interrogator a moment in wonder; and then, losing every mark of self-
satisfaction in an expression of solemn humility, he answered:
Of offense, I hope there is none, to either party: of defense, I make none—by God s good mercy,
having committed no palpable sin since last entreating his pardoning grace. I understand not your
allusions about lines and angles; and I leave expounding to those who have been called and set apart
for that holy office. I lay claim to no higher gift than a small insight into the glorious art of
petitioning and thanksgiving, as practiced in psalmody.
The man is, most manifestly, a disciple of Apollo, cried the amused Alice, and I take him under
my own especial protection. Nay, throw aside that frown, Heyward, and in pity to my longing ears,
suffer him to journey in our train. Besides, she added, in a low and hurried voice, casting a glance
at the distant Cora, who slowly followed the footsteps of their silent, but sullen guide, it may be a
friend added to our strength, in time of need.
Think you, Alice, that I would trust those I love by this secret path, did I imagine such need could
Nay, nay, I think not of it now; but this strange man amuses me; and if he hath music in his soul ,
let us not churlishly reject his company. She pointed persuasively along the path with her riding
whip, while their eyes met in a look which the young man lingered a moment to prolong; then,
yielding to her gentle influence, he clapped his spurs into his charger, and in a few bounds was
again at the side of Cora.
I am glad to encounter thee, friend, continued the maiden, waving her hand to the stranger to
proceed, as she urged her Narragansett to renew its amble. Partial relatives have almost persuaded
me that I am not entirely worthless in a duet myself; and we may enliven our wayfaring by indulging
in our favorite pursuit. It might be of signal advantage to one, ignorant as I, to hear the opinions and
experience of a master in the art.
It is refreshing both to the spirits and to the body to indulge in psalmody, in befitting seasons,
returned the master of song, unhesitatingly complying with her intimation to follow; and nothing
would relieve the mind more than such a consoling communion. But four parts are altogether
necessary to the perfection of melody. You have all the manifestations of a soft and rich treble; I
can, by especial aid, carry a full tenor to the highest letter; but we lack counter and bass! Yon officer
of the king, who hesitated to admit me to his company, might fill the latter, if one may judge from
the intonations of his voice in common dialogue.
Judge not too rashly from hasty and deceptive appearances, said the lady, smiling; though Major
Heyward can assume such deep notes on occasion, believe me, his natural tones are better fitted for
a mellow tenor than the bass you heard.
Is he, then, much practiced in the art of psalmody? demanded her simple companion.
Alice felt disposed to laugh, though she succeeded in suppressing her merriment, ere she answered:
I apprehend that he is rather addicted to profane song. The chances of a soldier s life are but little
fitted for the encouragement of more sober inclinations.
Man s voice is given to him, like his other talents, to be used, and not to be abused. None can say
they have ever known me to neglect my gifts! I am thankful that, though my boyhood may be said
to have been set apart, like the youth of the royal David, for the purposes of music, no syllable of
rude verse has ever profaned my lips.
You have, then, limited your efforts to sacred song?
Even so. As the psalms of David exceed all other language, so does the psalmody that has been
fitted to them by the divines and sages of the land, surpass all vain poetry. Happily, I may say that
I utter nothing but the thoughts and the wishes of the King of Israel himself; for though the times
may call for some slight changes, yet does this version which we use in the colonies of New England
so much exceed all other versions, that, by its richness, its exactness, and its spiritual simplicity, it
approacheth, as near as may be, to the great work of the inspired writer. I never abide in any place,
sleeping or waking, without an example of this gifted work. Tis the six-and-twentieth edition,
promulgated at Boston, Anno Domini 1744; and is entitled, The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual
Songs of the Old and New Testaments; faithfully translated into English Metre, for the Use,
Edification, and Comfort of the Saints, in Public and Private, especially in New England .
During this eulogium on the rare production of his native poets, the stranger had drawn the book
from his pocket, and fitting a pair of iron-rimmed spectacles to his nose, opened the volume with a
care and veneration suited to its sacred purposes. Then, without circumlocution or apology, first
pronounced the word Standish, and placing the unknown engine, already described, to his mouth,
from which he drew a high, shrill sound, that was followed by an octave below, from his own voice,
he commenced singing the following words, in full, sweet, and melodious tones, that set the music,
the poetry, and even the uneasy motion of his ill-trained beast at defiance; How good it is, O see,
And how it pleaseth well, Together e en in unity, For brethren so to dwell. It s like the choice
ointment, From the head to the beard did go; Down Aaron s head, that downward went His garment s
The delivery of these skillful rhymes was accompanied, on the part of the stranger, by a regular rise
and fall of his right hand, which terminated at the descent, by suffering the fingers to dwell a
moment on the leaves of the little volume; and on the ascent, by such a flourish of the member as
none but the initiated may ever hope to imitate. It would seem long practice had rendered this
manual accompaniment necessary; for it did not cease until the preposition which the poet had
selected for the close of his verse had been duly delivered like a word of two syllables.
Such an innovation on the silence and retirement of the forest could not fail to enlist the ears of
those who journeyed at so short a distance in advance. The Indian muttered a few words in broken
English to Heyward, who, in his turn, spoke to the stranger; at once interrupting, and, for the time,
closing his musical efforts.
Though we are not in danger, common prudence would teach us to journey through this wilderness
in as quiet a manner as possible. You will then, pardon me, Alice, should I diminish your
enjoyments, by requesting this gentleman to postpone his chant until a safer opportunity.
You will diminish them, indeed, returned the arch girl; for never did I hear a more unworthy
conjunction of execution and language than that to which I have been listening; and I was far gone
in a learned inquiry into the causes of such an unfitness between sound and sense, when you broke
the charm of my musings by that bass of yours, Duncan!
I know not what you call my bass, said Heyward, piqued at her remark, but I know that your
safety, and that of Cora, is far dearer to me than could be any orchestra of Handel s music. He
paused and turned his head quickly toward a thicket, and then bent his eyes suspiciously on their
guide, who continued his steady pace, in undisturbed gravity. The young man smiled to himself, for
he believed he had mistaken some shining berry of the woods for the glistening eyeballs of a
prowling savage, and he rode forward, continuing the conversation which had been interrupted by
the passing thought.
Major Heyward was mistaken only in suffering his youthful and generous pride to suppress his
active watchfulness. The cavalcade had not long passed, before the branches of the bushes that
formed the thicket were cautiously moved asunder, and a human visage, as fiercely wild as savage
art and unbridled passions could make it, peered out on the retiring footsteps of the travelers. A
gleam of exultation shot across the darkly-painted lineaments of the inhabitant of the forest, as he
traced the route of his intended victims, who rode unconsciously onward, the light and graceful
forms of the females waving among the trees, in the curvatures of their path, followed at each bend
by the manly figure of Heyward, until, finally, the shapeless person of the singing master was
concealed behind the numberless trunks of trees, that rose, in dark lines, in the intermediate space.
Before these fields were shorn and till d,
Full to the brim our rivers flow d;
The melody of waters fill d
The fresh and boundless wood;
And torrents dash d, and rivulets play d,
And fountains spouted in the shade.
Leaving the unsuspecting Heyward and his confiding companions to penetrate still deeper into a
forest that contained such treacherous inmates, we must use an author s privilege, and shift the scene
a few miles to the westward of the place where we have last seen them.
On that day, two men were lingering on the banks of a small but rapid stream, within an hour s
journey of the encampment of Webb, like those who awaited the appearance of an absent person,
or the approach of some expected event. The vast canopy of woods spread itself to the margin of
the river, overhanging the water, and shadowing its dark current with a deeper hue. The rays of the
sun were beginning to grow less fierce, and the intense heat of the day was lessened, as the cooler
vapors of the springs and fountains rose above their leafy beds, and rested in the atmosphere. Still
that breathing silence, which marks the drowsy sultriness of an American landscape in July,
pervaded the secluded spot, interrupted only by the low voices of the men, the occasional and lazy
tap of a woodpecker, the discordant cry of some gaudy jay, or a swelling on the ear, from the dull
roar of a distant waterfall. These feeble and broken sounds were, however, too familiar to the
foresters to draw their attention from the more interesting matter of their dialogue. While one of
these loiterers showed the red skin and wild accouterments of a native of the woods, the other
exhibited, through the mask of his rude and nearly savage equipments, the brighter, though sun-
burned and long-faced complexion of one who might claim descent from a European parentage.
The former was seated on the end of a mossy log, in a posture that permitted him to heighten the
effect of his earnest language, by the calm but expressive gestures of an Indian engaged in debate.
His body, which was nearly naked, presented a terrific emblem of death, drawn in intermingled
colors of white and black. His closely-shaved head, on which no other hair than the well-known
and chivalrous scalping tuft was preserved, was without ornament of any kind, with the exception
of a solitary eagle s plume, that crossed his crown, and depended over the left shoulder. A tomahawk
and scalping knife, of English manufacture, were in his girdle; while a short military rifle, of that
sort with which the policy of the whites armed their savage allies, lay carelessly across his bare and
sinewy knee. The expanded chest, full formed limbs, and grave countenance of this warrior, would
denote that he had reached the vigor of his days, though no symptoms of decay appeared to have
yet weakened his manhood.
The frame of the white man, judging by such parts as were not concealed by his clothes, was like
that of one who had known hardships and exertion from his earliest youth. His person, though
muscular, was rather attenuated than full; but every nerve and muscle appeared strung and indurated
by unremitted exposure and toil. He wore a hunting shirt of forest-green, fringed with faded
yellow, and a summer cap of skins which had been shorn of their fur. He also bore a knife in a
girdle of wampum, like that which confined the scanty garments of the Indian, but no tomahawk.
His moccasins were ornamented after the gay fashion of the natives, while the only part of his under
dress which appeared below the hunting-frock was a pair of buckskin leggings, that laced at the
sides, and which were gartered above the knees, with the sinews of a deer. A pouch and horn
completed his personal accouterments, though a rifle of great length, which the theory of the
more ingenious whites had taught them was the most dangerous of all firearms, leaned against a
neighboring sapling. The eye of the hunter, or scout, whichever he might be, was small, quick, keen,
and restless, roving while he spoke, on every side of him, as if in quest of game, or distrusting the
sudden approach of some lurking enemy. Notwithstanding the symptoms of habitual suspicion, his
countenance was not only without guile, but at the moment at which he is introduced, it was charged
with an expression of sturdy honesty.
Even your traditions make the case in my favor, Chingachgook, he said, speaking in the tongue
which was known to all the natives who formerly inhabited the country between the Hudson and
the Potomac, and of which we shall give a free translation for the benefit of the reader; endeavoring,
at the same time, to preserve some of the peculiarities, both of the individual and of the language.
Your fathers came from the setting sun, crossed the big river, fought the people of the country,
and took the land; and mine came from the red sky of the morning, over the salt lake, and did their
work much after the fashion that had been set them by yours; then let God judge the matter between
us, and friends spare their words!
My fathers fought with the naked red man! returned the Indian, sternly, in the same language. Is
there no difference, Hawkeye, between the stone-headed arrow of the warrior, and the leaden bullet
with which you kill?
There is reason in an Indian, though nature has made him with a red skin! said the white man,
shaking his head like one on whom such an appeal to his justice was not thrown away. For a moment
he appeared to be conscious of having the worst of the argument, then, rallying again, he answered
the objection of his antagonist in the best manner his limited information would allow:
I am no scholar, and I care not who knows it; but, judging from what I have seen, at deer chases
and squirrel hunts, of the sparks below, I should think a rifle in the hands of their grandfathers was
not so dangerous as a hickory bow and a good flint-head might be, if drawn with Indian judgment,
and sent by an Indian eye.
You have the story told by your fathers, returned the other, coldly waving his hand. What say
your old men? Do they tell the young warriors that the pale faces met the red men, painted for war
and armed with the stone hatchet and wooden gun?
I am not a prejudiced man, nor one who vaunts himself on his natural privileges, though the worst
enemy I have on earth, and he is an Iroquois, daren t deny that I am genuine white, the scout replied,
surveying, with secret satisfaction, the faded color of his bony and sinewy hand, and I am willing
to own that my people have many ways, of which, as an honest man, I can t approve. It is one of
their customs to write in books what they have done and seen, instead of telling them in their
villages, where the lie can be given to the face of a cowardly boaster, and the brave soldier can call
on his comrades to witness for the truth of his words. In consequence of this bad fashion, a man,
who is too conscientious to misspend his days among the women, in learning the names of black
marks, may never hear of the deeds of his fathers, nor feel a pride in striving to outdo them. For
myself, I conclude the Bumppos could shoot, for I have a natural turn with a rifle, which must have
been handed down from generation to generation, as, our holy commandments tell us, all good and
evil gifts are bestowed; though I should be loath to answer for other people in such a matter. But
every story has its two sides; so I ask you, Chingachgook, what passed, according to the traditions
of the red men, when our fathers first met?
A silence of a minute succeeded, during which the Indian sat mute; then, full of the dignity of his
office, he commenced his brief tale, with a solemnity that served to heighten its appearance of truth.
Listen, Hawkeye, and your ear shall drink no lie. Tis what my fathers have said, and what the
Mohicans have done. He hesitated a single instant, and bending a cautious glance toward his
companion, he continued, in a manner that was divided between interrogation and assertion. Does
not this stream at our feet run toward the summer, until its waters grow salt, and the current flows
It can t be denied that your traditions tell you true in both these matters, said the white man; for
I have been there, and have seen them, though why water, which is so sweet in the shade, should
become bitter in the sun, is an alteration for which I have never been able to account.
And the current! demanded the Indian, who expected his reply with that sort of interest that a man
feels in the confirmation of testimony, at which he marvels even while he respects it; the fathers
of Chingachgook have not lied!
The holy Bible is not more true, and that is the truest thing in nature. They call this up-stream
current the tide, which is a thing soon explained, and clear enough. Six hours the waters run in, and
six hours they run out, and the reason is this: when there is higher water in the sea than in the river,
they run in until the river gets to be highest, and then it runs out again.
The waters in the woods, and on the great lakes, run downward until they lie like my hand, said
the Indian, stretching the limb horizontally before him, and then they run no more.
No honest man will deny it, said the scout, a little nettled at the implied distrust of his explanation
of the mystery of the tides; and I grant that it is true on the small scale, and where the land is level.
But everything depends on what scale you look at things. Now, on the small scale, the arth is level;
but on the large scale it is round. In this manner, pools and ponds, and even the great fresh-water
lakes, may be stagnant, as you and I both know they are, having seen them; but when you come to
spread water over a great tract, like the sea, where the earth is round, how in reason can the water
be quiet? You might as well expect the river to lie still on the brink of those black rocks a mile
above us, though your own ears tell you that it is tumbling over them at this very moment.
If unsatisfied by the philosophy of his companion, the Indian was far too dignified to betray his
unbelief. He listened like one who was convinced, and resumed his narrative in his former solemn
We came from the place where the sun is hid at night, over great plains where the buffaloes live,
until we reached the big river. There we fought the Alligewi, till the ground was red with their
blood. From the banks of the big river to the shores of the salt lake, there was none to meet us. The
Maquas followed at a distance. We said the country should be ours from the place where the water
runs up no longer on this stream, to a river twenty sun s journey toward the summer. We drove the
Maquas into the woods with the bears. They only tasted salt at the licks; they drew no fish from the
great lake; we threw them the bones.
All this I have heard and believe, said the white man, observing that the Indian paused; but it
was long before the English came into the country.
A pine grew then where this chestnut now stands. The first pale faces who came among us spoke
no English. They came in a large canoe, when my fathers had buried the tomahawk with the red
men around them. Then, Hawkeye, he continued, betraying his deep emotion, only by permitting
his voice to fall to those low, guttural tones, which render his language, as spoken at times, so very
musical; then, Hawkeye, we were one people, and we were happy. The salt lake gave us its fish,
the wood its deer, and the air its birds. We took wives who bore us children; we worshipped the
Great Spirit; and we kept the Maquas beyond the sound of our songs of triumph.
Know you anything of your own family at that time? demanded the white. But you are just a
man, for an Indian; and as I suppose you hold their
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